Meeting Student Needs Through: Assessment, Teacher-led .

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Meeting Student Needs Through:Assessment,Teacher-led Flexible Group Instructon,And Literacy Activities

Today we will: Look beyond DIBELS9phonics survey Grouping based on assessment Flexible Grouping: what, why, how9Teacher-led small group reading instruction9 Literacy Activities

Data ThatDrives Instruction

Research“Data-driven decision-making can be defined asthe process of selecting, gathering and analyzingdata to address school improvement or studentachievement problems and challenges and actingon those findings.”Steifer, 2002, pg 8“Assessment data provides meaningful guidance inthe process of continuous improvement.”National Staff Development Council, 2001, pg 4

DIBELS2nd GradeWinterDataStudentScoreStatus#124At Risk#236At Risk#314At Risk#450At Risk#552Some Risk#660Some Risk#755Some Risk#866Some Risk#953Some Risk#1067Some Risk#1163Some Risk#1272Low Risk#13102Low Risk#1469Low Risk#15110Low Risk#1675Low Risk#1798Low Risk#1880Low RiskWinter BenchmarkStatusBenchmarkLow Risk 68 StrategicSome Risk 52-67IntensiveHigh Risk 0-51

Creating Instructional Groups

Why Phonics Surveys? Points to areas most beneficial in systematic,explicit phonics instructionShows deficits of skillAllows reinforcement of established skillsAllows for instruction in unconfirmed skillsDetermines when skill is masteredAllows for targeted instruction

Phonics Survey Assesses Pseudowords PhonicsPhonics related skillsSkills needed for beginning readingMade up wordsAssess decoding wordsPrevents sight word readingHelps determine instructional groupsMay be administered every 4-6 weeks

Bell Curve of Reading Performance with Major Performance Areas(Figure 1)Grade LevelSome RiskAdvancedHigh Risk20th40th 50th75thStandardized Reading Performance - Percentiles

Bell Curve of Reading Performance with Major Performance Areasand Borderline Performance Bands (Figure 2)Grade LevelSome RiskAdvancedHigh Risk20th40th 50th75thStandardized Reading Performance - Percentiles

Safety Net Tables

5Short V5CVC10Sh V,Diagr.10C BldsSh V20Long VSpellings10Ir VDiphthongs 10R/LContrV10M 20#12#13#14#15#16#17#18

CORE Phonics Screener Flexible GroupsLetter Names:UppercaseLetter Names:LowercaseConsonantSoundsLong VowelSoundsShort VowelsShort Vowelsin CVC WordsStudent NamesStudent NamesStudent NamesStudent NamesStudent NamesStudent Names#3#1#2#3#4#5#1#2#3#4#5#7#9CORE Phonics Screener Flexible GroupsShortVowels,Long VowelSpellingsVariantVowels andDiphthongsR- and nsonantBlends w/Short VowelsStudent NamesStudent NamesStudent NamesStudent NamesStudent NamesStudent #9#1#2#3#4#5#6#7#8#9,10,11#14

Meeting Student NeedsThrough Flexible GroupingManagementTeacher- Led Reading GroupsLiteracy Centers

Research tells us that FLEXIBLEGROUPING Is correlated with increased reading outcomes(Elbaum, Vaughn, Hughes, Moody & Schumm, 2000; National Reading Panel, 2000) Is for all ability levels from gifted students (Kingore, 2004)to learning disabled(Vaughn, Hughes, Moody & Elbaum, 2001)Has groupings formed and reformed “in response to theinstructional objectives and students’ needs”(Kingore,2004)Differentiated instruction benefits ALL students in the classroom,VITAL for the struggling readers.

