Philanthropy & The Arts

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Philanthropy & the ArtsAn overview of recentdevelopments in philanthropywith particular reference toPhilanthropy & the Arts in Ireland

An Overview ofPhilanthropy

An Overview of PhilanthropyWhat is Philanthropy? The word taken fromits Greek origins literally means “love ofhuman kind”. The Oxford English Dictionarydescribes philanthropy as “the practice ofdonating money to help people in need”. Ina modern sense it is “contributions tosupport a cause be they time, money orgoods by individuals or corporations”(Aikens 2004)2.Page 3Effectively it is giving money without anyexpectation of a financial return.Philanthropy comes in many guises. TheSeven Faces of Philanthropy 3 state thatphilanthropic intentions can be driven inmany ways and by many motivations. TheSeven Faces of Philanthropy provide aframework for understanding major donorsand for understanding that philanthropy cantake many forms.The Seven Faces of : ‘The Seven Faces of Philanthropy,’ Prince, R. P. & File, K. M., 1994 by Jossey-BassUnderstanding donor segmentation is apowerful tool that should be used tomaximize effectiveness when interactingwith major donors.Different people have different motives andqualities that distinguish themselves fromothers. Below is a summary of those sevenfaces.2Atkins, Kingsley. (2004) ‘Promoting Philanthropy In Ireland; 101 Fund Raising Tips’ The IrelandFunds.3Prince, A. R, File, K. M. (1994) ‘The Seven Faces of Philanthropy,’ Jossey-Bass.Philanthropy & the Arts

An Overview of PhilanthropyPage 4COMMUNITARIANS: “Doing Good Makes Sense”The main motivator of Communitarians is civic responsibility through a strong connectionto the local community. They respond to three positive images: community, leadership,and accountability. Philanthropy can therefore be considered an exchange sincecommunitarians appreciate recognition and also value the benefits they receive for theirbusiness, which generates income from the community they strive to have an impact on.They view philanthropy as a voluntary decision to help improve the quality of life in theirrespective communities.DEVOUT: “Doing Good is God’s Will”Through charity, the Devout represent religious traditions of God, service, duty andmission. They respond positively to reinforcement of their religious rationale for donating.Because they act on faith and values, they openly trust the organizations to which theydonate and do not want any recognition in return. The Devout attribute all of their materialsuccess and wealth to God and therefore feel morally obliged to give back to others.INVESTORS: “Doing Good is Good Business.”Investors are donors who follow a businesslike approach with non-profits and seekproductivity and efficiency with their donations. Like any investor in the financial markets,they first devote their time to careful investigation of the charity prior to giving. Some oftheir goals include tax minimization, investment for return, and some formal recognition.Unlike other philanthropists, investors are characterized by their judicious approach togiving—calculating a cost-and-benefit analysis and engaging in frequent negotiation toachieve the bottom line.SOCIALITES: “Doing Good is Fun”Socialites are donors, primarily women, who coordinate fundraising activities and specialevents to reflect mutual support and community leadership. They are motivated by theirsocial circles and the creativity involved in planning events. They often focus on the resultssuch as earning money to donate and receiving public attention. Socialites seephilanthropy as social exchange and an opportunity to direct attention to places thegovernment overlooks.ALTRUISTS: “Doing Good because it Feels Right”Simply put, altruists support non-profits “because it gives their life a greater sense ofpurpose”. In addition, they strongly believe that they are the only true philanthropists.They respond positively to images of social responsibility, self-actualisation, and selffulfilment. Their selflessness is internally driven and often involves acts of spontaneity andinstinct.Philanthropy & the Arts

