TEACHER'S GUIDE Pathfinder Vol. 16 No. 6

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TEACHER'S GUIDEPathfinderVol. 16 No. 6In This GuideThis guide contains languagearts and science lessons forarticles in this issue of ExplorerPathfinder.Explorer MagazineExplorer classroom magazinesare specifically written foreach grade, 2-5. Throughgreat storytelling and stunningphotographs, the Explorermagazines develop literacyskills and teach standardsbased science content.The Explorer magazines striveto offer a variety of readingexperiences for students withdifferent ability levels in thesame class. Thus, all articleshave been measured using theLexile Framework for Reading.Some articles will be easier toread than others, but all articlesin Explorer Pathfinder will bewithin the 450-850L range.Explorer is part of NationalGeographic Explorer's Educationprogram. For more resources,visit the "For Teachers" tab onExplorer's website, natgeo.org/explorermag-resources.Your Subscription Includes: Magazines Classroom Posters P rojectable Magazine Interactive Whiteboard Lesson Teacher’s Guide App (additional subscription required)National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 1Vol. 16 No. 6

ExplorerQuest for the QuetzalLANGUAGE ARTS640LObjectivesREAD Students will predict definitions and then writesentences to better understand unfamiliar words. Students will explain how the writer uses reasonsand evidence to support key points in the text. Students will use what they learned to write anopinion piece stating their views on why peopleshould work together to help the quetzal.Write the words reasons and evidence on the board.Then ask: What's the difference between these twowords? Invite students to share their ideas. Guidethe class to understand that a reason tells whysomething happened. Evidence shows how.Resources Vocabulary Assessment Master (page 6) Language Arts Assessment Master (page 7)Summary The article “Quest for the Quetzal” introducesreaders to the resplendent quetzal, a beautiful birdonce revered by ancient civilizations. Now, the birdstruggles to survive in a changing world.BUILD VOCABULARY AND CONCEPTS Aztec culture fragmentation MayanGive each student a copy of the VocabularyAssessment Master. Point out to students that theymay have heard some or all of these words before.Tell students that valid reasons and solid evidenceare crucial elements of any text. Writers use them tosupport key points on the topic.Display pages 2-3 of the projectable magazine.Instruct students to examine the images of thequetzal. Then invite a volunteer to read aloud theheadline and text. Say: Sometimes when you read anarticle, you have to get a paragraph or two into the textbefore you can identify the key point the writer is tryingto make. Not here. In this article, the writer has statedhis main point loud and clear in the headline: CentralAmerica's most beautiful bird needs our help. As aclass, brainstorm ideas about why the quetzal mightneed help.Give each student a copy of the Language ArtsAssessment Master. Instruct students to record thewriter's main point. Have students read the articleon their own. As students read, encourage them tosearch for reasons and evidence that support thewriter's main point. Instruct them to record whatthey find on the top half of their worksheets.Using that background knowledge as a base,instruct students to predict and write a definition foreach word. Then have them write a sentence usingeach word, based on the definitions they wrote.Display the Wordwise feature on page 8 of theprojectable magazine. Review the definitions as aclass. Have students add these definitions to theirworksheets. Instruct them to write new sentences,using each word as it is defined in the article.Invite volunteers to read aloud the before andafter sentences they wrote for each word. As aclass, examine how new knowledge contributed tostudents' understanding of each word.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 2Vol. 16 No. 6

ExplorerQuest for the QuetzalLANGUAGE ARTSTURN AND TALKWRITE AND ASSESSHave students turn and talk to discuss what theylearned about quetzals. Ask: What do quetzals looklike? (Their necks, backs, and wings have a metallicgreen sheen. Golden-green feathers on their headsform a bristly crest. The feathers on their chestsare bright red. Males have two long tail feathers.)Where do quetzals live? (throughout Central America)Why do quetzals need help? (There are many threats,but the most serious one is loss of habitat.) Invitestudents to share what else they learned aboutquetzals.You may want students to write about what theylearned to assess understanding. Encouragestudents to reflect upon what they read and how itaffected their ideas about the topic. W hy does the writer call the quetzal CentralAmerica's most beautiful bird? W hat is the quetzal's important in Central Americanculture? W hat surprised you about what you read? Predicting Definitions Have students turn andtalk to discuss what they learned about the fourvocabulary words. Encourage them to compare theirresults in small groups. Instruct students to discusshow examining the information they collectedimpacted their understanding of each term. Writing Opinions Remind students that the writerstated that the quetzal needs our help. Guidestudents as they discuss the following question:How can people help quetzals? Then have studentswrite a brief essay expressing their opinions.Instruct students to introduce the topic clearly andstate their opinions in an organized way. Encouragethem to use the reasons and evidence they foundin the article to support their views. Tell studentsto begin writing on the front of their Language ArtsAssessment Masters and finish on the back.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 3Vol. 16 No. 6

