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Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingAdvertising Design&PrinciplesStudy Material for Students

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping4: Advertising Design & PrinciplesCAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN MEDIA WORLDMass communication, Advertising and Journalism is institutionalized and sourcespecific. It functions through well-organized professionals and has an everincreasing interlace. Mass media has a global availability and it has converted thewhole world in to a global village. A qualified journalism professional can take upa job of educating, entertaining, informing, persuading, interpreting, and guiding.Working in print media offers the opportunities to be a news reporter, newspresenter, an editor, a feature writer, a photojournalist, etc. Electronic media offersgreat opportunities of being a news reporter, news editor, newsreader, programmehost, interviewer, cameraman, producer, director, etc.Other titles of Mass Communication, Advertising and Journalism professionals arescript writer, copy writer, production assistant, technical director, floor manager,lighting director, scenic director, coordinator, creative director, advertiser, mediaplanner, media consultant, public relation officer, counselor, front office executive,event manager and others.2

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingdvertising Design & PrinciplesINTRODUCTIONThis book comprises of one unit. The unit of Advertising Designs & Principlesexplains the meaning and making of an Advertisement. This unit will also discussvarious layout steps in the making of an advertisement. Advertisements are there inevery sphere of life today, and therefore it is very essential to focus on itspresentation and layout in order to gain maximum benefit. The unit also enlists thevarious types and tips of advertisement deigns.The unit will also discuss the principles of a good layout in advertisement. Variousappeals of an advertisement are also discussed in the book. Further, the book willfocus on the regulation of advertisements in India and other countries and the roleof self-regulation in the Ad World.3

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingdvertising Design & PrinciplesINDEX204 Advertising Design & Principles1. Advertising Design;1.1Introduction1.2Appeals of an Advertisement1.3Making an Advertisement1.4Advertising Designs1.5Background of Making an Advertisement1.6Functions of layout1.7Layout Steps1.8Layout and Design1.9Type of Designs1.10Principles of Good Advertisement1.11Regulation of an Advertisement1.12Summary1.13Questions and Answers1.14Further Reading46-62

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping4: Advertising Design & PrinciplesSYLLABUSAdvertising Design & PrinciplesAdvertising Design;Meaning,Making of Advertisement,Background,Layout steps,Function of Layout,Design & Layout,Types of Design,Principles of a Good Layout,Appeal of an Advertisement,Principles of Good Advertisement,Regulations of an Advertisement.5

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping: Advertising Design & PrinciplesUNIT 1-ADVERTISING DESIGN & 1.191.201.211.221.231.24Unit ObjectivesIntroductionAppeals of an AdvertisementMaking an AdvertisementAdvertising DesignsBackground of Making an AdvertisementFunctions of layoutLayout StepsLayout and DesignType of DesignsPrinciples of Good AdvertisementRegulation of an AdvertisementSummaryQuestions and AnswersFurther Reading1.0 UNIT OBJECTIVES To understand the meaning and making of an AdvertisementTo know the significance of layout steps in Advertisement makingTo know the principles and steps of layout in AdvertisingTo understand the role of layout and design in AdvertisingTo discuss the appeals of an AdvertisementTo learn the principles of good AdvertisingTo understand the importance of Regulation of an Advertisement1.1 INTRODUCTION6

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingAdvertising Design & PrinciplesAdvertising is ‘The dissemination of information concerning an idea, service orproduct to compel action in accordance with the interest of the advertiser’.This definition tells us about advertising being a kind of communication about aproduct, service, or idea, and is being goal-oriented. However, it does not includemany important aspects of advertising.Thus, Advertising can be best defined as: ‘any paid for non-personalcommunication used with persuasive intent by identified sponsors thoughvarious media to promote goods, services and ideas, etc.’Today advertising is a part of our everyday life. It is all around us. We cannotescape looking at it or listening to it. Even if we are not consciously looking at it orlistening to it, the message of advertising reaches and influences us. It is oftenrecorded somewhere at the back of our minds and is recalled when we are buyingsomething or looking for a particular service.From morning to night, we are using advertised goods and services. We start themorning with a cup of tea or coffee, use toothpaste and toothbrush on our teeth, atbreakfast we have bread, butter, etc. our workplace is also full of machines,computers, etc which are the advertised goods.1.2 APPEALS OF AN ADVERTISEMENTAppeal, in advertisements, is anything that motivates a person to action. Humanbeings are called bundles of wants. A human being is a strange mix of hopes,ambitions, needs, interests, goals, etc. All these things work as motivating factors.These are also called motives. Various advertisements try to appeal to some ofthese manifold motives that force people to take action. An advertising appeal isnothing but a promise of a benefit the advertised product will provide to thebuyer. For example, the possible promises or appeals for a home appliance couldbe - comfort, convenience, economy of installation, economy, cleanliness,dependability and durability, safety, multiple operations, many varied features,trouble free operation and smart look.7

