Part 1: Introduction To Economic Evaluation

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Part I: Introduction to Economic EvaluationThe First of a Five-Part Series

Slide 1Welcome to this five-part web presentation series on Economic Evaluation Methods.

Economic EvaluationA powerful tool that can help users makethe most of resources, decide betweenpromising program options, anddemonstrate the benefits of your program

Slide 2Here are some questions to think about: How do you really know you’re making the most of your limited resources?How do you decide between two promising program options when you can only afford one?How do you demonstrate to decision-makers that the benefits of your program are worththe costs?The answer is economic evaluation—a powerful tool that can help with all these situations.This series is designed to introduce you to a number of important concepts that will help you understandeconomic evaluation and how to incorporate these methods into your programs.The four types of analysis that we will discuss in this series are: One: economic impact analysis,Two: programmatic cost analysis,Three: benefit-cost analysis, andFour: cost-effectiveness analysis.We will also discuss cost-utility analysis, a special type of cost-effectiveness analysis.In Part One, we’ll define these terms and explain how economic evaluation can help you. The modulesthat follow will walk you through the process you would use to develop and conduct each of these typesof analyses.

Why Care About Economics Within theContext of Public Health? We want to maximize outcomes and minimize costs.Limited resources hard decisions.Return on investment (ROI) shows how much value we get from ourspending decisions.

Slide 3As public health practitioners, we care about improving the health of the entire population, so we try tomaximize health outcomes. But why should we care about economic issues in public health?Public health managers and economists would both agree that maximizing health outcomes is animportant goal. However, public health interventions, programs, and policies all have costs. And from aneconomist’s perspective, keeping these costs low is also important.If we lived in a society with unlimited resources, then we might not care so much about minimizing costs.But our reality is that financial resources for public health are scarce, and the situation is only gettingworse, so we want to demonstrate the value provided in exchange for the resources we use. Another wayto put this is to say that we care about societal returns on our investment in public health.

Public Health Model for PreventionProblemIdentificationRisk and ProtectiveFactor IdentificationCostAnalysisEconomicImpact ―COIProgram and PolicyEvaluationProgram and ionImplementation andDissemination

Slide 4To identify problems we hope to address, we use surveillance to determine the burden of a disease.Surveillance takes into account incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate. In gauging the economicburden, surveillance provides information on the medical costs and losses in productivity associated witha disease.We also look at the causes of a disease to determine risk and protective factors. Information about thesefactors helps refine our surveillance systems and identify high-risk populations and other groups whomight benefit from public health interventions.Program and policy development are also important. Programmatic cost analysis is part of this process.Evaluation of an intervention, program, or strategy’s effectiveness looks at how well an interventionreaches its intended goal of improving health outcomes. In contrast, economic evaluation helps usunderstand the cost factors related to an intervention.Economic evaluation can be conducted prospectively or retrospectively. For example, a prospectiveevaluation might help determine whether a program or strategy is effective enough to be recommendedfor broader implementation.

Economic Impact Analysis Estimates total costs of a disease or condition: Medical and non-medical costs Productivity losses Generally reported as cost: Annual total cost Average patient lifetime cost Shows potential benefits of prevention

Slide 5The first type of economic evaluation—economic impact analysis—deals with identifying problems in thepublic health model. Economic impact analyses—sometimes called “cost of illness estimates,” “impactanalyses,” or “economic burden estimates”—estimate the total costs of a disease or illness.Economic impact analyses typically include the cost of medical care required to treat or manage anillness. Often, these analyses also include estimates of lost productivity associated with the disease.Economic impact analyses are usually reported as annual total costs for a group, or cohort, of people withthe disease, regardless of when the disease first occurred. This is a prevalence-based approach.As an alternative, the analyses can be reported as total lifetime costs for a cohort of people who acquirethe disease within a specific time period. This is an incidence-based approach.Both of these approaches can be used to show the potential benefits of efforts to prevent the disease.Module 2 will provide more information on this topic.

Cost Analysis First step of a full economic evaluationEstimates total program costs and determines who incurs those costsIncludes both financial and economic costs Financial costs show up on a budget sheet. Economic costs include in-kind services. Offers foundation for budget justification, decision-making, andforecasting

Slide 6Another type of economic evaluation is programmatic cost analysis. This is typically the first step in aneconomic evaluation comparing program costs to outcomes.Programmatic cost analyses include all the resources required to implement an intervention, such aspersonnel, space and utilities, travel, materials, and supplies. These costs are important for determiningwho incurs the costs—the program itself, participants in the intervention, or external community groups.Programmatic cost analyses include financial costs that appear in a budget, as well as economic costs ofin-kind services. Module 3 will provide more information on this topic.

