Surface Coating Of Plastic Parts: Industry Profile

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Surface Coating of Plastic Parts:Industry ProfileRevised Draft ReportPrepared forJohn L. SorrelsU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyOffice of Air Quality Planning and StandardsInnovative Strategies and Economics Group (ISEG)(MD-15)Research Triangle Park, NC 27711EPA Contract Number 68-D-99-024RTI Project Number 7647.002.149September 2001

EPA Contract Number68-D-99-024RTI Project Number7647.002.149Surface Coating of Plastic Parts:Industry ProfileRevised Draft ReportSeptember 2001Prepared forJohn L. SorrelsU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyOffice of Air Quality Planning and StandardsInnovative Strategies and Economics Group (ISEG)(MD-15)Research Triangle Park, NC 27711Prepared byKatherine B. HellerJui-Chen YangBrooks M. DeproResearch Triangle InstituteHealth, Social, and Economics ResearchResearch Triangle Park, NC 27709

DRAFTCONTENTSSectionPage1Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12Production, Costs, and Producers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-132.1Surface Coating of Plastic Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12.1.1 Surface-Coated Plastic Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12.1.1.1 Automobile and Light Duty Truck Parts . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22.1.1.2 Business Machine and Computer Equipment Parts . . 2-32.1.1.3 Miscellaneous Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32.1.2 Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32.1.2.1 Material Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-42.1.2.2 Capital Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-92.1.3 The Surface Coating Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-122.1.3.1 Surface Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-122.1.3.2 Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-132.1.3.3 Curing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-152.1.4 Ancillary Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-162.1.5 Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-172.2Costs of Surface Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-172.3Suppliers of Plastics Parts Coating Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19Consumption, Value, and Consumers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13.1Characteristics of Plastic Parts and Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13.2Uses of Plastic Parts and Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.1 Automotive and Truck Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.2 Computers and Business Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.3 Miscellaneous Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3Substitutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-53.4Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5iii3-23-33-33-4

DRAFT45Firm Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14.1Market Power of Firms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14.2Firm Size by Employment and Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-64.3Vertical and Horizontal Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-64.4Small Businesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8Markets and Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15.1Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15.2Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15.3Pricing Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-1iv

DRAFTLIST OF FIGURESNumber2-12-22-32-42-5PageThe Firm’s Production Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2Powder Coating Booth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10A Conveyorized Paint Finishing Booth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11Typical Coating Line for Three-Coat Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14Short-Run Unit Cost Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18v

DRAFTLIST OF TABLESNumberPage1-1Industries Manufacturing Surface-Coated Plastic Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22-12-22-32-42-5General Properties of Common Thermoplastic and ThermoplasticElastomer Resins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5General Properties of Thermoset Resins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8Chemical Components of Common Coating Pigments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9Production Costs of Industries Producing Coated Plastic Parts: 1997 . . . . . . 2-20Surface Coaters of Plastic Parts and Products, by State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-233-1Auto Parts Made of Plastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-64-1Measurements of Concentration of Industries Manufacturing CoatedPlastic Parts: 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3Distribution of Potentially Affected Firms by Employment: 2000 . . . . . . . . . . 4-7Distribution of Potentially Affected Firms by 2000 Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-74-24-35-15-2a5-2b5-2c5-35-4a5-4b5-4c5-4dValue of Domestic Product Shipments in Some Industries UsingSurface Coated Plastic Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Production and Apparent Consumption of Automotive Parts andAccessories (SICs 3464, 3592, 3647, 3691, 3694, 3714) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Production and Apparent Consumption of Motor Vehicles and Bodies(SICs 3711, 3713) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Production and Apparent Consumption of Motorcycles and Parts(SIC 37512) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Production and Apparent Consumption of Computers and PeripheralEquipment (SICs 3571, 3572, 3575, 3577) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Production and Apparent Consumption of Dolls, Toys, and Games(SICs 3942, 3944) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Production and Apparent Consumption of Sporting and AthleticGoods (SIC 3949) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Production and Apparent Consumption of Bicycles and Bicycle Parts(SIC 37511) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Production and Apparent Consumption of Costume Jewelry andNovelties (SIC 3961) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi5-25-35-35-45-45-55-55-65-6

DRAFT5-5Price Indices in Industries that Produce Surface-Coated Plastic Parts . . . . . . . . 5-7vii