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping4: Advertising Design & PrinciplesAdvertising appeal refers to the basis or approach used in the advertisement toattract the attention or interest of consumers and/or to influence their feelingstoward the product, service, idea, or cause. Advertising appeals can be brokendown into two categories-informational/rational appeals hard sell andemotional appeals soft sell.Informational/Rational Appeals Hard SellThese appeals focus on the consumer’s practical or functional need for the productor service and emphasize features of a product or service and/or the benefits orreasons for using or owning a particular brand. Many rational motives can be usedas the basis for advertising appeals, including comfort, convenience, and economy.Emotional Appeals Soft SellThese appeals use an emotional message and are designed around an imageintended to touch the heart and create a response based on feelings and attitudes.Advertisers can use emotional appeals in many ways in their creative strategy.Humor and sex appeals, or other types of appeals that are very entertaining, upbeat,and/or exciting, affect the emotions of consumers and put them in a favorableframe of mind. Fear appeals can be equally dramatic in arousing emotions but havean opposite effect on the viewer’s frame of mind.Humor appeals: consumers have historically given high ratings to humorousadvertising. The advertisement attempts to persuade by invoking feelings of goodhumor and laughter. Often the ad takes the form of a cleverly worded or humorousslogan. The fallacy of Appeal to Humor exploits our natural response to bravelyspoken truth. The fallacy presumes that any view that can be expressed in a waythat elicits laughter must be true. However, we actually laugh for many reasons,only one of which is the recognition of the truth of the sentiment expressed. Wemay also laugh at a slogan because it is cleverly worded. We may laugh onlybecause everyone around us is laughing. We laugh at slapstick humor. Anargument mimics our response to bravely spoken truth when it gets us to laugh fora reason that is unrelated to our recognition of truth, yet seems to imply thatlaughter entails assent.Sex Appeals: the old adage ‘sex sells’ may not always be true. Many advertisersview sex appeal as one of the most effective marketing practices today. In theendless number of advertisements out there nowadays, ad agencies are desperate tohave their ads stand out. Several research studies have found that sex appeal in8

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping4: Advertising Design & Principlesadvertising is attention grabbing, likable, arousing, and memorable. Ads thatcontain sex appeal usually evoke positive feelings in the audience, such asexcitement and desire. Other studies state that sex appeal in advertising is alsoeffective in eliciting fantasy. While sex can be an effective tool in advertising, italso can be counterproductive.Many consumers become so focused on the use of sex in the ad that they ignore thebrand name, thus producing the opposite of the desired result. The extensive use ofsex appeal in ads also tends to stereotype women as well as distorting society's ideaof how women should look. Some advertising executives see the use of sex appealas "men's desperate attempt to make their advertising break through the clutter".Sex in advertisements tends to focus on women with their target audience beingmen, forgetting about the major consumer demographic women make up.Overall it is understandable why advertisers see sex appeal as being such aneffective tool. If used appropriately sex appeal draws attention to ads, makes themmemorable, and helps sell the product. If overdone, sex appeal can have the exactopposite effect. Not only can it distract the audience from the message of the ad butit can offend the audience as well. Depending on how sex appeal is used it can eithermake or break an advertisement.Fear appeals: The use of fear as a motivation in advertising places emphasis on theseverity of the threat. Fear appeals range in intensity from mild to severe. The fearbased messages should present a mild to moderate threat and provide a do-ablesolution. If the fear instilled is either too severe or not followed up with a reasonablesolution, the viewer will not be able to surmount his/her sense of dread and processthe advertising message. In a similar vein, negative ads ads in whi ch the viewer isexposed to annoying or unpleasant creative content can also be effective if thenegative technique is used to promote a product benefit. This situation is oftenreferred to as the "love that product, hate that ad". Fear appeals have been usedheavily in campaigns designed to combat drug addictions and other health-relatedproblemsCombination Appeals: these appeals combine informational/rational and emotionalappeals. In many advertising situations, the creative specialist does not choose anemotional over a rational appeal, but rather decides how to combine the two.Consumer purchase decisions are often made on the basis of both the emotional andrational motives, and copywriters must give attention to both elements in developingeffective advertising.9