An Overview of PhilanthropyPage 5REPAYERS: “Doing Good in Return for Good Being Done”Repayers seek out opportunities to pay back and show their gratitude. They act out ofresponse to a life-changing event and often focus their giving to educational and medicalorganizations. They expect to be valued by the recipient but do not desire attention orformal recognition.DYNASTS: “Doing Good as Family Tradition”Dynasts are those who are heavily influenced by others and their upbringing. Theyrespond to family history and tradition and especially devote their efforts to theeconomically disadvantaged. They are the least interested in individual attention andrecognition from non-profits, but simply want to continue the tradition of impacting lives incrisis.Percentages epayersDynastsFraction of .7n/a66.750.0Business Owners75.681.374.574.769.976.256.3College Educated45.685.784.179.190.390.893.7Government isinadequate92.986.771.991.755.492.2100Wealthy areobligated to Give10.71000010087.5100Give for PersonalBenefit78.6010010000100Carefully Evaluatenon-profits91.944.281.379.249.781.0100Use ProfessionalAdvisors51.412.510.320.005.061.5Want to beinvolved withdonations41.824.43.105.633.331.3Want realization ofmotivations83.995.687.591.795.242.981.3Value e: ‘The Seven Faces of Philanthropy,’ Prince, R. P. & File, K. M., 1994 by Jossey-BassThe above would indicate that philanthropy can mean many things but where did itoriginate?Philanthropy & the Arts

Philanthropy inthe United States

Philanthropy in the United StatesPhilanthropy was really defined in theUnited States. Andrew Carnegie (1889)4in his essay on wealth in 1889 stated:‘The man who dies richdies disgraced’America’s third generational wealth andlack of a strong public sector has lead tohuge philanthropic activity over the lastcentury. Many organisations survivewithout any state support on privatedonations alone. The endowments tosome of the larger universities aresubstantial and many museums andgalleries survive without any support fromthe state but purely on subscriptions anddonations. Foundations like theRockefeller Foundation and the FordFoundation distribute hundreds of millionsdollars every year based on theirendowment payout requirements. TheAmerican Foundations are however notwithout their critics. Joel Fleishman(2007)5 discusses that despite their hugeimpact on the American civic sector littleis known about how they operate. Staffare only accountable to trustees andtrustees are accountable to no one. In2007 by law they must spend around 35billion annually. This amount will steadilygrow and it will come with increased callsfor scrutiny and regulation. Philanthropicactivity in the Unites States is an industryin itself.Page 680% of US households donate moneyeach year to over 1.5 million charities,social welfare organisations and religiouscongregations. In the US 93% of theaffluent would increase giving if theyfound additional causes they feltpassionately about. 66% would give moreif they were better informed about givingoptions and the effectiveness of theircontributions and 85% would be anxiousto receive guidance from their advisor onphilanthropy (Pew Charitable Trusts2008)6.The non-profit sector worldwide is one ofthe fastest growing sectors. It engages40 million globally and spends 1.3 trillionannually, more than the GDP of all but sixcountries. The task in Ireland is toencourage givers to be more strategic,more focussed, more intentional, ratherthan responding to ad hoc requests. Inother words move from chequebookcharity to engaged philanthropy (Aikens2008)74Carnegie, Andrew. (1889) ‘Wealth’ North AmericanReview, Volume 148, Number 391, pp. 653-654.5Fleishman, Joel, L. (2007) ‘The Foundation A GreatAmerican Secret: How Private Wealth Is Changing TheWorld’, New York: Public Affairs, pp. 259-264.67www.pewcharitabletrusts.comAikens Kingsley (2008) ‘Connect’ The Ireland Funds.Philanthropy & the Arts

Philanthropy in the United StatesPage 7Contributions in 2006 295.02 billionFrom GIVING USA 2007By RecipientDeductions carried over andother unallocated giving 26.088.8%Gifts to Foundations 29.5010.0%Religion 96.8232.8%Environment and Animals 6.602.2%International Affairs 11.343.8%Arts, Culture, andHumanities 12.514.2%Public-Society Benefit 21.417.3%Health 20.226.9%Education 40.9813.9%Human Services 29.5610.0%Philanthropy & the Arts