DRAFTSECTION 1INTRODUCTIONThe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) proposed National EmissionStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) will regulate organic hazardous airpollutant (HAP) emissions released during surface coating operations of plastic parts andproducts. The plastic parts and products surface coating category consists of facilities thatapply protective, decorative, or functional coatings and adhesives to plastic substratesthrough a post-mold coating process only. These goods fall into two major product groups:automotive/transportation and business machines/electronics. In addition to these groups,surface-coated plastic parts are incorporated in a wide range of miscellaneous products,ranging from toys to signs, that are also covered by the NESHAP. Table 1-1 provides alisting of the products produced by affected entities, and the respective six-digit NorthAmerican Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes of the industries to which thoseentities belong. This table is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide forreaders regarding entities likely to be covered by this NESHAP.Plastic parts surface-coating may be performed byCcaptive operators in the same organization as the product manufacturer,Ccommercial suppliers that fabricate and coat plastic parts and sell them to theproduct manufacturer,Ccommercial suppliers that surface-coat plastic parts on a toll basis for the productmanufacturer, orCcommercial suppliers that coat plastic parts and products as part of refurbishment(EPA, 1994).The economic effects of the rule are conditional on the technology for producing theplastic parts and their costs of production; the value of the parts to users; and the organizationof the industries engaged in plastic parts production, coating, and use. This profile providesbackground information on these topics organized within a conventional economicframework.1-1

DRAFTTable 1-1. Industries Manufacturing Surface-Coated Plastic PartsIncludes M anufacturing of:NAICS CodeAutom obile and Truck P artsAutomobile manufacturing336111Light truck and utility vehicle manufacturing336112Heavy duty truck manufaturing336120Mo tor vehicle body manufacturing336211Mo tor home manufacturing336213Travel trailer and camper manufacturing336214Gasoline engine and engine parts manufacturing336312Vehicular lighting equipment manufacturing336321Other motor vehicle electrical and electronic equipment manufaturing336322Mo tor vehicle steering and suspension component (except spring) manufacturing336330Mo tor vehicle brake system manufacturing336340Mo tor vehicle transmission and power train parts manufacturing336350All other motor vehicle parts manufacturing336399Mo torcycles, bicycles, and parts manufacturing336991Military armored vehicle, tank, and tank component manufacturing336992All other transportation equipment manufacturing336999Business M achine and C omputer E quipment Pa rtsOffice machinery manufacturing333313Electronic computer manufacturing334111Comp uter terminal manufacturing334113Other computer peripheral equipment manufacturing334119W atch, clock, and part manufacturing334518Lead pencil and art good manufacturing339942M iscellaneous P roductsPlastics pipe and pipe fitting manufacturing326122Polystyrene foam prod uct maufacturing326140Urethane and other foam produc t (except polystyrene) manufacturing326150All other plastics product manufacturing326199Residential electric lighting fixture manufacturing335121Current carrying wiring device manufacturing335931Laboratory apparatus and furniture manufacturing339111(continued)1-2

DRAFTTable 1-1. Industries Manufacturing Surface-Coated Plastic Parts (continued)Includes M anufacturing of:NAICS CodeM iscellaneous Products (continued)Costume jewelry and novelty manufacturing339914Sporting and athletic goods manufacturing339920Doll and stuffed toy manufacturing339931Game, toy, children’s vehicle manufacturing339932Sign manufacturing339950Musical instrument manufacturing339992Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1997 Economic Census: The Bridge BetweenNA ICS and S IC. http://www .census.gov/epcd /ec97 brdg/ . Last updated o n June 27, 2 000 .Note: The ab ove list is not meant to be an exhaustive list of affected industries, but rather a list to illustrate thetypes of industries likely to be affected by this proposed rule.CSection 2 includes a description of surface-coating processes for plastic parts, withdiscussions of the processes and inputs, types of coated plastic parts, the costs ofcoating, and the characteristics of coating facilities.CSection 3 describes the characteristics, uses, and consumers of surface-coatedplastic parts and substitution possibilities in consumption.CSection 4 discusses the industry’s organization and provides information onmarket structure, and companies that own potentially affected plants. Specialattention is given to data on small businesses for future use in evaluating theimpact on these entities as required by the Small Business RegulatoryEnforcement and Fairness Act (SBREFA) and the Regulatory Flexibility Act(RFA).CSection 5 presents data on trends in the markets for goods for which surfacecoated plastic parts are an input. The section includes data on production,consumption, net exports, and prices in industries affected by this NESHAP.1-3

DRAFTSECTION 2PRODUCTION, COSTS, AND PRODUCERSThe production of surface-coated plastic parts releases VOC emissions. This sectiondescribes the types of coated plastic parts and products, the inputs needed for production ofthose parts, the production process, and the points at which the process generates theseemissions. It describes some of the costs associated with producing surface-coated plasticparts. Finally, it characterizes the producers of plastic parts that will be affected by theNESHAP.2.1Surface Coating of Plastic PartsThe production process characterizes the relationship between the inputs to aproductive activity and its output(s). Figure 2-1 illustrates the productive activity of surfacecoating plastic parts. The appropriate quantities of labor services, materials, energy, andcapital services are combined according to the relevant rules of production to produce agiven quantity of surface-coated parts, where pollutants (VOCs and hazardous air pollutants[HAPs]) are a by-product of that activity. The quantity of pollutants that result from thesurface coating process is a direct result of the combination of inputs used in that process.The pollutants may or may not be emitted into the atmosphere depending on the efficiency ofpollution abatement activities. This section describes the surface-coating process in terms ofthe products that result from the surface-coating process, the characteristics of productioninputs, and the characteristics of the coating process itself.2.1.1Surface-Coated Plastic ProductsSurface-coated plastic parts include automobile and light duty truck parts (includingother small passenger motor vehicles like motorcycles and golf carts), business machine andcomputer equipment parts, and some miscellaneous plastic parts ranging from laboratoryapparatus to toys.2-1