Why is small flexible groupinstruction important?So the teacher can most effectively Monitor individual oral responsesandProvide immediate and specific feedbackTo help ALL students to achieve criticalobjectives and become successful readers

Flexible Small ReadingGroupsEffective small-group reading instructionincludes: Managing the classroomExtending learning in literacy-relatedcenters that provide appropriatereading and writing activitiesProviding supported (teacher-led)reading instruction

Most Frequently Asked QuestionsHow do Imanage morethan one groupat a time?What will otherstudents dowhile I teach asmall group?Group students based on assessmentand needs.Create a schedule and a managementsystemProvide opportunities for students towork in literacy-related centersContinually evaluate students’ progressand regularly regroup students

Remember .ManagingSmall Groups Includes .Teacher Preparation Classroom arrangementMaterials for groupsliteracy centersteacher led reading groupsRoutines Student Accountability Rules and proceduresIf you expect it, teach it!Cross-Classroom GroupingOrganizational System

(Teacher preparation)Classroom Arrangement Areas of instruction Whole or large group Large enough for all students to sit comfortably Small group area Table with room for materials Teacher can see the whole room Independent work or Work Stations Sufficient space to complete the assignments Allow room for transitions Organized so students can set up and clean upAdapted from Eastern Regional Reading First Technical Assistance Center, (2004). 90-minutes pluspresentation. Tallahassee: Florida State University.

Teacher PreparationMaterials for groups, Lesson plans determined by student needs, withnecessary materials to carry out the plans Appropriate literacy center activitiesactivities previously introduced - alignedwith the students’ instructional needs. Materials well organized and easily accessibleto students.

RoutinesRules and Procedures Rules 3-6 basic rules Model what following the rules looks like andsounds likeEstablish consequencesProcedures, procedures, procedures Model Practice Reinforce Adapted from Eastern Regional Reading First Technical Assistance Center, (2004). 90-minutes pluspresentation. Tallahassee: Florida State University.

Student accountabilityIf you expect it, teach it!!!!ConsistencyIndependent work

Cross classroom groupingInstructional Needs GroupsModel aily.daily.

Instructional Needs GroupsModel ents(3-5)(3-5)daily.daily.TeacherTeacher#2#2

Instructional Needs GroupsModel ks.

Ineffective Instructional NeedsGroups Model #4TCentersCenters termined intervals.intervals. chday.day. .differentiated.

Organizational SystemManagement Charts9 Organize children for small group work9 Inform children of group members and readingand writing activities9 Remind children of group assignments when notworking with the teacher9 Help teachers efficiently teach one small group ata time9 Can be easily changed to reflect new groupings(according to children’s progress and instructionalneeds)

Small Group Management nandoEmilyJakeListeningMorganHopeAlphabet Recognition

HeatherMattJoseRita(Activity Area)MiguelCarlosErik(Activity ivity Area)MorganEmily(Activity Area)

What is included in a small groupreading lesson? Extra needed practice on:9 Previously taught reading skills from other weeks (Engaging,fun)9 Reading skills and strategies from this week’s lessonTeacher-led instruction is focused on building skills that needimprovement. Ex. phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary,fluency, or comprehension.Instructional adaptations are made for individual children9amounts of instruction9intensity of instruction9practice on the five component DIBELS data and other assessments are used to group students andidentify which skills to emphasize for each group.

Planning for InstructionalNeeds Grouping What is the instructional objective for this group ofstudents? What materials are available to meet this objective? Is this the best way to meet the objective? Is what I’m planning explicit and systematic? Is this activity research-based? How does this fit with our schoolwide intervention plan? How will I make sure the instructional objective is met?

KindergartenTeacher Directed Explicit Phonics Lesson PA warm up Introduce or review sound/spelling (explicit) Blending (explicit) Decodable text DictationKindergarten Grade Teacher Instructed Flexible GroupsBenchmark- Review high frequency words. Read Decodables for fluencypractice.High Strategic-Preteach or reteach phonics lessons as needed andfluency practice with high frequency words and decodables.Strategic- Preteach phonics lesson and decodable.Reteach may also be needed as time allows.Intensive- Preteach phonics lesson and decodables.Practice high frequency words and decodables.Reteach during intervention time as needed.