Philanthropy in the United StatesPage 8Contributions in 2006 295.02 billionFrom GIVING USA 2007By SourceCorporations 12.724.3%Foundations 36.5012.4%Individuals 222.8975.6%Bequests 22.917.8%Philanthropy & the Arts

Philanthropy in the United StatesPage 9The tables below demonstrate the level of philanthropic contributions in the United Statesto Universities and colleges and to health organisations.Colleges and UniversitiesThe Philanthropy 400The Chronicle of PhilanthropyPrivate SupportTotal IncomeTotal ExpensesStanford University (Calif.) 911,163,132 4,569,584,963 2,875,794,707Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass.) 594,941,000 6,289,987,461 3,035,950,598Yale University (New Haven, Conn.) 433,461,932 3,306,303,037 2,040,950,653University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) 409,494,598 4,104,947,447 3,258,390,447Cornell University (Ithaca, N.Y.) 406,229,000n/an/aUniversity of Southern California (Los Angeles) 405,745,421 2,348,460,733 1,952,409,448The Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore) 377,336,025 3,250,451,000 3,080,532,000Columbia University (New York) 377,276,204 3,352,327,916 2,667,071,472Duke University (Durham, N.C.)University of Wisconsin at Madison 332,034,301 328,625,770University of California at Los Angeles 319,580,552University of Washington (Seattle) 316,251,912New York University 279,918,813University of Minnesota (Minneapolis) 266,991,894Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.) 253,401,792University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) 251,476,551n/an/a 2,323,188,810 2,015,982,440n/an/an/an/a 2,777,721,13 2,464,450,690n/an/a 1,937,629,002n/a 1,409,208,280n/aUniversity of California at Berkeley 245,966,241University of Chicago 237,117,399 1,979,245,369n/a 1,633,540,018n/aUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 236,579,182 2,025,215,594 1,313,915,280Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge) 235,550,000 2,937,282,000 2,347,184,000University of Virginia (Charlottesville) 216,353,292 1,547,194,000 1,807,858,000Ohio State University (Columbus) 210,012,248 69,391,920 40,049,485Princeton University (N.J.) 207,012,898 2,453,681,000 1,114,006,000Tufts University (Medford, Mass.) 204,844,078 747,098,344 596,216,820University of California at San Francisco 201,206,363n/a 123,921,923University of California at San Diego (La Jolla) 186,185,745 2,262,386,286 1,966,968,456University of Illinois (Urbana) 180,262,095 3,953,408,000 3,781,555,000University of Notre Dame (Ind.) 179,859,540University of Texas at Austin 176,497,498Purdue University (West Lafayette, Ind.) 173,910,932Pennsylvania State University (University Park) 161,379,763University of Florida (Gainesville) 161,276,756 279,834,277 95,383,262Dartmouth College (Hanover, N.H.) 159,912,000 964,441,271 712,144,172University of Miami (Coral Gables, Fla.) 158,454,647 1,671,435,717 1,491,065,548Arizona State University at Tempe 148,755,364 169,812,984 74,245,028Texas A&M University (College Station) 145,841,551n/an/an/an/a 1,547,299,000n/an/a 1,398,399,000n/an/aPhilanthropy & the Arts

