ContinuumJournal of Media & Cultural StudiesISSN: 1030-4312 (Print) 1469-3666 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ccon20Horror vérité: politics and history in Jordan Peele’sGet Out (2017)Alison LandsbergTo cite this article: Alison Landsberg (2018) Horror vérité: politics and history in Jordan Peele’sGet Out (2017), Continuum, 32:5, 629-642, DOI: 10.1080/10304312.2018.1500522To link to this article: shed online: 10 Aug 2018.Submit your article to this journalArticle views: 883View Crossmark dataFull Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found ation?journalCode ccon20
CONTINUUM: JOURNAL OF MEDIA & CULTURAL STUDIES2018, VOL. 32, NO. 5, 0522Horror vérité: politics and history in Jordan Peele’s Get Out(2017)Alison LandsbergProfessor of History and Cultural Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USAABSTRACTKEYWORDSThis essay proposes that certain cinematic conventions of thehorror ﬁlm are uniquely suited to bring into visibility everyday,endemic horror – a horror that many in US society refuse to see. Icall this use of horror, ‘horror vérité’ or truthful horror. As a form ofpolitically inﬂected horror, it has potential to perform the kind ofmaterialist history that Walter Benjamin theorizes, in which thehistorical materialist ‘appropriate[es] a memory as it ﬂashes up in amoment of danger’ in order to recast the present. Jordan Peele’s2017 ﬁlm, Get Out, is an example of ‘horror vérité’, because it usesthe mechanics of the horror genre to expose actually existingracism, to render newly visible the very real, but often masked,racial landscape of a professedly liberal post-racial America. Theﬁlm analysis considers: ﬁrst, the use of the conventions of horror toexpose everyday racial violence; second, its reliance on a dialecticof sleeping (hypnosis) and waking up (provoked by photography);and third, its performing of the historical materialism Benjamindescribes, in which the jarring confrontation of the past and thepresent radically alters the landscape of the present.race; horror ﬁlm; politics ofmass culture; WalterBenjamin; historicalmaterialismJordan Peele’s 2017 ﬁlm Get Out was not only a huge box oﬃce success, grossing over 250 million worldwide, but it has been lavished with critical acclaim as well. Even in thecourse of my writing this paper, The New York Times Magazine devoted a cover story toit, written by Wesley Morris and entitled, ‘Jordan Peele’s X-Ray Vision’. And yet despitethis acclaim, the ﬁlm provoked at times heated debate about what kind of ﬁlm it actuallywas, generically speaking. In response to learning that it was to be categorized as acomedy or musical for the Golden Globe awards, Peele tweeted back provocatively, ‘It’sa documentary’ (Morris 2017). Later he explained, ‘The reason for the visceral responseto this movie being called a comedy is that we are still living in a time in which AfricanAmerican cries for justice aren’t being taken seriously. It is important to acknowledgethat though there are funny moments, the systemic racism that the movie is about isvery real’ (Morris 2017). Yet even though its content is very ‘real’, Get Out is also verymuch a horror ﬁlm, in its mobilization of a series of narrative and formal conventions.However, the classiﬁcatory problems raised by the ﬁlm are themselves meaningful.These distinctions, are not just academic, but have important political ramiﬁcationsand point to the work the ﬁlm is doing and by what mechanisms it is doing it. What ICONTACT Alison [email protected] 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
630A. LANDSBERGwant to propose here is that certain cinematic conventions of the horror ﬁlm – a speciﬁcset of formal and narrative strategies – are uniquely suited to render everyday, endemicand chronic horror – a horror that many in US society do not, or perhaps moreaccurately refuse, to see. This is a politically inﬂected horror ﬁlm, and as such haspotential to perform the kind of materialist history that Walter Benjamin (2003, p.392)theorizes, in which the historical materialist ‘appropriate[es] a memory as it ﬂashes up ina moment of danger’ in order to recast the present. I would like to call this particulartype of horror ‘horror vérité’ or truthful horror.Technologies of revelationWhat I am describing as ‘horror vérité’ operates on the logic of revelation, in both the literaland ﬁgural senses of the word, and is thus in fundamental ways enabled by technologies ofthe visual, in this case the cinema. Interested in the way visual technologies aﬀected both theact of perception and what exactly was seeable, Walter Benjamin, in 1935, famously describedwhat he called the ‘optical unconscious’ of photography. Photography, as a technology ofvision, enables its viewers to see – both literally and metaphorically – those aspects ofeveryday life that remain invisible to the naked eye. Benjamin (2008a) is drawn to Atget’s1920s photographs of Paris, which seem to prod the viewer to search for clues to someundisclosed crime. For Benjamin (2008a, p. 294), a committed Marxist, photography mightfunction as a tool to enable people to see the crimes of capitalism, to see the world theyinhabit for what it is: ‘isn’t every square inch of our cities a crime scene?’ he asks. ‘Every passerby a culprit? Isn’t it the task of the photographer . . . to reveal the guilt and to point out theguilty in his pictures?’ As Benjamin (2008b, p. 37) explains, ‘ﬁlm furthers insight into thenecessities governing our lives by its use of close-ups, by its accentuation of hidden details infamiliar objects, and by its exploration of commonplace milieu through the ingeniousguidance of the camera’. The camera performs a revelation; the revelation is political becauseit lends itself to action, to making visible new possible sites of intervention; he continues, ‘itmanages to assure us of a vast and unsuspected ﬁeld of action’ (Benjamin 2008b, p. 37).Film, in Benjamin’s account, has radical, even revolutionary potential in its capacity toawaken people to the dominant ideologies that appear invisible, ‘natural’, normalized,and that nevertheless govern their lives. He writes, ‘Our bars and city streets, our oﬃcesand furnished rooms, our railroad stations and our factories seemed to close relentlesslyaround us. Then came ﬁlm and exploded this prison-world with the dynamite of the splitsecond, so that now we can set oﬀ calmly on journeys of adventure among its far-ﬂungdebris. With close-up, space expands; with slow motion, movement is extended . . .Clearly, it is another nature which speaks to the camera as compared to the eye’(Benjamin 2008b, p. 37). For Benjamin, the potential of the cinema to be a politicalagent has two dimensions: one has to do with its collective mode of reception and theother with its training of perception. Film, Benjamin believes, as a mass medium, canspeak directly to the masses: he writes, ‘The alignment of reality with the masses and ofthe masses with reality is a process of immeasurable importance for both thinking andperception’ (Benjamin 2008b, p.24). As I will describe in more detail later, aligning themasses with ‘reality’, by which he means the fundamental material conditions of societythat are generally masked by ideology, is precisely the work done by the ﬁlm, Get Out asan example of ‘horror vérité’.
CONTINUUM: JOURNAL OF MEDIA & CULTURAL STUDIES631In structuring perception, the cinema can facilitate what Benjamin envisions as aprocess of coming to consciousness about the material oppressive conditions of societythat are shrouded by ideology. He understands this coming to consciousness as a‘waking up’. ‘The moment of awakening’, Benjamin (1999, p. 463–4) writes in theArcades Project, ‘would be identical with the “now of recognizability,” in which thingsput on their true – surrealist – face’. His interest in the sort of awakening that is possiblein the cultural arena leads him to consider Berthold Brecht’s politically engaged theatre.Brecht’s ‘epic theater’ attempts to wake the audience through the principle of the‘alienation eﬀect’: Brecht (1964, p. 192) writes, ‘A representation that alienates is onewhich allows us to recognize its subject, but at the same time makes it seem unfamiliar’.In this process of defamiliarization, that which is familiar and thus often invisible, isrendered strange, unnatural. At any given historical moment, a society’s dominantideologies – be they capitalist, or white supremacist, or patriarchal – seem natural,timeless. Brecht’s revolutionary agenda, like Benjamin’s, is to enable the masses to seethrough the naturalized, reiﬁed, familiar conﬁgurations of society – and he recognizesthe cultural arena to be a privileged site for this project. Brecht (1964, p. 201), also aMarxist, sees the political imperative that falls to a cultural artefact to defamiliarize thepresent, ‘to speak up decisively for the interests of its own time’.For Benjamin, it is the mechanics of Brecht’s style, coupled with Brecht’s politicalagenda, that most compels him. Brecht’s style is aimed at revealing social contradictions,rather than covering them over. Brecht tends to do this in obvious, sometimes evenexaggerated ways – actors hold signs, recite lines without emotion or aﬀect. There isnothing subtle about Brecht’s methodology. Benjamin in fact describes these methodsas relying on ‘crude thinking’ rather than subtlety. Brecht is interested in strategies thatforce the audience to ruminate. Brecht’s strategies are obvious, they