First GradeTeacher Directed Explicit Phonics Lesson PA warm up Introduce or review sound/spelling (explicit) Blending (explicit) Decodable text DictationWord work (word sort, building words with tiles, etc.)First Grade Teacher Instructed Flexible GroupsBenchmark-Decodables and fluency practice. Useliterature leveled books.High Strategic-Preteach or reteach phonics lessons as needed,reading of decodables, and fluency practice.Strategic- Preteach phonics lesson and decodable.Reteach may also be needed as time allows.Intensive- Preteach phonics lesson and decodable.Reteach during intervention time as needed.

Planning for Instructional NeedsGrouping Planning Example Second Grade – Six studentsData: Strategic on DIBELS – OK on PhonicsInstructional Objective: FluencyOptions: Partner ReadingLeveled ReadersGrade Level (2.5)Individual Placement in Fluency Program/PassagesDecodable TextTime 30 minutes – small flexible group

General Guidelines for Flexible Groupings General Guidelines ChartLet’s take a look at Scott ForesmanGrade LevelTeacher DirectedSmall Group WorkEffective InstructionalTechniques:-Teach-Model-Guided Practice-Feedback-ApplyCritical Student PracticeActivities“Must Do”These activities are designed toreinforce and practice thefocus skill from teacherdirected grouping. Theyneed to be authentic,“perfect practice”opportunities. Using anaccountability piece isoften helpful.Independent PracticeActivities“May Do”These activities are designed toreinforce and practice thefocus skill from teacherdirected grouping. Theyneed to be authentic,“perfect practice”opportunities. Using anaccountability piece isoften helpful.

2nd GradeTeacher Directed Group: Phonics instruction based on phonics survey deficits. Use supporting decodable and templates. Preteach grade level lesson.GroupsStrategicMust DosMay DosMondayReread phonics reader, Paul and His Blue OxWrite : Write 3 sentences telling why or why notyou want the main character as your friend.Poems and shared readings, familiar bookboxes, high frequency phrases, highfrequency words, word building, vocabgames, appropriate computer software,motivational reading programsTuesdayPartner read phonics story from the anthology.Individually list the ue words from the story. Usethese words in sentences.Poems and shared readings, familiar bookboxes, high frequency phrases, highfrequency words, word building, vocabgames, appropriate computer software,motivational reading programsWednesdayReread the phonics reader to yourself then withyour partner.**vocabulary and high frequency word work.-(write vocabulary words on cards, read them toyour partner, play what’s my word, add them toyour vocab zip lock bag)-(write your high frequency words, practice themwith your partner, add them to your HFW zip lockbag)Poems and shared readings, familiar bookboxes, high frequency phrases, highfrequency words, word building, vocabgames, appropriate computer software,motivational reading programsThursdayReread anthology story (2nd story)Do an activity to support the phonics skill of theweek.Poems and shared readings, familiar bookboxes, high frequency phrases, highfrequency words, word building, vocabgames, appropriate computer software,motivational reading programsFridayReread anthology phonics story. Word workactivity.(Write pairs of rhyming words)Poems and shared readings, familiar bookboxes, high frequency phrases, highfrequency words, word building, vocabgames, appropriate computer software,motivational reading programs

ActivityWork withyour grade level partner to fill inthe chart for flexible routines.

Targeting Instruction DuringFlexible Groups ACTS FormFormal and Informal Data

Group: StrategicTeacher Directed Small GroupAssessMeasure:Students Identified:Focus Skill:Daily e and tStudent Practice:1. Reading connected textthat is directly connectedto focus skill taught2.