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingAdvertising Design & PrinciplesThose who prefer straightforward, no-nonsense, factual advertisements like appealsthat deliver relevant facts in support of the product. They want presentations to beprofessional, but they do not believe it is important for the advertisements to beartistic. Others favor a creative, emotionally based approach. They believe thatadvertisements focusing heavily on information are likely to be ignored, and thatfocusing on emotion is more likely to create the desired response.CHECK YOUR PROGRESSQ1. What are the motives and appeals of an advertisement?Q2. What is soft sell appeal in advertising?1.3 MAKING AN ADVERTISEMENTAdvertising is both an art and a science. The art comes from writing, designing,and producing exciting messages. The science comes from strategic thinking andplanning, including research. The creative specialist or team must first deal withthe problem of coming up with a concept. Then the specialist or team must developa creative strategy, determine appropriate appeals, and select a styled of execution.The ad must then be cast into a print, television, radio, or other format. At thisstage, copywriters generally collaborate with artistic or production teams to createthe actual advertisements. From start to finish, the process of ad creationinvolves a multitude of decisions that require understanding of both theproduct and the consumer as well as knowledge of the various formats andmedia.Behind every good advertisement is a creative concept, a big idea that makes themessage distinctive, attention getting, memorable. Though great ideas may be hardto come by, but some advertising experts argue that for an advertising campaign tobe effective, it must contain a ‘big idea’ that attracts the consumer’s attention, getsa reaction, and sets the advertiser’s product or service apart from the competitors.However, several methods can guide the creative team’s search for a major sellingidea and offer alternative solutions or options for developing effective advertising.These methods include the ‘incubation’ technique, the process of lateralthinking, and the storytelling process.10

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingAdvertising Design & PrinciplesTechnique for Producing Ideas: it will basically involve the following:1. Gathering information: gather specific information, elements di rectly related tothe product or services and general information observed information about lifeand events. Then, digest this material and give it a mental work over.2. Incubate: next is the ‘incubation’ period, forget about it and let the subconsciousmind go to work, and eventually the idea will appear ‘out of nowhere’.3. Mull, develop, and adapt: finally, shape, develop, and adapt the idea toadvertising. The idea of consciously forgetting about the project and letting thesubconscious mull ideas over time is typical of the creative writing process.Insights may come from sub-conscious mind as mental pictures and images.Lateral Thinking: this process explores new relationships, breaking establishedthought patterns to generate new ideas and escape old ways of thinking. Sinceideas are turned upside-down and looked at in new ways, this concept is also calledout-of-the-box thinking.Storytelling: Advertising at its best is a form of storytelling. The most compellingadvertisements have all the components of a short story. They introducecharacters, identify tensions and problems, develop toward a conflict, and thenoffer a resolution that is usually provided by the product or service. Some of thebest television commercials could be called lyrical; they have the poetic quality ofcondensing legendary and mythic stories familiar to the target’s culture into spotsas brief as fifteen seconds. For instance, an award-winning Australian commercialfor Levi’s 501 jeans alludes, to both the myth of the American cowboy and thelegendary rebelliousness of the 1950s. With no dialogue, the spot uses the classicalrock single ‘be my baby’ as the musical backdrop for a sixty-second fantasy.Employing the familiar journey motif of American film, the commercial begins withan establishing shot of an isolated stretch of desert highway.To create effective advertisements, ad creators must be familiar with thetarget’s cultural interests, e.g. the music, books and magazines they enjoy; themovies they are likely to have seen; the problems that typically occupy theirminds. Familiarity with the classics and with various film genres allows creative toenvision memorable commercial spots. However, creatively the big Idea may beconceived, the ad must do more than resonate with the consumer. The consumer,who views the ad must be able to understand, among other things, the productbenefit and selling message.11

