Horror Vérité: Politics And History In Jordan Peele’s Get .

1y ago
1.33 MB
15 Pages
Last View : 4d ago
Last Download : 4m ago
Upload by : Adele Mcdaniel

ContinuumJournal of Media & Cultural StudiesISSN: 1030-4312 (Print) 1469-3666 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ccon20Horror vérité: politics and history in Jordan Peele’sGet Out (2017)Alison LandsbergTo cite this article: Alison Landsberg (2018) Horror vérité: politics and history in Jordan Peele’sGet Out (2017), Continuum, 32:5, 629-642, DOI: 10.1080/10304312.2018.1500522To link to this article: shed online: 10 Aug 2018.Submit your article to this journalArticle views: 883View Crossmark dataFull Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found ation?journalCode ccon20

CONTINUUM: JOURNAL OF MEDIA & CULTURAL STUDIES2018, VOL. 32, NO. 5, 0522Horror vérité: politics and history in Jordan Peele’s Get Out(2017)Alison LandsbergProfessor of History and Cultural Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USAABSTRACTKEYWORDSThis essay proposes that certain cinematic conventions of thehorror film are uniquely suited to bring into visibility everyday,endemic horror – a horror that many in US society refuse to see. Icall this use of horror, ‘horror vérité’ or truthful horror. As a form ofpolitically inflected horror, it has potential to perform the kind ofmaterialist history that Walter Benjamin theorizes, in which thehistorical materialist ‘appropriate[es] a memory as it flashes up in amoment of danger’ in order to recast the present. Jordan Peele’s2017 film, Get Out, is an example of ‘horror vérité’, because it usesthe mechanics of the horror genre to expose actually existingracism, to render newly visible the very real, but often masked,racial landscape of a professedly liberal post-racial America. Thefilm analysis considers: first, the use of the conventions of horror toexpose everyday racial violence; second, its reliance on a dialecticof sleeping (hypnosis) and waking up (provoked by photography);and third, its performing of the historical materialism Benjamindescribes, in which the jarring confrontation of the past and thepresent radically alters the landscape of the present.race; horror film; politics ofmass culture; WalterBenjamin; historicalmaterialismJordan Peele’s 2017 film Get Out was not only a huge box office success, grossing over 250 million worldwide, but it has been lavished with critical acclaim as well. Even in thecourse of my writing this paper, The New York Times Magazine devoted a cover story toit, written by Wesley Morris and entitled, ‘Jordan Peele’s X-Ray Vision’. And yet despitethis acclaim, the film provoked at times heated debate about what kind of film it actuallywas, generically speaking. In response to learning that it was to be categorized as acomedy or musical for the Golden Globe awards, Peele tweeted back provocatively, ‘It’sa documentary’ (Morris 2017). Later he explained, ‘The reason for the visceral responseto this movie being called a comedy is that we are still living in a time in which AfricanAmerican cries for justice aren’t being taken seriously. It is important to acknowledgethat though there are funny moments, the systemic racism that the movie is about isvery real’ (Morris 2017). Yet even though its content is very ‘real’, Get Out is also verymuch a horror film, in its mobilization of a series of narrative and formal conventions.However, the classificatory problems raised by the film are themselves meaningful.These distinctions, are not just academic, but have important political ramificationsand point to the work the film is doing and by what mechanisms it is doing it. What ICONTACT Alison [email protected] 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