Group: StrategicTeacher Directed Small GroupAssessMeasure:Dibels-StrategicPhonics Survey- longvowel spellingsStudents Identified:JohnKurtEricaAmandaTannerFocus Skill: longvowel spellingsCompile and CreateMaterials:1. Long Vowel Sound Spelling Cards,Template # 7 (sound/spelling review)2. Word reading with sound/spellingfocus using Blending Routine Card orTemplate #8 (sound by soundblending).3. .DecodablesDecodable, Load the Boat (Decodable# 86), It Will Not Snow (Decodable#87) Rose Takes a Hike (Decodable#66)Routine Card for Reading DecodableText and/or Template # 1TeachContent:1st- oa, a e, i e, o e, ow,2nd- boat, cake, hike, load,snow, rose, moat, bake, bike,goat, ride, low, crow,3rd-Read sentences fromdecodable4th – Preteach WordKnowledge Board, OCRSupportStudent Practice:1. Reading connected textthat is directly connected tofocus skill taught2.Read and reread DecodableText Write beginning, middle,and end of story3. Word Work Activities, listsound/spelling words, practicereading with partner, partnerread sentences and OCR dayStruggled withreading sentencesand sight wordsSolidSolidStruggled withsound spelling o esolidTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFriday

What if some studentsstill don’t get it? Analyze,Intensify instruction,Continue to monitor.

Looking closer!!xxxxxxFor some students, no matter what . . . . . We need to evaluate and adjust!adjustNow what?

INTENSIFYING INSTRUCTION Grouping Changing instructional groups when studentsprogress/struggle Examples Changing an intervention group from 1:5 to1:3 Changing the location of intervention Changing instructor

INTENSIFYING INSTRUCTION Duration Changing time elements of intervention Beginning intervention in Aug not OctChanging the time of day for interventionIncreasing the frequency of interventionExtending interventionAllocating more time to phonics activities overphonemic awareness activities

INTENSIFYING INSTRUCTION Intensity Increase opportunities to respondStudents should be actively responding(orally, written) 7-10 times per minute Increase instructional pacing Increase intensity of student responses

HOW CAN THE INTENSITY BEINCREASED?Increase in es/No responseOral responsewith choicesPoint to correctanswerMultiple choiceresponseOral independentresponse(no choices)Written response

Remember As teachers, we must use ourassessment data to be informedabout our students knowledge.Thus, it is important that webecome proficient at analyzingthe data and adjusting ourinstruction to meet theindividual needs of our studentscontinually monitor progress.

Appropriate Activities The purpose of Literacy Center activities isto: Reinforce the core reading programExtend practice opportunitiesPractice and apply learned skillsBefore:Teach and model the activityProvide practice before independenceDuring:MonitorHold accountable for their workand behavior

Results How will I know the practice has been effective?3-pronged theory 1-Explicit Instruction-HAVE TO HAVE IT!2-Management-Critical or practice won’t happen3-Content-Has to be APPROPRIATE PRACTICEAll 3 things have to be in place in order foreffective/appropriate practice to occur.Explicit, clear and absolute in the beginning, but then graduallyteacher backs away and kids complete activitiesindependently.Use verbal clues and signals to help manage (develop and useconsistently with kids).Always Ask, Why Am I doing this and is it BEST for thischild?

Evidence Observed time on task Demonstration of skills in small group How much time on task am I seeing fromkids?Are they moving to more difficult skills? Arethey improving in skills and mastery becauseof the activities?Assessments Recording sheets, core program, DIBELSHigh Success and Happy Children

Acknowledgements:Kathryn Prater, Ph.D. Differentiating Reading Instruction for StudentsGrades K-3, Adapted from Differentiating Instruction: ReadingInstruction for Students, K-3 WV Reading Research SymposiumTexas Center for Reading and Language Arts, U of Texas at Austin,2nd Grade AcademyDebbie Hunsaker, Program Director, MT Reading FirstCourtney Peterson, Reading First SpecialistKathi Tiefenthaler, Reading First SpecialistNumerous workshops through US Dept of Education, Reading FirstConnie Colbaugh, Sopris West Consultant

Your Turn . Turn to your partner and review bydoing 30-15-5 activity

Student Names Student Names Student Names Student Names Student Names Student Names Multisyllabic Words R- and L-Controlled Vowels Variant Vowels and Diphthongs Long Vowel . Matt Rita Rhyme Computer Listening Alphabet Recognition. Tristan Fernando Emil

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