Economic Evaluation Methods What is economic evaluation? A way to identify, measure, evaluate, and compare the costs and results ofprograms and policies. There are three main methods: Benefit-cost analysis (BCA) Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) Cost-utility analysis (CUA)

Slide 7A comparison of costs and benefits is the next step in economic evaluation. In this step, we assess theboth the costs of an intervention and the benefits it provides. The two main types of this assessment arebenefit-cost analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis.In benefit-cost analysis, which will be discussed in module 4, program costs and benefits are convertedinto dollars. In cost-effectiveness analysis, to be discussed in module 5, program costs are in dollars butbenefits are left in some natural unit, such as life years saved. A special type of cost-effectivenessanalysis—called cost-utility analysis—includes only health outcomes.

How Economic Evaluations Inform PolicyTier of Decision-Making Determine federal budget BCA converts results to dollarsBCA HHS Allocate funds to health programs CUA compares outcomes of differentprogramsCUA CEAPresident/CongressLocal Programs Select best intervention for given outcome CEA quantifies outcomes of similar programs

Slide 8The particular type of economic evaluation to use depends on who is deciding which intervention to use.For example, at the federal level, the president has to make decisions about balancing spending betweendefense and health. Because the outcomes are different, a benefit-cost analysis that converts outcomesinto dollars is the most appropriate economic evaluation method for decisions at that level.In contrast, the CDC director makes decisions about interventions that affect different health programs—for example, hypertension screening versus diabetes prevention. The outcomes are different—hypertension versus obesity—but both are health related, so a cost-utility analysis, which includes onlybenefits that affect different aspects of health, is the most appropriate economic evaluation method.In another example, the director of a heart disease prevention program might need to decide betweenprograms that affect the same health outcome—for example, two interventions to improve hypertensionscreening. In this case, the most appropriate economic evaluation method is a cost-effectivenessanalysis, which keeps outcomes in their natural units, such as the number of cases of hypertensiontreated.The remaining presentations in this series will provide more in-depth information on all of these types ofeconomic evaluations and how they can be applied to the public health model for preventing disease.

Types of Economic Evaluation MethodsUsed for CVD Prevention, 1995–2005Types of EvaluationNo.%Cost-consequence or cost-minimization2814CEA (cost per clinical outcome)5327CEA (cost per life-year)7337CUA (cost per QALY)382032BCASchwappach DL, Boluarte TA, Suhrcke M. The economics of primary prevention of cardio-vascular disease—a systematic review of economic evaluations. CostEff Resour Alloc. 2007;5:5.

Slide 9This table shows the numbers and percentages of five types of economic evaluation in cardiovascularresearch between 1995 and 2005 from a total of 195 studies, as determined by Schwappach andcolleagues.

Main Themes Economic evaluation enhances decision-making and helps set healthpolicy.Practitioners and evaluators need to be adept at conducting theseanalyses, because demand for them is growing.

Slide 10Economic evaluation is often used to inform decisions about health policy. Increasing demand foreconomic evaluation requires that practitioners and evaluators have a firm grasp of the principlesinvolved.

Outline of Presentations II. Economic Impact AnalysisIII. Programmatic Cost AnalysisIV. Benefit-Cost AnalysisV. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

Slide 11This concludes the first presentation, Introduction to Economic Evaluation. The remaining presentationswill highlight each of the four types of economic evaluation: economic impact, programmatic cost, benefitcost, and cost-effectiveness.

Resources Haddix A, Teutsch SM, Corso PS. Prevention Effectiveness: AnIntroduction to Decision Analysis and Economic Evaluation. 2nd ed.Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; 2003.

Slide 12More information and additional resources on economic evaluation are available from the textbookPrevention Effectiveness: A Guide to Decision Analysis and Economic Evaluation.

AcknowledgmentsThis presentation was developed by the Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention (DHDSP) at theCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) under the leadership and guidance of:Rashon Lane, Applied Research and Evaluation Branch, andAngela Soyemi, Communications TeamIn collaboration with presentation author:Phaedra S. Corso, PhD, MPA, Department of Health Policy and Management, University ofGeorgia College of Public HealthCDC’s National Center for Health Marketing was integral in the development of this presentation. We thank:Anatavia M. Benson, Charlotte U. Duggan, and Thomas G. RaceThis presentation was updated in August 2016.

For more information please contact Centers for Disease Control and Prevention1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333Telephone, 1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636)/TTY: 1-888-232-6348Web: www.cdc.govE-mail: cdcinfo@cdc.govThe findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers forDisease Control and Prevention.

Risk and Protective Factor Identification Economic Impact ― COI Economic Evaluation Economic Evaluation Cost Analysis. Slide 4 . To identify problems we hope to address, we use surveillance to determine the burden of a disease. Surveillance takes into account incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate. In gauging the economic burden, surveillance provides information on the medical costs and .

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