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Chapter 5 Principles of Convection heat transfer(Text: J. P. Holman, Heat Transfer, 10th ed., McGraw Hill, NY)5-1 INTRODUCTIONWe now wish to examine the methods of calculating convection heat transfer and, inparticular, the ways of predicting the value of the convection heat-transfer coefficient h.Our discussion in this chapter will- first consider some of the simple relations of fluid dynamics and boundary layer analysisthat are important for a basic understanding of convection heat transfer.- Next, we shall impose an energy balance on the flow system and determine the influence ofthe flow on the temperature gradients in the fluid.- Finally, having obtained a knowledge of the temperature distribution, the heat-transfer ratefrom a heated surface to a fluid that is forced over it may be determined.Our development in this chapter is* primarily analytical in character and is concerned only with forcedconvection flow systems.* Subsequent chapters will present empirical relations for calculatingforced-convection heat transfer and* will also treat the subjects of natural convection .5-2 VISCOUS FLOWConsider the flow over a flat plate with different temperature as shown in Figures 5-1 and 52. Beginning at the leading edge of the plate, a region develops where the influence ofviscous forces is felt.

FIGURE 5-2 Comparison of laminar andturbulent velocity boundary layer profilesfor the same free stream velocityThese viscous forces are described in terms of a shear stress τ between the fluid layers.τ μ(du/dy)[5-1]μ is called the dynamic viscosity ( Newton-seconds per square meter )The region of flow that develops from the leading edge of the plate in which the effectsof viscosity are observed is called the boundary layer.

At the y position , where the velocity becomes %99 percent of the free-stream value,the boundary layer ends.The flow can be classified in the boundary layer to Initially laminar flowbut at some critical distance from the leading edge, depending on the flow field and fluidproperties, small disturbances in the flow begin to become amplified, and a transition process takes placeuntil the flow becomes turbulent.The transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs whenu x/ν ρu x/μ 5 105at flow on flat plate.whereu free-stream velocity, m/sx distance from leading edge, mν μ/ρ kinematic viscosity, m2/sThis particular grouping of terms is called the Reynolds number, and is dimensionlessif a consistent set of units is used for all the properties:Rex u x/ν[5-2]The relative shapes for the velocity profiles in laminar and turbulent flow are indicatedin Figure 5-1. The laminar profile is approximately parabolic, while the turbulent profilehas a portion near the wall that is very nearly linear. This linear portion is said to be dueto a laminar sublayer that hugs the surface very closely. Outside this sublayer the velocityprofile is relatively flat in comparison with the laminar profile.

***** Consider the flow in a tube as shown in Figure 5-3. A boundary layer develops at the- entrance, as shown.- Eventually the boundary layer fills the entire tube, and the flow is saidto be fully developed.If the flow is laminar, a parabolic velocity profile is experienced, as shown in Figure5-3a.When the flow is turbulent, a somewhat blunter profile is observed, as in Figure 5-3b.In a tube, the Reynolds number is again used as a criterion for laminar and turbulent flow.ForRed um d/ ν 2300-d is the tube diameter.[5-3]The continuity relation for one-dimensional flow in a tube is m ρ um AWhere m mass rate of flow,[5-4]um mean velocity and A cross-sectional area

Consider a fluid flow over a flat plate with different temperatures (Fig 5-1)q - kA T/ x hA (T- T )since T depends on velocity of the steramh f( fluid, flow pattern)We term the heat transfer depends on relative motions as convection heat transfer.The problem is how to evaluate/predict/estimate the value of h for various flow pattern?Evaluation of convection heat transfer1. Analytical solution of the fluid temperature distribution2. Analogy between heat & momentum transfer3. Dimensional analysis experimental data in terms of dimensionless No.5-4 LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER ON A FLAT PLATEConsider the elemental control volume shown in Figure 5-4. We derive the equa on ofmotion for the boundary layer by making a force-and-momentum balance on this element.To simplify the analysis we assume:Assumptions: 1 incompressible, steady flow, 2. dP /dy 0 , 3. constant physical properties.For this system the force balance is then written Fx increase in momentum flux in x directionThe momentum flux in the x direction is the product of the mass flow through aparticular side of the control volume and the x component of velocity at that point.The mass entering the left face of the element per unit time isρu dy