ExplorerQuest for the QuetzalSCIENCEObjectives Students will examine the structure and functionof the quetzal's body parts. Students will recognize how changing habitatsaffect quetzals.Resources Content Assessment Master (page 8) Comprehension Check (page 9)Science BackgroundThe resplendent quetzal—one of the fivequetzal species—is a colorful bird found in themountainous tropical forests of Central America.Many people consider it to be one of the mostbeautiful birds in the world.The quetzal has metallic green feathers on itsneck, back, and wings. And its chest feathersare bright red. But the tail feathers on the maleare what really make this bird stand out. Duringmating season, mature males can grow tailfeathers that are up to a meter long.The quetzal's beauty has not been lost on people.For thousands of years, the quetzal has held anhonored place in Central American culture. Longago, it was an important part of both Aztec andMayan cultures. Today, it is the national bird ofGuatemala.ENGAGETap Prior KnowledgeInstruct students to each think of a bird. Invitevolunteers to describe the birds they are thinkingof. Compare and contrast the results. As a class,discuss how all of the birds are alike. Challengestudents to identify interesting ways that the birdsare different.EXPLOREPreview the LessonDisplay pages 2-3 of the projectable magazine. Invitevolunteers to describe the bird they see. Ask: Howis this bird different from other birds you've seen?(Students will most likely note the bird's bright bluecoloring and its very long tail feathers.) Read aloudthe headline. Point out the word quest. Say: A questis a search. You'd think that a bird that looks like thiswould be easy to find. Ask: Why do you think peoplehave to search to find it? Invite students to share theirideas. Tell students that they will learn more aboutthe bird and its plight as they read the article.Set a Purpose and ReadHave students read the article in order to examinethe structure and function of the quetzal's bodyparts and to understand how changes to a habitatcan affect quetzals.But the bird's beauty has also made it a target.Both hunters and collectors have preyed on thebird for its beautiful feathers.Today, the resplendent quetzal may be one of themost threatened birds of its kind. This is chieflybecause as people cut trees and clear land forlivestock and crops, the bird's natural habitat isdisappearing. Restoring habitats or connectingthose that still exist can help ensure the survivalof this beautiful species.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 4Vol. 16 No. 6

ExplorerQuest for the QuetzalSCIENCEEXPLAINELABORATEExamine the Quetzal's Body PartsDisplay page 4 of the projectable magazine.Invite volunteers to read aloud the section "1524,Guatemala." Then read aloud the first paragraph ofthe next section, "A Stunning Bird." Ask: Do you thinkthis is the real reason that quetzal's have red featherson their chests. (no) Why? (It's just a story.) Zoom inon the last paragraph of the section. Say: Quetzalshide their chests when they sense danger. So theymust be aware of the bright red feathers. Ask: Whatdo you think is the real purpose of these feathers?Invite students to share their ideas. Then displaypage 5 of the projectable magazine. Say: Every partof an animal's body has a function. These tail feathersdo, too. Ask: What is their function? (They help malebirds attract females.) Give each student a copy ofthe Content Assessment Master. Instruct studentsto draw a picture of a male quetzal and then tellhow they think a male's tail feathers help it attractfemales.Find Out MoreDisplay pages 6-7 of the projectable magazine. As aclass, review how quetzals have been celebrated inCentral American cultures throughout time. Dividethe class into small groups. Instruct groups toconduct research. Challenge them to find additionalexamples that show how quetzals are honored inCentral America.Recognize the Impact of Changing HabitatsDisplay pages 8-9 of the projectable magazine. Havestudents review the text in small groups. Rejoin as aclass and ask: What have people done to destroy thequetzal's habitat? (cut down trees and cleared land)Why is this a problem? (Areas where quetzals live areseparated from each other, making it hard for themto find food or mates.) What can people do to help?(Connect the habitats.) Discuss other things peoplecan do to help the quetzal survive.EVALUATEExtend Your Thinking About QuetzalsRemind students that the quetzal is legally protectedin Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panama.Even so, people do things that harm them every day.People cut trees and clear land. This destroys thequetzal's habitat. Some people hunt the birds fortheir feathers or as food. Others capture them tosell as pets. As a class, discuss the importance ofprotecting species like the quetzal. Guide students tounderstand that people's actions can have long-termconsequence on nature.Have students record their answers to theassessment questions in their science notebooks oron a separate sheet of paper. W hat is fragmentation and how does it harmquetzals? (Fragmentation is the division of large,continuous habitats into smaller, more isolatedplaces. It causes quetzal habitats to becomeseparated from each other. This makes it hard forthe birds to find food or mates.) W hich ancient cultures included the quetzal as animportant part of their cultures? (Aztec and Mayan) H ow long can a male quetzal's tail feathers grow? (upto a meter in length)If you wish, have students complete theComprehension Check to assess their knowledge ofconcepts mentioned in the article.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 5Vol. 16 No. 6