Philanthropy in the United StatesPage 10Health OrganizationsThe Philanthropy 400The Chronicle of PhilanthropyPrivate SupportTotal IncomeTotal ExpenseAmerican Cancer Society (Atlanta) 969,287,000 1,037,680,000 963,532,000American Heart Association (Dallas) 445,479,279 576,994,459Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (White Plains, N.Y.) 223,410,134 229,980,603 225,648,981National Multiple Sclerosis Society (New York) 217,874,316 219,948,644 218,111,278March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation (White Plains, N.Y.) 213,613,411 236,105,854 224,717,103Muscular Dystrophy Association (Tucson) 182,562,101 199,760,812 175,129,833Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International (New York) 181,164,000 193,208,000 196,191,202Make-A-Wish Foundation (Phoenix) 171,073,456 180,100,769 167,061,805Alzheimer’s Association (Chicago) 167,235,000 205,626,000 187,784,000American Diabetes Association (Alexandria, Va.) 165,075,618 213,715,611 219,030,381Susan G. Komen for the Cure (Dallas) 156,437,315 207,528,723 189,871,257Easter Seals (Chicago) 150,698,000 892,254,920 871,628,898Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (Bethesda, Md.) 133,946,072 226,355,813 195,908,827National Cancer Coalition (Raleigh, N.C.) 119,656,895 119,808,886 119,440,343American Lung Association (New York) 119,420,723 149,532,957 166,237,633Arthritis Foundation (Atlanta) 110,692,014 136,701,324 119,180,974589,088,458American Kidney Fund (Rockville, Md.) 89,733,358 91,905,738 92,236,776Health Research (Rensselaer, N.Y.) 77,398,065 496,444,529 496,355,615Help Hospitalized Veterans (Winchester, Calif.) 70,512,250 71,272,872 69,321,047Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) 68,689,169 79,110,565 57,850,387Stanley Medical Research Institute (Bethesda, Md.) 68,140,050 75,312,751 38,971,279Planned Parenthood Federation of America (New York) 56,985,488 62,584,980 67,353,070United Cerebral Palsy (Washington) 54,754,788 588,369,343 568,047,687It can be seen from the tables above thatmany of these organisations have nopublic funding and rely on self generatedincome or philanthropic donations alone.There is no doubt that philanthropydeveloped in the United States as a directresult of limited public sector funding.Similar organisations in Ireland would bereliant on state funding.There is also the evolvement of VenturePhilanthropy first defined in the UnitedStates by Letts Ryan Grossman (1997)8.It applies a more strategic and proactiveapproach to philanthropic giving but hasbeen criticised in some quarters as overinterference in the operational aspects ofnon-profit organisations. It is a growingmovement in Europe where the mantlehas been taken on by private equityhouses who are adapting traditional8Letts, C. Ryan, W. Grossman, A. (1997), ‘VirtuousCapital: What Foundations Can Learn from VentureCapitalists’, Harvard Business Review; Mar/Apr 97 Vol.75Issue 2, p36-44.Philanthropy & the Arts

Philanthropy in the United StatesPage 11investment management processes tophilanthropic giving (EVPA 2007)9. Ageneric diagram describing VenturePhilanthropy is included in Appendix III.In the book The New Philanthropists: TheNew Generosity (2006)Charles Handy and his wifeElizabeth, a portraitphotographer, compiledresearch, interviews, andphotographs of twenty-threeentrepreneurial pioneers whohave all used their skills andwealth to make a difference inthe world. He profiles eachperson carefully and describeshow new charitable projectscame into creation by thesewealthy professionals. Handydescribes this new generationof philanthropists as “catalyticphilanthropists” and “socialentrepreneurs” who encourageother successful people tofollow their example.These “New Philanthropists”are people who “aren’tsatisfied by writing cheques toworthy causes” but wouldrather be in the “driving seat”.They fit a new mould becausethey use their businessacumen to start new charitiesand target their moneydirectly to personal causes. Inthe introduction Handyemphasizes the three P’s thatall twenty-three individualsshare: “Passion, Permanence,and Partnership”. Collectivelythe contributions of thesegenerous philanthropists havechanged the face ofphilanthropy across the world.Below is a selection of those discussed inthe book.9European Venture Philanthropy Directory 2007/2008Philanthropy & the Arts