DRAFTSurface-coated partProductivenoncapital inputs(labor, materials,energy)PollutantSurface atement inputs(labor, materials,energy, capital)EmissionsFigure 2-1. The Firm’s Production Diagram2.1.1.1 Automobile and Light Duty Truck PartsSurface-coated plastic parts are standard components of all passenger vehicles suchas cars, light duty trucks, and motorcycles. In 1994, about 8 percent of the average weight ofa new passenger car was made of plastic parts (EPA, 1995). The wide variety of automobileand light duty trucks made of plastic or plastic composites includes coated plastic interiorparts, exterior body parts, and lighting equipment as well as more functional parts such asgas tanks. In addition, some motorcycle, golf cart, and motor home parts are coated plastic.Interior Parts. Instrument board assemblies, handles, seat belt parts, air bag covers,dashboards, and door linings are often coated plastic parts.Exterior Body Parts/Lighting Equipment. Coated plastic parts used on the exterior ofautomobile bodies include&body panels, bumpers, grills, fenders, hoods, and wheel covers;&headlamp and taillight bezels and lamp covers, mirror housings, and windshieldframes;&truck cabs, beds, bodies, and tops; and&plastic handles, seats and saddles for motorcycles.2-2

DRAFTFunctional Parts. Functional coated plastic vehicle parts include gas tanks, steeringassemblies, and suspension parts.2.1.1.2 Business Machine and Computer Equipment PartsComputers, calculating and accounting machines, and other office machines are oftenencased in plastic housings. Handles, buttons, and other external machine parts are alsomade of plastic.2.1.1.3 Miscellaneous PartsThere is a wide variety of miscellaneous coated plastic parts and products:2.1.2&coated plastic wires and plastic housings for electrical outlets;&laboratory apparatus and furniture;&musical keyboard housings, piano and keyboard keys and buttons, and entiremusical instruments like recorders;&dolls and stuffed toys, game parts, toys, and children’s vehicles;&sporting and athletic goods, such as helmets, backboards, balls, bicycles, andkayaks;&aquarium accessories, boxes, brush handles, drums, siding, hardware, lamp bases,tool handles, life jackets, and shutters;&costume jewelry; and&signs and advertising display cases.InputsThe surface-coating process requires material inputs as well as labor, capital services,and energy. The primary material inputs into the coating process are plastic parts andcoatings. Necessary capital equipment most often includes spray guns, spray booths,conveyor lines, filtration systems, and curing ovens.2.1.2.1 Material InputsPlastic Parts. As an input into the coating process, the important characteristics ofplastic parts are the type of resin they are made from and their shape and size. The shape andsize of the part affect the coating process in that large parts require larger facilities, spraybooths, and curing ovens, and parts with complex shaping may require special handling for2-3

DRAFTcomplete and even coating coverage. The resins used to form plastic parts have certainproperties that are critical in determining how to prepare the surface for coating, how wellthe various coatings will adhere to the surface, and what type of curing methods areappropriate.Plastic parts that are to be coated are first manufactured out of one of two types ofresins: thermoplastic or thermoset. Properties important to surface coaters include solventresistance and the temperature at which the material can be baked. Table 2-1 lists commonthermoplastic resins and describes their general properties. The table also includes someinformation on thermoplastic elastomers, unique resins that combine properties of plasticsand rubber. The table indicates the abbreviations generally used to describe the differentresins. Table 2-2 presents the same information for thermoset resins.Coatings. Coatings typically include additives, binders, pigments, and carriers.Powder coatings, however, contain no carriers.Additives, comprising less than 2 percent of the total weight of the coating, improveproperties such as coalescence, flow, and other properties (University of Missouri-Rolla,1999). Additives may&affect the rheological properties of coatings (i.e., their ability to flow),&speed the curing process,&ensure pigment dispersion,&reduce the surface tension of the coating to ensure complete coverage of the part,&serve as defoamers so that the dried coating surface is free of bubbles, and&serve as fungicides or bactericides (“Surface Coating,” Encyclopedia Britannica).2-4

2-5PolycarbonatePolycarbonate andpolybutyleneterephthalate(PBT) csKetone-basedresinsNylonAcrylicResin orCompositeAcetalXENOYPBTAbbreviation250200 to 220289 to 347180Maximum BakeTemperature( F)185 to 220ExcellentExcell

parts, exterior body parts, and lighting equipment as well as more functional parts such as gas tanks. In addition, some motorcycle, golf cart, and motor home parts are coated plastic. Interior Parts. Instrument board assemblies, handles, seat belt parts, air bag covers, dashboards, and door linings are often coated plastic parts.

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