NameVOCABULARY ASSESSMENT: Quest for the QuetzalPage 6Use this organizer to study each vocabulary word in the rom theArticleSentenceNational Geographic Explorer, PathfinderVol. 16 No. 6Date 2017 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Teachers may copy this page to distribute to their students.

NameDateLANGUAGE ARTS ASSESSMENT: Quest for the QuetzalRecord the writer's main point. Record reasons and evidence that support that point.Main PointReasonsEvidenceNational Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 7 2017 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Teachers may copy this page to distribute to their students.How do you think people can help quetzals? Write about it.Use what you learned to support your opinion.Vol. 16 No. 6

NameCONTENT ASSESSMENT: Quest for the QuetzalPage 8WriteDateVol. 16 No. 6Draw a picture of a male quetzal. Tell how you think the male's tail feathers help it attract females.DrawNational Geographic Explorer, Pathfinder 2017 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Teachers may copy this page to distribute to their students.

NameDateCOMPREHENSION CHECK: Quest for the QuetzalRead each question. Fill in the circle next to the correct answer or write your responseon the lines.1.Where might you find a quetzal?A CanadaB HondurasC Argentina2.What do you know when you see a quetzal with long tail feathers?A It is very old.B It can't fly.C It is male.3.How does fragmentation affect quetzal habitats?B It splits them apart.C It rebuilds them.4.Which country named the quetzal as its national bird?A MexicoB PanamaC Guatemala5. Identify one way people harm quetzal habitats. Identify one way they help restore them.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 9Vol. 16 No. 6 2017 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Teachers may copy this page to distribute to their students.A It brings them together.

ExplorerOut on a LimbLANGUAGE ARTS670LObjectivesREAD Students will identify and explain connectionsbetween vocabulary words. Students will interpret and explain informationvisually, orally, and quantitatively to quicklyanswer questions about the text.Display pages 2-3 of the projectable magazine. Tellstudents to look at the photo. Say: When people read,they usually focus on the words. But photos can tellyou a lot, too. For example, when I look at this photo,I see a plant with a lot of limbs. If the photographerwas lying on the ground when this photo was taken,this could be a close-up image of a bush. But if youlook closely at the center of the photo, you'll find a cluethat tells you that isn't the case. There are people inthis photo—and they look really small. This plant isn'ta bush. It's a giant tree! Ask: What else can you learnby looking at the photo? Encourage students to sharetheir ideasResources Vocabulary Assessment Master (page 14) Language Arts Assessment Master (page 15)Summary The article “Out on a Limb" examines trees,exploring both the life cycle of trees and how treesuse photosynthesis to survive.BUILD VOCABULARY AND CONCEPTS carbon dioxide leaf oxygen photosynthesis root seedDisplay the Wordwise section on page 17 of theprojectable magazine. Invite volunteers to readaloud the words and their definitions. Encouragestudents to share what they know about each word.Give each student a copy of the VocabularyAssessment Master. Instruct students to recordeach word and its definition. Have them think abouthow the vocabulary words are related. Tell themto record five connections they see. For example:Roots, seeds, and leaves are all parts of plants.Inform students that the purpose of this articleis to teach them about trees. They will learn allabout a tree's life cycle as well as how trees usephotosynthesis to survive. Say: As you read, you'lllearn much about trees from the text. But you'll getinformation from photos, captions, diagrams, and otheritems in an article, too. That information can quicklyanswer some of the questions you have.Give each student a copy of the Language ArtsAssessment Master. Review the questions on theworksheet with the class. Then have students readthe article on their own. As they do, instruct themto record each answer and find four additional factsabout trees. Tell students to record where they foundeach answer or fact in the article.After reading the article, divide the class into smallgroups. Have students share the connections theypredicted before reading the article. Instruct themto reevaluate each connection based upon what theyhave learned. If necessary, have students rewritetheir ideas to more accurately reflect connectionsbetween different vocabulary words.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 10Vol. 16 No. 6