Philanthropy in the United States1.Page 12Tony AdamsTony Adams is a former English football player who played for the Arsenal and Englandteams. After admitting to the public that he was an alcoholic he entered recoveryprograms such as Alcoholics Anonymous to battle his illness. He openly wrote about hisexperiences in his autobiography Addicted. With the proceeds of 60,000 and hisexperience with alcohol and drug addictions he founded the Sporting Chance Clinic, a smallcharitable foundation that provides treatment and counselling for athletes suffering fromaddictions. The foundation prides itself on the fact that it charges people based on whatthey can afford and to this day has “never turned anyone away” according to Adams. Hecontinued with his devotion to football by pursuing a research degree at Brunel Universityon youth development in football which he used to become the manager of WycombeWanderers, a poorly managed performing club. Despite many setbacks Tony focused onhis love of football and reinvented himself in order to improve conditions for others.2.David ChartersDavid Charters began his career at Deutsche bank after graduating from CambridgeUniversity. As a result of his successful job on the trading floor he acquired a lot ofmaterial wealth, but was not satisfied with the way he prioritised things in his life, oftenneglecting his unique special interests and his family. He set out to change his life aroundand others in similar situations by establishing the Beacon Fellowship Charitable Trustwithin the United Kingdom to improve the culture of charitable giving. The fellowshipshowcases and praises best practice in philanthropy by rewarding various philanthropistsand social entrepreneurs. David contributed over 300,000 of his personal income tolaunch the initiative. He was inspired to help the culture of giving and said that “in Britaincharitable work is regarded as worthy but you keep quiet about it. That is a pity becausesome of the best ideas come from individuals no one hears about.” By providing moreshining examples to the public, Beacon Fellowship aims to encourage others to give moneyand time to organizations. He later became a magistrate and a trustee for the Action forBlind People, satisfying the “altruistic urge” he says exists in all of us.3.Tony FalkensteinTony Falkenstein, who describes himself as a “go-giver” rather than a “go-getter,” firmlybelieves in treating shareholders with respect and giving all employees their fair share inthe company. He was born to German parents in New Zealand and received a Commercedegree at Auckland University. After working for Polaroid and the IceCapades he launchedhis entrepreneurial career by starting Just Water International. He is also the chairman ofNew Zealand’s first business high school, Onehunga High Business School. He alsodonated shares to the University of Auckland Business School and to the Unitec School ofManagement and Entrepreneurship, as he is passionate about business education being thekey to economic prosperity in New Zealand. He has lobbied with the government to makebusiness education part of the national curriculum, which has influenced the EducationMinister’s plans for the future.Philanthropy & the Arts

Philanthropy in the United States4.Page 13Jeff GambinAfter living a privileged childhood in India, Jeff Gambin went on to study at CambridgeUniversity to specialize in entomology while also qualifying as a chef and a pilot. He thentook his father’s advice and moved to Australia where he worked as a pilot and openedIndian restaurants. His life changed one cold night when he sat in the park and a homelessman kindly offered his blanket to him. This act of selflessness from a man in such destituteconditions inspired Jeff and his wife Alina to volunteer their time and help break the cycleof poverty and addiction. They created Just Enough Faith Foundation, a charity thatprepares over 400 meals a night for the homeless in Sydney. Jeff not only cooks the foodhimself but pays for most of the costs. He also runs a farm with the assistance ofvolunteers and a few of the homeless to help develop their potential. In 2000 Jeff wasawarded the Australian Humanitarian of the Year Award for his dedication and inspirationfor others to also volunteer their time.5.Tom HunterTom Hunter came from a humble background working at his father’s grocery store in amining village in Scotland. He noticed that training shoes were a popular item at hisfather’s store and decided to capitalize on this business opportunity by opening a store tosell shoes. His store was named Sports Division and later branched out to include sportsclothing and other athletic items. Sports Division became so successful that it bought outthe leading sports store, Olympus Sport, and was later sold for 260 million. Although hedid not anticipate selling the store, Tom used this money to develop the Clinton-HunterDevelopment Initiative. He saw a problem with the education system in Scotland whereschools continued to focus on old nationalized industries that no longer functioned. Themission of the Hunter Foundation is “to effect long-term cultural change to deliver a ‘cando’ attitude initially in Scotland via major investment in, largely, educational programmes”.Tom has used his money, contacts, and experience to contribute 35 million to Scottishinitiatives and to leverage 175 million of public and private sector investment. Tomcontinued to make money over the years by establishing West Coast Capital in 2001, aninvestment firm that deals with retail and property. He strongly believes in wealth creationand wealth management to benefit other people beyond himself and his family.6.Niall MellonNiall Mellon was born into a thrifty family in Ireland and was motivated at a young age tomake money. He started out as an excellent salesman, selling fire extinguishers door todoor. After working at a bank he then became an investment adviser at age eighteen andfinally a mortgage broker who reaped the benefits of the Celtic Tiger in Ireland with hisstakes in property. After buying a house in South Africa he was moved by the plight of thepoor people living in shacks in Cape Town and began with charity work to help improvetheir lives by providing them with more adequate homes. His charity, the Niall MellonTownship Trust, has built thousands of homes and has become the largest provider ofcharity housing in South Africa. From millionaire property developer to philanthropist,Niall’s efforts have inspired many to make a difference.Philanthropy & the Arts