This is the momentum equation of the laminar boundarylayer with constant properties.5-5 ENERGY EQUATION OF THE BOUNDARY LAYERCo n s e r v a t i o no fEn e r g yConsider the elemental control volume shown in Figure 5-6. To simplify the analysiswe assume1. Incompressible steady flow2. Constant viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat3. Negligible heat conduction in the direction of flow (x direction), i.e., T/ x T/ yThen, for the element shown, the energy balance may be writtenEnergy convected in left face energy convected in bottom face heat conducted in bottom face net viscous work done on element energy convected out right face energy convected out top face heat conducted out top face

dxViscous shear force: μThe distance which it moves per unit time in respect to the control volume is:dythe viscous energy is : μ ( )2 dxdyWri ng the energy balance corresponding to the quan es shown in Figure 5-6, assumingunit depth in the z direction, and neglecting second-order differentials yieldsT h i si st h el a mi n a re n e r g yb o u n d a r yr e p r e s e n t st h ei n t ot h es i d er e p r e s e n t st h en e to u to fv i s c o u sl a y e r . T h en e tc o n t r o lc o n d u c t e de q u a t i o no fl e f tt r a n s p o r tv o l u me , a n dt h et h ewo r ks u m o fo ft h et h ec o n t r o ld o n et h eo ns i d ee n e r g yr i g h tn e th e a tv o l u met h ea n de l e me n t.

The equation may be solved exactly for many boundary conditions, and weshall be satisfied with an approximate analysis that furnishes an easier solution without aloss in physical understanding of the processes involved. The approximate method is dueto von Kármán .Approximate integral boundary layer analysisConsider the control volume in the B.L. Figure 5-5.

Evaluation of friction coefficient

Similarly, the integral energy equa on(Fig 5-8)We neglects the kinetic energy term and shear work termWe wish to make the energy balanceEnergy convected in viscous work within element heat transfer at wall

energy convected outenthalpy enter across plane 1: ( )( )[5-31]( )enthalpy leaves across plane 2: [ The enthalpy carried into the C. V. across the upper face is] dxEvaluation of heat transfer coefficientThe plate under consideration need not be heated over its entire length. The situationthat we shall analyze is shown in Figure 5-9, where the hydrodynamic boundary layerdevelops from the leading edge of the plate, while heating does not begin until x x0.5. Substituting the expression into the integral energy eq. yields

5. Substituting the expression into the integral energy eq. yields

5-10 HEAT TRANSFER IN LAMINAR TUBE FLOWConsider the tube-flow system in Figure 5-15.We wish to calculate the heat transfer underdeveloped flow conditions when the flow remains laminar. The wall temperature is Tw, theradius of the tube is ro, and the velocity at the center of the tube is u0.

The velocity distribution may be derived by considering the fluid element shown in Figure 5-16.The pressure forces are balanced by the viscous-shear forces so thatwhich is the familiar parabolic distribution for laminar tube flowHeat transfer:The energy balance is

Net energy convected out net heat conducted inNeglecting second-order differentials, The energy balance givesT h eb u l kL o c a lt e mp e r a t u r eh e a tt r a n s f e r

5-13 SUMMARYOur presentation of convection heat transfer is incomplete at this time and will bedeveloped further in Chapters 6 and 7. Even so, we begin to see the structure of a procedurefor solution of convection problems:1. Establish the geometry of the situation; for now we are mainly restricted to flow overflat plates.2. Determine the fluid involved and evaluate the fluid properties. This will usually be atthe film temperature.3. Establish the boundary conditions (i.e., constant temperature or constant heat flux).4. Establish the flow regime as determined by the Reynolds number.5. Select the appropriate equation, taking into account the flow regime and any fluid propertyrestrictions which may apply.6. Calculate the value(s) of the convection heat-transfer coefficient and/or heat transfer.