ExplorerOut on a LimbLANGUAGE ARTSTURN AND TALKWRITE AND ASSESSHave students turn and talk to discuss what theylearned about trees. Ask: How are evergreensdifferent from other trees? (Their leaves are greenneedles. Their seeds grow in cones.) How can youfigure out a tree's age? (Count the rings in its trunk.)Why would the article call plants "food factories?"(Plants make their own food.) Invite students toshare what else they learned about trees.You may want students to write about what theylearned to assess understanding. Encouragestudents to reflect upon what they read and how itaffected their ideas about the topic. W hich tree featured in the article did you like best?Why? H ow does a dead tree bring new life to a forest? Finding Connections Explain to students thatreading definitions tells people what words mean.But readers can get a more thorough understandingif they recognize how words are connected. Point outthat this is exactly what they did when they wrotesentences about the vocabulary words in the article.Instruct students to turn and share the sentencesthey wrote on their Vocabulary Assessment Masterswith a partner. Tell them to discuss similarities anddifferences in their sentences to get an even deeperunderstanding of the vocabulary words. W hat surprised you about what you read? Interpreting Information After reading the article,remind students that articles contain much morethan text. They often contain photos, diagrams,captions, and other text elements, too. These textelements usually highlight important points inthe text. Because of that, readers can often findanswers to questions more quickly if they studythe text elements on the page. Have studentsshare their Language Arts Assessment Mastersin small groups. Instruct students to compare theanswers they recorded for each question. If theiranswers differ, suggest that they revisit the text theyelements identified as sources and reevaluate theirresponses.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 11Vol. 16 No. 6

ExplorerOut on a LimbSCIENCEObjectives Students will identify the structure and function ofa tree's parts. Students will understand the process ofphotosynthesis. Students will recognize that trees are a verydiverse group of organisms.Resources Content Assessment Master (page 16) "Solar Powered!" poster (Teacher's Edition) "Tree Tales" poster (Teacher's Edition) Comprehension Check (page 17) Out on a Limb" Interactive Whiteboard (optional)Science BackgroundA tree is a type of plant with a woody stem. Asthe stem grows, it turns into a trunk. The trunkis covered with a protective layer of bark. Thisallows the tree to live for a long time.Most trees grow from seeds, and there aretwo main types of trees that produce seeds:gymnosperms and angiosperms. Gymnospermsgrow seeds inside cones. Angiosperms produceflowers. The flowers grow into fruits, which arefull of seeds.All trees have the same basic parts: roots,trunk, branches, bark, and leaves. Roots bringup water and nutrients from the soil. They alsoanchor the tree into the ground. Branches andthe trunk provide additional support. They alsocreate a network for the tree to transport waterand nutrients up from the roots. Bark providesprotection. And the leaves are where the treemakes its own food.ENGAGETap Prior KnowledgeWrite the word "tree" on the board. Selectvolunteers, one student at a time, to say the firstword they think of when they see that word. Inviteanother volunteer to record each response. Afteryou've accumulated at least 10 responses, lead aclass discussion. Using the recorded words as abase, encourage students to expand upon their priorknowledge of trees.EXPLOREPreview the LessonDisplay pages 12 of the projectable magazine. Zoomin on the four images of the tree parts. Ask: Whattree part or parts do you see in each photo? (leaf andseed, branches and trunk, bark, roots) Do all treeshave these parts? (yes) Do the parts look the sameon every single tree? (no) Why? (There are manydifferent kinds of trees. The parts on each kind oftree look different.) Tell students that they'll learnmore about what tree parts look like and what theydo as they read the article.Set a Purpose and ReadHave students read the article to identify thestructure and function of a tree's parts, understandthe process of photosynthesis, and recognize thattrees are a very diverse group of organisms.The process in which a tree or other plantmakes food is called photosynthesis. Duringphotosynthesis, the leaves use the energy fromsunlight to combine water and carbon dioxide.This reaction creates sugar and oxygen. Thesugar provides energy so the tree can live.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 12Vol. 16 No. 6