Philanthropy in the United States7.Page 14Gordon RoddickGordon Roddick co-founded the Body Shop with his wife, Anita Roddick (d. Sep 1987), anddevoted considerable energy and assistance to disadvantageous people around the world.He was instrumental in helping the indigenous in Brazil, where the Body Shop extracts itsnut oil, by financing the Xingu Project to provide health care and education. With his wifehe also supported the Rainforest Foundation which helped give a voice to neglectedAmazon tribe communities. He also got involved with funding Belu, a socially benevolentand environmentally-responsible bottled water company. Gordon’s interest in socialbusiness is also evident in his work with Freeplay, developing a wind-up radio to helpcombat AIDS in Africa by providing media coverage in troubled areas, and with,an online network offering opportunities for ethical businesses and non-profit organizationsto grow in strength and influence. Gordon Roddick’s efforts have greatly impacted theworld in working towards a socially just future.8.Jeff SkollJeff Skoll is a Canadian born businessman who started the internet auction firm eBay withPierre Omidya, a fellow classmate from Stanford. Jeff was interested early on by authorssuch as Ayn Rand who wrote about battling the problems, dangers and injustices in theworld. After his father died from cancer he took his father’s advice and resolved to beproactive and achieve his big dreams. Jeff built eBay on principles of mutual trust and theidea that people are fundamentally good, his philosophy in life. With the wealth eBay gavehim, which he describes as “the means to enable my dreams,” Jeff became a philanthropistand started the independent movie production company called Participant Productions. Hismission in Hollywood was to make stories. He produces documentaries and large scalefilms that sought to “alert the prosperous and the influential to the problems of the world” .He also started his own foundation called the Skoll Foundation to support socialentrepreneurship by investing in social entrepreneurs and celebrating their work throughmedia projects. He has also advanced his message of social change through campaignssuch as “Get Clean” to promote clean energy and public responsibility to the environment.Other examples include Scotsman and entrepreneur Duncan Bannatyne who in June 2008said he would be giving his 380 million fortune to charity. Along with Bannatyne anotherBritish man financier Chris Hohn announced he would be giving 633 million to goodcauses. In June 2006 Warren Buffet said he would be giving 31 billion dollars of hisfortune to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Allen McClay of Northern Irelandpharmaceuticals giant Galen has donated almost 40 million to good causes. Many choseto remain anonymous. JP McManus is believed to have donated at least 60 million to hisJP McManus Charitable Foundation. The largest donation to the Carnegie Foundation lastyear was 38.5 million and the donor remained anonymous. Chuck Feeney has beeninvesting money in Ireland for at least two decades. Between 1992 and 2002 hisfoundation Atlantic Philanthropies gave away 702 million. In 2006 the Foundation gave 68.4 million to causes in the Republic of Ireland and 24.5 million to Northern Ireland. Ina rare note to the trustees of Atlantic he wrote ‘I believe people of substantial wealthpotentially create problems for future generations unless they themselves acceptresponsibility to use their wealth during their lifetime to help worthwhile causes’.Philanthropy & the Arts