Example

Example

Example

Chapter 6Empirical and Practical Relations for Forced –Convection Heat TransferRegrettably, it is not always possible to obtain analytical solutions to convection problems, and theindividual is forced to resort to experimental methods to obtain design information, as well as to securethe more elusive data that increase the physical understanding of the heat-transfer processes.6-2 EMPIRICAL RELATIONS FOR PIPEAND TUBE FLOWIn this section we present some of the more important and useful empirical relations and point out theirlimitationsIn Chapter 5 we noted that the bulk temperature represents energy average or “mixing cup” conditions. Thus,for the tube flow depicted in Figure 6-1 the total energy added can be expressed in terms of abulk-temperature difference by

q mcp(Tb2 Tb1 )[6-1]provided cp is reasonably constant over the length. In some differential length dx the heat added dq can beexpressed either in terms of a bulk-temperature difference or in terms of the heat-transfer coefficientdq mcpdTb h(2πr)dx(Tw Tb)[6-2]where Tw and Tb are the wall and bulk temperatures at the particular x location. The totalheat transfer can also be expressed asq hA(Tw Tb)av[6-3]where A is the total surface area for heat transfer. Because both Tw and Tb can varyalong the length of the tube, a suitable averaging process must be adopted for use withEquation (6-3).I nt h i swi l lb ec h a p t e rmo s tf o c u s e do nd e t e r mi n i n gt r a n s f e rh , t h eo fo u rme t h o d sa t t e n t i o nf o rc o n v e c t i o nc o e f f i c i e n t .h e a t -A traditional expression for calculation of heat transfer in fully developed turbulentflow in smooth tubes is that recommended by Dittus and Boelter [1]:*Nud 0.023 Red0.8 Prn[6-4a]The properties in this equation are evaluated at the average fluid bulk temperature, and theexponent n has the following values:n 0.4 for heating of the fluidn 0.3 for cooling of the fluidEquation (6-4) is valid for fully developed turbulent flow in smooth tubes for fluids with Prandtl numbersranging from about 0.6 to 100 and with moderate temperature differences between wall and fluid conditions.better results for turbulent flow in smooth tubes may be obtained from the following:0.8Nu 0.0214(Re0.4 100) Pr[6-4b]

for 0.5 Pr 1.5 and104 Re 5 106 or0.870.4Nu 0.012( Re 280) Pr[6-4c]6for 1.5 Pr 500 and 3000 Re 10As described above, we may anticipate that the heat-transfer data will be dependent on theReynolds and Prandtl numbers. A power function for each of these parameters is a simpletype of relation to use, so we assumeNud CRedmPrnwhere C, m, and n are constants to be determined from the experimental data.To take into account the property variations, Sieder and Tate [2] recommend thefollowing relation:Nud 0.027 Red0.8Pr1/3(μ/μw)0.14[6-5]All properties are evaluated at bulk-temperature conditions, except μw, which is evaluatedat the wall temperature.Equations (6-4) and (6-5) apply to fully developed turbulent flow in tubes. In the entrance region the flow isnot developed, and Nusselt [3] recommended the following equation:Nud 0.036 Red0.8 Pr1/3(d/L) .for 10 L/d 400[6-6]where L is the length of the tube and d is the tube diameter. The properties in Equation (6-6)are evaluated at the mean bulk temperature.0 055If the channel through which the fluid flows is not of circular cross section, it is recommended that the heattransfer correlations be based on the hydraulic diameter DH, defined byDH 4A/P[6-14]where A is the cross-sectional area of the flow and P is the wetted perimeter.The hydraulic diameter should be used in calculating the Nusselt and Reynoldsnumbers.

6-6 SUMMARYIn contrast to Chapter 5, which was mainly analytical in character, this chapter has dealtalmost entirely with empirical correlations that may be used to calculate convection heattransfer. The general calculation procedure is as follows:1. Establish the geometry of the situation.2. Make a preliminary determination of appropriate fluid properties.3. Establish the flow regime by calculating the Reynolds or Peclet number4. Select an equation that fits the geometry and flow regime and reevaluate properties, ifnecessary, in accordance with stipulations and the equation.5. Proceed to calculate the value of h and/or the heat-transfer rate.

Chapter 5 Principles of Convection heat transfer (Text: J. P. Holman, Heat Transfer, 10th ed., McGraw Hill, NY) 5-1 INTRODUCTION We now wish to examine the methods of calculating convection heat transfer and, in particular, the ways of predicting the value of the convection heat-transfer coefficient h. Our discussion in this chapter will

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