ExplorerOut on a LimbSCIENCEEXPLAINELABORATEIdentify Structure and FunctionDisplay page 12 of the projectable magazine. Zoomin on the introduction. Invite a volunteer to readaloud the second paragraph. Ask: What tree partsare named in this paragraph? (roots, leaves, bark,branches, trunks) As a class, match each part to thecorrect photo below the text. Discuss the structureof each part and what each part does to help the treesurvive. Say: This paragraph names several tree parts.And it gives a quick summary of what each part does.But it doesn't tell you everything there is to know aboutthese parts. In small groups, have students reviewthe article to find additional information about thestructure and function of each plant part.Find Out MoreDisplay pages 16-17 of the projectable magazine.Point out to students that the trees shown here arejust three examples of trees with unusual parts.Divide the class into small groups. Instruct groups toconduct research to identify more trees with unusualparts. Challenge students to find photos and writecaptions describing the unusual parts of each treethey find.Understand PhotosynthesisDisplay page 12 of the projectable magazine. Zoomin on the diagram. Discuss what happens during theprocess of photosynthesis. Then display the "SolarPowered!" poster. Invite volunteers to read aloudthe information in the box as you review the diagramon the poster. Ask: What did you see in the diagramin the article that you don't see on the poster? (Thediagram shows that water enters the leaf and sugarexits the leaf. The poster does not.) What did youlearn on the poster that wasn't shown in the article?(Chlorophyll is a pigment that traps sunlight; Thereare small holes in leaves; Roots take in water fromthe soil; When carbon dioxide and water combine,using energy from the sun, a reaction takes place;Sugar is the plant's food.) Give each student a copyof the Content Assessment Master. Challengestudents to create their own original diagrams toillustrate the process of photosynthesis.Recognize Diversity in TreesDisplay the "Tree Tales" poster. Invite studentsto read aloud the blocks of text. Discuss how theparts of each tree are unusual. Review the articleas a class. Invite volunteers to identify and describeother trees with unusual parts. Discuss reasons whyall trees are alike but also different. (They have thesame parts. The parts have different structures andfunctions.)National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderExtend Your Thinking About TreesDisplay page 15 of the projectable magazine. As aclass, discuss reasons why location and availabilityof sunlight, water, and nutritious soil would becritical for trees to grow this big. Discuss the impacta changing climate could have on the trees.EVALUATEHave students record their answers to theassessment questions in their science notebooks oron a separate sheet of paper. W hat is oxygen? (a gas in the air that humans andanimals need to breathe) Where does oxygen come from? (It is released fromleaves as they conduct photosynthesis.) W hat else happens during photosynthesis? (Leavestake in water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight. Theyproduce sugar and oxygen.)If you wish, have students complete theComprehension Check to assess their knowledgeof concepts mentioned in the article. You may alsowish to examine the optional Interactive Whiteboardlesson that accompanies this article.Page 13Vol. 16 No. 6

NameDateVOCABULARY ASSESSMENT: Out on a LimbRecord each vocabulary word and its definition.Definition 2017 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Teachers may copy this page to distribute to their students.WordWrite five sentences to tell how different words are connected.1.2.3.4.5.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 14Vol. 16 No. 6

NameDateLANGUAGE ARTS ASSESSMENT: Out on a LimbAnswer each question about trees. Record where you found the information in the article.AnswerSourceWhathappensduring the lifecycle of anevergreen?What is anurse log?List fourother factsyou learnedabout trees.1.1.2.2.3.3.4.4.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 15 2017 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Teachers may copy this page to distribute to their students.Why isthe sunimportant totrees?Vol. 16 No. 6

NameDateCONTENT ASSESSMENT: Out on a Limb 2017 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Teachers may copy this page to distribute to their students.Create an original diagram that shows the process of photosynthesis.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 16Vol. 16 No. 6