630A. LANDSBERGwant to propose here is that certain cinematic conventions of the horror film – a specificset of formal and narrative strategies – are uniquely suited to render everyday, endemicand chronic horror – a horror that many in US society do not, or perhaps moreaccurately refuse, to see. This is a politically inflected horror film, and as such haspotential to perform the kind of materialist history that Walter Benjamin (2003, p.392)theorizes, in which the historical materialist ‘appropriate[es] a memory as it flashes up ina moment of danger’ in order to recast the present. I would like to call this particulartype of horror ‘horror vérité’ or truthful horror.Technologies of revelationWhat I am describing as ‘horror vérité’ operates on the logic of revelation, in both the literaland figural senses of the word, and is thus in fundamental ways enabled by technologies ofthe visual, in this case the cinema. Interested in the way visual technologies affected both theact of perception and what exactly was seeable, Walter Benjamin, in 1935, famously describedwhat he called the ‘optical unconscious’ of photography. Photography, as a technology ofvision, enables its viewers to see – both literally and metaphorically – those aspects ofeveryday life that remain invisible to the naked eye. Benjamin (2008a) is drawn to Atget’s1920s photographs of Paris, which seem to prod the viewer to search for clues to someundisclosed crime. For Benjamin (2008a, p. 294), a committed Marxist, photography mightfunction as a tool to enable people to see the crimes of capitalism, to see the world theyinhabit for what it is: ‘isn’t every square inch of our cities a crime scene?’ he asks. ‘Every passerby a culprit? Isn’t it the task of the photographer . . . to reveal the guilt and to point out theguilty in his pictures?’ As Benjamin (2008b, p. 37) explains, ‘film furthers insight into thenecessities governing our lives by its use of close-ups, by its accentuation of hidden details infamiliar objects, and by its exploration of commonplace milieu through the ingeniousguidance of the camera’. The camera performs a revelation; the revelation is political becauseit lends itself to action, to making visible new possible sites of intervention; he continues, ‘itmanages to assure us of a vast and unsuspected field of action’ (Benjamin 2008b, p. 37).Film, in Benjamin’s account, has radical, even revolutionary potential in its capacity toawaken people to the dominant ideologies that appear invisible, ‘natural’, normalized,and that nevertheless govern their lives. He writes, ‘Our bars and city streets, our officesand furnished rooms, our railroad stations and our factories seemed to close relentlesslyaround us. Then came film and exploded this prison-world with the dynamite of the splitsecond, so that now we can set off calmly on journeys of adventure among its far-flungdebris. With close-up, space expands; with slow motion, movement is extended . . .Clearly, it is another nature which speaks to the camera as compared to the eye’(Benjamin 2008b, p. 37). For Benjamin, the potential of the cinema to be a politicalagent has two dimensions: one has to do with its collective mode of reception and theother with its training of perception. Film, Benjamin believes, as a mass medium, canspeak directly to the masses: he writes, ‘The alignment of reality with the masses and ofthe masses with reality is a process of immeasurable importance for both thinking andperception’ (Benjamin 2008b, p.24). As I will describe in more detail later, aligning themasses with ‘reality’, by which he means the fundamental material conditions of societythat are generally masked by ideology, is precisely the work done by the film, Get Out asan example of ‘horror vérité’.

CONTINUUM: JOURNAL OF MEDIA & CULTURAL STUDIES631In structuring perception, the cinema can facilitate what Benjamin envisions as aprocess of coming to consciousness about the material oppressive conditions of societythat are shrouded by ideology. He understands this coming to consciousness as a‘waking up’. ‘The moment of awakening’, Benjamin (1999, p. 463–4) writes in theArcades Project, ‘would be identical with the “now of recognizability,” in which thingsput on their true – surrealist – face’. His interest in the sort of awakening that is possiblein the cultural arena leads him to consider Berthold Brecht’s politically engaged theatre.Brecht’s ‘epic theater’ attempts to wake the audience through the principle of the‘alienation effect’: Brecht (1964, p. 192) writes, ‘A representation that alienates is onewhich allows us to recognize its subject, but at the same time makes it seem unfamiliar’.In this process of defamiliarization, that which is familiar and thus often invisible, isrendered strange, unnatural. At any given historical moment, a society’s dominantideologies – be they capitalist, or white supremacist, or patriarchal – seem natural,timeless. Brecht’s revolutionary agenda, like Benjamin’s, is to enable the masses to seethrough the naturalized, reified, familiar configurations of society – and he recognizesthe cultural arena to be a privileged site for this project. Brecht (1964, p. 201), also aMarxist, sees the political imperative that falls to a cultural artefact to defamiliarize thepresent, ‘to speak up decisively for the interests of its own time’.For Benjamin, it is the mechanics of Brecht’s style, coupled with Brecht’s politicalagenda, that most compels him. Brecht’s style is aimed at revealing social contradictions,rather than covering them over. Brecht tends to do this in obvious, sometimes evenexaggerated ways – actors hold signs, recite lines without emotion or affect. There isnothing subtle about Brecht’s methodology. Benjamin in fact describes these methodsas relying on ‘crude thinking’ rather than subtlety. Brecht is interested in strategies thatforce the audience to ruminate. Brecht’s strategies are obvious, they call attention tothemselves, they dispel the illusion. ‘Crude thoughts’, writes Benjamin (2002, p.7), ‘havea special place in dialectical thinking because their sole function is to direct theorytoward practice . . . a thought must be crude to find its way into action’. A politicallyengaged, cultural – or mass cultural – form, then, be it a play, or a film, must havemechanisms for defamiliarization that force such crude thoughts, and predispose theaudience towards action by ‘aligning the masses with reality’.Horror véritéBefore exploring the political potential of horror vérité, I think it is important to point tocinema’s long-term engagement with horror more generally. In a short piece written in1940 entitled ‘Das Grauen im Film’ (or ‘Horror in Film’) Siegfried Kracauer (1974), aninterlocutor of Walter Benjamin’s, argues that film has a long and privileged relationshipwith horror, a special ‘affinity’ for it. Film, he says, ‘has been illustrating terrifying eventsthroughout its 45-year history’ (Kracauer 1974, p.25–6). But more than that, horror films,he suggests, force a confrontation; the viewer is brought face to face with the grim andthe graphic: ‘Visions of insanity take shape, murderous affairs continuously supersedeone another, forms of torture are described in great detail, awfully deformed facesappear in close-up, accounts of war outdo each other when it comes to scenes ofhorror’ (Kracauer 1974, p.26). The movie camera, like the camera imagined byBenjamin, is here an ‘impartial observer’ in the ‘zone of horror’ (Kracauer 1974, p.26).