call attention tothemselves, they dispel the illusion. ‘Crude thoughts’, writes Benjamin (2002, p.7), ‘havea special place in dialectical thinking because their sole function is to direct theorytoward practice . . . a thought must be crude to ﬁnd its way into action’. A politicallyengaged, cultural – or mass cultural – form, then, be it a play, or a ﬁlm, must havemechanisms for defamiliarization that force such crude thoughts, and predispose theaudience towards action by ‘aligning the masses with reality’.Horror véritéBefore exploring the political potential of horror vérité, I think it is important to point tocinema’s long-term engagement with horror more generally. In a short piece written in1940 entitled ‘Das Grauen im Film’ (or ‘Horror in Film’) Siegfried Kracauer (1974), aninterlocutor of Walter Benjamin’s, argues that ﬁlm has a long and privileged relationshipwith horror, a special ‘aﬃnity’ for it. Film, he says, ‘has been illustrating terrifying eventsthroughout its 45-year history’ (Kracauer 1974, p.25–6). But more than that, horror ﬁlms,he suggests, force a confrontation; the viewer is brought face to face with the grim andthe graphic: ‘Visions of insanity take shape, murderous aﬀairs continuously supersedeone another, forms of torture are described in great detail, awfully deformed facesappear in close-up, accounts of war outdo each other when it comes to scenes ofhorror’ (Kracauer 1974, p.26). The movie camera, like the camera imagined byBenjamin, is here an ‘impartial observer’ in the ‘zone of horror’ (Kracauer 1974, p.26).
632A. LANDSBERGHorror’s true radical potential derives from its ability to depict the unthinkable, tomaterialize the immaterial; the horror ﬁlm, Kracauer (1974, p.26) suggests, ‘makes thatwhich is unimaginable in reality an exhibition object’. This work of representation has apolitical dimension when what is being made imaginable are the lived social realitiesthat many in society refuse to see. Much as Benjamin emphasized the political potentialof the optical unconscious, Kracauer (1974, p.27) writes: ‘Every representation is alsoplaying with what is represented, and perhaps playing with horror aims at letting peoplecome to terms with things they are otherwise blindly subject to’. A politically motivatedﬁlmmaker can exploit the genre for political purposes to make an unimaginable realityimaginable and visible.So, ﬁrst of all, what exactly is ‘horror vérité’?1 I am here drawing on the idea ofcinema vérité, ‘truthful cinema’, a style of documentary ﬁlmmaking that aimed toreveal the ‘truth’ of a particular situation, a truth that might otherwise remain elusive,masked by ideology, acting or directorial choices etc. In the case of horror vérité, I amsuggesting that it deploys the standard cinematic conventions of horror – strongsound and visual cues that shock and unsettle the viewer, editing that also createssurprise and shock, a plot that involves either supernatural/science ﬁction elements,the struggle for survival of a person who is being chased by a psycho-killer, and/or ahaunted house – but it does these things in the context of very real material andhistorical circumstances. In other words, rather than using these techniques toexplore the psychology of a serial killer, or to enforce the dominant ideology (take,for instance, the typical slasher ﬁlms that punish teenage girls for having sex), or tosymbolize society’s fears in the form of a monster2 – the mechanics of horror are hereengaged in a project of re-representing the present. In other words, the typical horrorﬁlm usually oﬀers some kind of terrifying psychological fantasy. But in horror véritéthe terrifying nightmare is everyday reality.Much like Brechtian ‘epic theatre’, the strategy through which ‘horror vérité’ enacts itspolitics is defamiliarization, but it achieves this eﬀect through narrative and cinematictechniques that are radically diﬀerent from those used by Brecht. The stylistic conventions of horror – its shocks and jolts – interrupt the forward movement of the narrative.They have the eﬀect of forcing viewers back into their own bodies, breaking thenarrative ‘spell’. These moments of interruption can be intellectually productive.Horror is one of what Linda Williams (1991) has famously called the ‘body’ genres, inthat it engages
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Horror, Personality, and Threat Simulation: A Survey of the Psychology of Scary Media Horror entertainment is a thriving and paradoxical industry. People flock to horror films, buy horror novels, immerse themselves in horror video games, and visit haunted attractions to be scared witless (Clasen, 2017; Follows, 2017; Gunter, 2018).
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