NameDateCOMPREHENSION CHECK: Out on a LimbRead each question. Fill in the circle next to the correct answer or write yourresponse on the lines.1.Where do leaves get the water they use during photosynthesis?A The leaves absorb rain.B Roots pull up water from the soil.C The plant makes water in its trunk.2.Which tree part can grow hundreds of meters tall?A a leafB a seedC a trunk3.What do chloroplasts absorb?A sunlight 2017 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Teachers may copy this page to distribute to their students.B sugarC oxygen4.Where are chloroplasts located?A in leavesB in rootsC in trunks5. Explain how plants make their own food.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderPage 17Vol. 16 No. 6

ExplorerSigns of Life?LANGUAGE ARTS610LObjectivesREAD Students will assess their familiarity with andknowledge of vocabulary words. Students will use a variety of techniques tostrengthen their understanding of content-relatedacademic terms.Inform students that in this article, they will trekthrough the wilds of west Africa with NationalGeographic Young Explorer Joe Cutler. Cutler isexploring crater lakes in Cameroon. He is searchingfor new species of fish. Point out that in order tounderstand the details of Cutler's work, readersmust understand certain scientific terms.Resources Vocabulary Assessment Master (page 22) Language Arts Assessment Master (page 23)Summary The article “Signs of Life?" introduces studentsto National Geographic Young Explorer Joe Cutler,who braves the wilds of west Africa in search of newspecies of fish.BUILD VOCABULARY AND CONCEPTS aquatic invertebrate crater lake ichthyologist speciationAs a class, discuss the difference between familiarityand knowledge. Guide students to recognize thatthe more familiar you are with something, the moreknowledge you have. Challenge students to explainhow this concept applies to words when they read.Display the vocabulary words on a word wall or onthe whiteboard. Give each student a copy of theVocabulary Assessment Master. Instruct studentsto write each word on their papers. Review thecategories under the header “Familiarity withthe Word.” Tell students to make a checkmark toindicate how well they know each word.Instruct students to write what they think eachword means on their worksheets. Then display theWordwise feature on page 22 of the projectablemagazine. Have students write those definitionson their worksheets and compare them with thedefinitions they wrote.National Geographic Explorer, PathfinderGive each student a copy of the Language ArtsAssessment Master. Tell students that they will usethis worksheet to explore words in four differentways: writing definitions, identifying parts of speech,recording facts, and making connections betweenvocabulary words.Display the Wordwise feature on pages 22-23 of theprojectable magazine. Highlight the word aquaticinvertebrate. Instruct students to write the wordaquatic invertebrate in the center box on one of theirword diagrams. Then have them record its definition.Instruct students to scan the article to locate thebold term aquatic invertebrate in the text. (page 23,column 2) Highlight the word on the screen.Model how to explore the word's meaning. Say:Identifying the part of speech for this vocabulary wordmight seem confusing because it contains two words.But if you look at the definition, it's pretty easy tofigure out. The definition says an aquatic invertebrateis a type of small animal. An animal is a thing, and Iknow that all things are classified as nouns. Instructstudents to write noun in the "Part of Speech"section of their diagrams.Invite a volunteer to read aloud the paragraphin which aquatic invertebrate appears. Point outthat the paragraph reveals two important facts: 1)There are thousands of different kinds of aquaticinvertebrates and 2) They all live in water. Havestudents record these facts. Then have them readthe article on their own. Instruct them to explorethe remaining vocabulary words. Then challengestudents to use what they learned to make logicalconnections between the vocabulary words.Page 18Vol. 16 No. 6

ExplorerSigns of Life?LANGUAGE ARTSTURN AND TALKWRITE AND ASSESSHave students turn and talk to discuss what theylearned about Joe Cutler and his search for new fishspecies. Ask: Why did Cutler want to search for fishin the west African lakes? (Nobody had ever studiedmost of the lakes before.) Why did he expect to findnew species of fish? (Most of the lakes are co

In This Guide This guide contains language arts and science lessons for articles in this issue of ExplorEr pathfindEr. Explorer Magazine ExplorEr classroom magazines are specifically written for each grade, 2-5. Through great storytelling and stunning photographs, the ExplorEr magazines develop literacy skills and teach standards-based science .

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