632A. LANDSBERGHorror’s true radical potential derives from its ability to depict the unthinkable, tomaterialize the immaterial; the horror film, Kracauer (1974, p.26) suggests, ‘makes thatwhich is unimaginable in reality an exhibition object’. This work of representation has apolitical dimension when what is being made imaginable are the lived social realitiesthat many in society refuse to see. Much as Benjamin emphasized the political potentialof the optical unconscious, Kracauer (1974, p.27) writes: ‘Every representation is alsoplaying with what is represented, and perhaps playing with horror aims at letting peoplecome to terms with things they are otherwise blindly subject to’. A politically motivatedfilmmaker can exploit the genre for political purposes to make an unimaginable realityimaginable and visible.So, first of all, what exactly is ‘horror vérité’?1 I am here drawing on the idea ofcinema vérité, ‘truthful cinema’, a style of documentary filmmaking that aimed toreveal the ‘truth’ of a particular situation, a truth that might otherwise remain elusive,masked by ideology, acting or directorial choices etc. In the case of horror vérité, I amsuggesting that it deploys the standard cinematic conventions of horror – strongsound and visual cues that shock and unsettle the viewer, editing that also createssurprise and shock, a plot that involves either supernatural/science fiction elements,the struggle for survival of a person who is being chased by a psycho-killer, and/or ahaunted house – but it does these things in the context of very real material andhistorical circumstances. In other words, rather than using these techniques toexplore the psychology of a serial killer, or to enforce the dominant ideology (take,for instance, the typical slasher films that punish teenage girls for having sex), or tosymbolize society’s fears in the form of a monster2 – the mechanics of horror are hereengaged in a project of re-representing the present. In other words, the typical horrorfilm usually offers some kind of terrifying psychological fantasy. But in horror véritéthe terrifying nightmare is everyday reality.Much like Brechtian ‘epic theatre’, the strategy through which ‘horror vérité’ enacts itspolitics is defamiliarization, but it achieves this effect through narrative and cinematictechniques that are radically different from those used by Brecht. The stylistic conventions of horror – its shocks and jolts – interrupt the forward movement of the narrative.They have the effect of forcing viewers back into their own bodies, breaking thenarrative ‘spell’. These moments of interruption can be intellectually productive.Horror is one of what Linda Williams (1991) has famously called the ‘body’ genres, inthat it engages

horror film are uniquely suited to bring into visibility everyday, endemic horror – a horror that many in US society refuse to see. I call this use of horror, ‘horror vérité’ or truthful horror. As a form of politically inflected horror, it has potential to perform the kind of materialist history that Walter Benjamin theorizes, in .

Related Documents:

Horror, Personality, and Threat Simulation: A Survey of the Psychology of Scary Media Horror entertainment is a thriving and paradoxical industry. People flock to horror films, buy horror novels, immerse themselves in horror video games, and visit haunted attractions to be scared witless (Clasen, 2017; Follows, 2017; Gunter, 2018).

Dr. Maria Helguera - Center for Imaging Science, RIT Dr. Navalgund Rao - Center for Imaging Science, RIT Raj Pai Panandikar, PhD Candidate – Imaging Science, RIT Dr. Dan Phillips - Electrical Engineering, RIT Dr. Lynn Fuller - Microelectronic Engineering, RIT Steve Bros

weather during move-in and Orientation. Available June 1 Find the RIT Orientation 2020 event on Facebook Search for the RIT Orientation 2020 event on Facebook and follow Rochester Institute of Technology and RIT Student Life on Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter to stay connected.

Imagine RIT Are you interested in attending Roch - ester Institute of Technology (RIT)? If so, the Future Business Leaders Club (FBLA) would like to invite you to attend the Imagine RIT festival with them on May 2, 2015. Find details on the 385 exhibits by Googling Imagine RIT. Students and others can also see Mr.