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping: Advertising Design & PrinciplesCreative strategyThe creative aspect of advertising is guided by specific goals and objectives thatrequire development of a creative strategy. A creative strategy focuses on what theadvertising message will say or communicate and guides the development of allmessages used in the advertising campaign. Some of the best-known approachesare: Unique selling-proposition approach: an advertiser makes a superiorityclaim based on a unique product attribute that represents a meaningful,distinctive consumer benefit. Many of the successful USPs, result fromidentifying real, inherent product advantages. Brand image approach: whereas USP approach is based on promotingphysical and functional differences between the advertisers product andcompetitive offerings, the brand-image approach popularized by DavidOgilvy, founder of the Ogilvy & Mather Agency, involves psychologicalrather than physical differentiation. Advertising attempts to develop animage identity for a brand by associating the product with symbols. Perhapsthe most successful image advertising of all times is the Marlborocampaign. The campaign has focused on western imagery cowboys, horses,ranching. Since the United States is said to have two major myths systems the Old West and the Old South- the cowboy is a strong and compellingimage. Positioning approach: the concept of positioning as Jack Trout introduceda basis for advertising strategy in the early 1970s. According to thisapproach, successful advertising must implant in the customer’s mind a clearmeaning of what the product is and how it compares to competitiveofferings. Generic brand approach: when you are the number one brand, your haveno need to acknowledge the competition or claim superiority. Such anapproach can be used only as long as a product or service truly doesdominate the brand category. Leo Burnett chose to use a generic approachfor Kellogg’s ‘Eat it for life’ campaign, a surprising but innovative choice. The resonance approach: this approach requires that the creative teamhave a deep understanding of the target audience’s world, including theirexperiences and emotions. Advertising created with this approach ‘does notfocus on product claims or brand images, but rather is designed to presentsituations or emotions that evoke positive associations from the memories ofthe respondents’. For example, Hallmark uses this approach in appealing to12

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingAdvertising Design & Principlesthe emotions of those who buy greeting cards with their familiar tagline’when you care enough to send the very best’.The copy platform, or creative brief, is the written document that specifies thebasic elements of the creative strategy. The format of the copy platform variesfrom agency to agency, but it generally contains some variations of the following:a profile of the target audience, the problem, issue, or opportunity that advertisingis expected to address; the advertising objective, the key customer benefit;supportive benefits; and a creative strategy statement.Creative Execution StylesOnce the specific advertising appeal that will be used as the basis for theadvertising message has been determined, the creative specialist or team must thenturn its attention to execution. Creative execution refers to the way in which anadvertising appeal is carried out or presented. In addition to using humor, anadvertising message or appeal can be presented in numerous ways: Testimonial- also called word-of-mouth advertising; this approach useswell-known figures or an unknown, ‘typical’ person to provide producttestimonials. Problem-solution- this tactic presents the viewer with a problem to besolved and the solution is provided by the advertiser’s product Demonstration- this is designed to illustrate key advantages or benefits ofthe product or service by showing it in actual use or in some contrivedsituation Slice-of-life- a variation of the problem-solution approach, this techniqueportrays a real-life situation involving a problem or conflict that consumersface in daily life. The ad then focuses on showing how the advertiser’sproduct or service can resolve that problem Fantasy- this approach uses special effects to create an imaginative place,events, or characters.CHECK YOUR PROGRESSQ1. What are the meaning and significance of USP in advertising?Q2. What is a copy platform?13

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping: Advertising Design & PrinciplesQ3. Discuss steps of Creative Execution Styles.TYPES OF ADVERTISINGAdvertising is a persuasive communication attempt to change or reinforce ones’prior attitude that is predictable of future behavior. We are not born with theattitudes, which we hold toward various objects in our environment. Rather, welearn our feelings of favor ability or unfavorability through information about theattitude object e.g., advertising, or direct experience with the attitude object e.g.,tasting a new brand of chocolate), or some combination of the two.Advertising can be divided into two broad categories—consumer advertising andtrade advertising. Consumer advertising is directed at the public. Tradeadvertising is directed at wholesalers or distributors who resell to the public.Consumer advertising can be further divided into national advertising and localadvertising. National advertising is aimed at consumers throughout the entirecountry. National advertising usually attempts to create awareness among thepublic of a product or service, or it tries to build loyalty to a product or service.Local advertising is aimed at informing people in a particular area where they canpurchase a product or service. Advertising to the public may also take the form ofinstitutional advertising, image advertising, informational advertising, orcooperative advertising.Institutional Advertising seeks to create a favorable impression of a business orinstitution without trying to sell a specific product. This type of advertising isdesigned solely to build prestige and public respect. For nonprofit institutions, suchadvertising helps support the institution’s activities. For example, by encouragingblood donations or cash contributions for the work of an organization like the RedCross. A for-profit business has other reasons for improving its reputation ratherthan trying to sell a particular product. In some cases a large company may sell adiversity of products. As a result, there is more value and greater efficiency inbuilding a brand image for the company itself. If consumers learn to have a highregard for the company, then they are more likely to have a favorable opinion of allof the company’s diverse products.Many advertisers prefer a strategy known as Image Advertising. These advertisersseek to give a product a personality that is unique, appealing, and appropriate sothat the consumer will want to choose it over similar products that might fulfill the14