History ofPhilanthropyin Ireland

History of Philanthropy in IrelandPage 15Philanthropy is considered a new andgrowing phenomenon in Ireland today. Itis becoming a major contributor to theimprovement of key aspects of societyand much has been written about thesubject of late. The publication of ConorO’ Cleary’s book on Chuck Feeney (2007)has heightened public awareness as wasits aim. The book on the life andaspirations of a self-made billionaire givesa unique insight into the mind of arguablyone of the worlds greatest livingphilanthropists. In an effort to highlightthe area he spoke on radio for the firsttime in February 2008. He has and istruly embracing theStevens and his sister Grizel (1720), theRotunda from Dr Mosse and St Patrick’sHospital for ‘fools, madmen and idiots’from the endowment of the writer andcleric Dean Jonathan Swift. Governanceof these bodies was entrusted to trusteesknown to the bequeathers, though in thecase of Dr Steevens’ hospital this brokedown and new trustees drawn from thegreat and good in the city were appointedby Act of the Irish Parliament in CollegeGreen.“Giving while living concept”All the Protestant parishes had primaryschools and 45 Catholic primary schoolswere recorded in 1730 (Fagan 1986).From 1810, the first 200 primary and latersecondary schools called English Schoolswere established by the Erasmus SmithTrust, which was funded by thebenefactor’s trust, landlords and the localcommunity.His total donations worldwide since 1982stand at something close to 2.6 billion.Recently, there have been two editorialcolumns in the Irish Times10 dedicated tothe subject of philanthropy commentingon the need to develop a philanthropicculture. Bill Clintons’ book ‘Giving: HowEach of Us Can Change the World’discusses that there are many thousandsof people doing good things in the worldand many more supporting themfinancially.It is interesting to read (Acheson HarveyKearney Williamson 2004)11 thatorganised philanthropic activity was firstevident in Ireland in Medicine andEducation. Ten Hospitals were foundedfrom 1718 - 1760 as the result ofendowments or gifts from individuals: forexample, Mercer’s Hospital from MaryMercer, Dr Steevens’ Hospital from Dr10Irish Times August 31st , September 21st 2007Acheson, N. Harvey, B. Kearney, J. Williamson, A.(2004) ‘Two Paths One Purpose; Voluntary Action inIreland North and South: A report to The Royal IrishAcademy’s Third Sector research Program’, Institute OfPublic Administration.11Education in the eighteenth century wasprovided by a mixture of parish primaryschools and by private enterprise forsecondary schools, often being namedafter their founder.‘Voluntarism’, was also prevalent wherebymiddle class women in 19th centuryIreland were able to discharge what theysaw as their religious and moral duty tosociety. Luddy, 1995, first described thisin detail. They were able to use theirconsiderable influence to shape theprovision and direction of philanthropicenterprise and guide it into the areas theyconsidered to be of most importance.Luddy suggests that the reformisttradition in Irish Philanthropy owed itsexistence principally to Quaker andNonconformist women and these womenworked with men in societies such as theDublin Aid Committee (later to becomethe National Society for the Prevention ofCruelty to Children) and the PhilanthropicReform Association. A principal aim ofthese societies was to lobby the state tolegislate for improvements in theconditions in workhouses and forPhilanthropy & the Arts

History of Philanthropy in Irelandincreased protection of children. It isparticularly notable that Quaker womenhad a highly developed sense of individualresponsibility and benefited from theegalitarian ethos of the Quaker tradition.This led them to play a major role inphilanthropy and social refor

Seven Faces of Philanthropy provide a framework for understanding major donors and for understanding that philanthropy can take many forms. The Seven Faces of Philanthropy Source: ‘The Seven Faces of Philanthropy,’ Prince, R. P. & File, K. M., 1994 by Jossey-Bass Understanding don

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