Color Code: Yellow Write RIT in upper right corner & color Who can get it? Group 1: Determine At Risk Students by RIT Score 2 grade levels below RIT Norm OR if no grade level 2 below, use back up rule of 25th percentile Write RIT in upper right corner & color Color C

horror fiction called "Lovecraftian horror," named after the author himself. He was a . Among them are the contemporary horror writer Stephen King, the author and artist Clive Barker, comic artist Alan Moore, movie . theme is the unknown itself, or rather the unknowable, inexplicable and forbidden

Part 1: Conceptualizing Horror via Trauma This introductory section sets up some of the methodological frames to help us analyze our engagement with representations of horror and the experience of fear that accompanies these encounters. We will probe the epistemic, aesthetic and ethical fr

Horror Movie: Feng Shui Tilman Baumgärtel In this essay I will examine the question to what extent the Philippine production Feng Shui (Roño, 2004) is a horror film according to the well-established (Western) definitions of the genre. This seems to be a pertinent question as many Filipino horror films are based on ghost stories and folklore .

In literature, horror has become almost entirely subsumed under the category of the Gothic. Beginning with a comprehensive overview of the scholarship to date, this dissertation takes issue with the "Gothic consensus" that written horror fiction is covered by the Gothic, arguing that more analysis of horror literature, and

essay to analyze natural horror, but only art- horror- "horror," that is, as it serves to name a cross-art genre whose existence is already recognized in ordinary language. Indeed, one might regard the first part of this article as an attempt to rationally reconstruct the latent cri- teria for i

Dodgeball. Play Club Soccer and Lacrosse at RIT (20xx-20xx). Running and Working out. Very interested in the Structural aspects of Civil Engineering (bridge work and other steel structures). Construction Demolition work. REFERENCES: Provided upon request RIT RESUME EXAMPLE College of Applied Science and Technology Civil Engineering Technology .

Notes from the Program Administrator . RIT Fringe Festival RIT is proud once again to be a sponsor of the 3rd Annual First Niagara Rochester Fringe Festival. The 2014 festival will be held from September 18th through 27th, and registration is now open throug

bag through the SCBA shoulder straps and attach it back to the RIT bag The RIT Pack will ride on top of the fire fighter and in between the legs –NOTE: placing the waist strap through the legs may not be possible the waist strap

Barnes & Noble @ RIT on most items if you show your RIT ID card (obtain an ID card at the Registrar’s Office, 1st floor of Eastman Hall), access to RIT facilities, including the Student Life Center if you want to work out and the Wallace Library, and the RARES discount card. 4

133 undergoing aeroallergen rush immunotherapy (RIT). Evidence suggests that in the setting of 134 aeroallergen RIT premedication may provide value in reducing systemic reactions and 135 anaphylaxis (immunotherapy analysis including RIT, RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.41- 0.94). The evidence

Value: cs.rit.edu. Demo 1 37 䡦Dig: (Domain Information Grouper) 䡦Very useful tool to send a DNS request and parse the DNS response. Demo 2 38 䡦Dig: (Domain Information Grouper) 䡦Dig @ rit.edu 䡦Dig @ rit.edu. How to buy a domain name (1) 39.COM (Verisign) Registry (TLD) Registrar GoDaddy Owner Buy example.com I need a domain. (Root) IANA Makes TLDs (Top level domains .

RIT Score: The student’s overall score on the test. RIT Range: If a student took the test again relatively soon, the score would fall within this range about 68% of the time. Percentile Rank: The percentage of students in the national norms group for this grade, subject, and testFile Size: 1MBPage Count: 40

The three columns illustrate the percentile rankings from the 2015 NWEA MAP norms, which are norm referenced scores. . know the exact percentile, the RIT Band Chart will provide that information. 2015-16 RIT Math Ruler 260 1st% - 39th %ile 40th%-75th %ile* 76th-99th %ile 255 250

[email protected] Sahil Gupta Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester, NY, USA [email protected] Kyle Diller Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester, NY, USA [email protected] Steffen Smolka Cornell University Ithaca, NY, USA [email protected] Nate Foster Cornell University Ithaca, NY, USA [email protected] ABSTRACT Computer networks often serve as the first line of defense against .

Por Alfredo López Austin * I. Necesidad conceptual Soy historiador; mi objeto de estudio es el pensamiento de las sociedades de tradición mesoamericana, con énfasis en las antiguas, anteriores al dominio colonial europeo. Como historiador no encuentro que mi trabajo se diferencie del propio del antropólogo; más bien, ignoro si existe alguna conveniencia en establecer un límite entre .