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingAdvertising Design & Principlessame need. The personality is created partly by the product's design and packagingbut, more importantly, by the words and pictures the advertisements associate withthe product. This personality is known as a brand image. Advertisers believebrand image often leads consumers to select one brand over another or instead of aless expensive generic product. Brand image is especially important forcommodities such as detergents, jeans, hamburgers, and soft drinks, because withinthese product categories there are few, if any, major differences.Informational Advertising seeks to promote an idea or influence behavior.Sometimes known as public service advertising, it may try to discourage youngpeople from using illicit drugs or tobacco, or it may encourage people to adoptsafer, healthier lifestyles.Thus, we can identify other different types of advertising as follows:1. Product Advertising- It is the most common type of advertising. The itemsadvertised are consumer products. The dominant focus is the product itselfrather than the company or manufacturer. The advertising tells the storyabout the produce & creates an aura about it as though it were a dreamproduct.2. Concept Advertising- Where advertising is not just confined to providingpersuasive information about products and services, but also with theacceptance of idea not connected with the sale of products and services.3. Informative Advertising- In this case an immediate sale is not expected,e.g. Consumer durables such as refrigerator or a music system. These itemsare not bought on impulse as they cost a great deal of money and thereforeare purchased after a great deal of consideration.4. Financial Advertising- This has become another highly specialized area. Itcovers banking operations, sales of shares, inviting company deposits anddebentures, etc.5. Institutional/Corporate Advertising- This is public relation advertising:building the prestige of an institution or an organization.15

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping: Advertising Design & Principles6. Government Advertising- This varies from classified ads, tender notices,employment notifications, and industrial products produced in the publicsector and such services.7. Export Advertising- This is yet another special category as the challengehere is that we are dealing with audiences in a foreign company.8. Classified Advertising- It provides valuable information, e.g. employmentmarket situation vacant, birth, deaths, engagement and marriages, changeof names, accommodation and housing availability, and various services.Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuadepotential customers to purchase ortoconsumemoreofaparticular brand of product or service. The formation of modern advertising wasintimately bound up with the emergence of new forms of monopoly capitalismaround the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century as one element incorporate strategies to create, organize and where possible control markets,especially for mass produced consumer goods. Mass production necessitated massconsumption, and this in turn required a certain homogenization of consumer tastesfor final products.Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of thoseproducts and services through the creation and reinvention of the "brand image”.For these purposes, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive messagewith factual information in every major, newspaper, video games,the Internet, carrier bags and billboards. Advertising is often placed byan advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization. Organizationsthat frequently spend large sums of money on advertising that sells what is not,strictly speaking, a product or service include political parties, interest groups,religious organizations, and military recruiters. Non-profit organizations are nottypical advertising clients, and may rely on free modes of persuasion, suchas public service announcements.Money spent on advertising has increased dramatically in recent years. Whileadvertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not without socialcosts Advertising is increasingly invading public spaces, such as schools, whichsome critics argue is a form of child exploitation.16 Y

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping: Advertising Design & PrinciplesNon-commercial advertising is sponsored by or for a charitable institutionor civic mercial advertisements seek money and placed in the hope of raisingfunds. Others hope to change consumer behavior.So the main goals of noncommercial advertising are: Stimulate inquires for information Popularize social cause Change activity habits Decrease waste of resources Communicate political viewpoint Improve public attitude Remind people to give again.So called word-of-mouth advertising is a person to person communication that isperceived as being noncommercial, concerning goods or services: it is face-to-faceproduct related communications between and among the friends, relatives andothers. Because it is noncommercial, it is usually seen as being an unbiased sourceof information.Comparative advertising is an advertisement in which a particular product, orservice, specifically mentions a competitor by name for the express purpose ofshowing why the competitor is inferior to the product naming it. This should not beconfused with parody advertisements, where a fictional product is being advertisedfor the purpose of poking fun at the particular advertisement, nor should it beconfused with the use of a coined brand name for the purpose of comparing theproduct without actually naming an actual competitor.In the

To know the principles and steps of layout in Advertising To understand the role of layout and design in Advertising To discuss the appeals of an Advertisement To learn the principles of good Advertising To understand the importance of Regulation of an Advertisement 1.1 INTRODUCTION Ediτεδ ω ith the trial version of Foxit Advanced PDF Editor

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