Ceramics Final Exam Review - Lyons Township High School

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Beginning Ceramics Final Exam Study GuideKEYYour semester exam will be completed at the scheduled time. There are a variety of multiple choice, T/F questions, totaling 70points total. If you are a student who would like to utilize your predetermined accommodations at the time of the final, it isthimportant that you notify your teacher by Monday May 18 2015.CLAY FACTS1. Rocks in mountains weather and erode from wind and rain. This eroded material makes clay. Clay comesfrom the weathering of a rock called FELDSPAR . It is found in Granite.2. We wedge (kneading soft, plastic clay on a porous surface) for several reasons before we begin ourprojects. List all four reasons we wedge clay:1 TO MIX EVENLY THROUGHOUT2 TO REMOVE AIR BUBBLES THAT CAUSE CLAY TO EXPLODE IN FIRINGPROCESS3 TO REMOVE WATER FROM THE CLAY BODY4 TO FIND AND REMOVE FOREGN OBJECTS IN CLAY3. What is SLIP? CLAY SUSPENDED IN WATER What do we use slip for? SLIP IS USED IN COMBINATION WITHSCORING TO ATTACH SEPARATE PIECES OF CLAY4. There are several important facts to remember when attaching separate pieces of clay. List THREE veryimportant connecting facts here you need to apply if your projects are going to stay together and notcrack or break apart:1 BOTH SURFACES NEED TO BE SLIPPED AND SCORED2 BOTH SURFACES NEED TO BE PLASTIC CLAY3 BOTH SURFACES NEED TO BE PRESSED TOGETHER FIRMLY5. Can you connect wet clay to dry clay? Yes or NoWhy? BECAUSE CLAY SHRINKS AS IT DRIES AND THEWET CLAY WILL SHRINK AWAY FROM THE DRY CLAY THAT HAS ALREADY SHRUNK6. List and describe 3 changes that occur in our clay as it DRIES CLAY SHRINKS AS IT DRIES (BECAUSE THE WATER IN THE CLAY BODY EVAPORATES)CLAY CHANGES IN COLORCLAY BECOMES BRITTLE7. Clay is called various names to identify what stage the clay is at. When the clay is completely dried out buthas NOT been fired it is called BONE DRY8. When we fire the clay in the KILN the first, lower temperature firing is called the BISQUE firing. Thisprocess of firing semi-fuses the molecules of clay so it is still porous.

9. The second firing after applying the Glazes is called the Glaze firing. This firing is a (higher or lower?)temperature firing. This allows the molecules to completely fuse together and it begins to have moreability to hold water and become a more durable/permanent material for transporting goods.10. What does the term VITRIFICATION mean? THE CLAY MOLECULES PERMANENTLY BOND TO EACH OTHERMEANING CLAY THAT IS FIRED IS PERMANENT AND CAN NO LONGER BE RECYCLED.BUILDING AND SURFACES11. With arrows, identify and label the five major parts of the ANATOMY OF THE POT:LIPNECKSHOULDERBELLYFOOT12. What is the bottom of ceramic piece always called? FOOT13. What is the top of a ceramic piece always called? LIP14. We have learned many of the traditional ways to make pottery and sculpture. Identify the 3HANDBUILDING methods being used in each picture:PINCHCOILSLAB

15. What do we call the process of making a form on the Potter’s Wheel? THROWING16. Match the definition of each decorative treatment to the image below aDrawing intoclay creating atrench-likecarving on thesurface.bRemoving shapesfrom clay to revealareas of negativespace.cPressing materials (woodtools, beads, fabric, etc)into plastic clay tocreate an impressedtexture.17. What three tools do you need to roll out a slab of clay? ROLLINGPIN, CANVAS , and WOOD RAILS OF EQUAL THICKNESS18. Why do you use wooden rails/slats when you roll out a slab of clay?TO MAKE SURE YOU GET A SLAB OF EVEN THICKNESS19What do you call it when you completely cut out shapes in your clayto reveal negative space? PIERCING20 What is the process called when we start with a ball of clay and produce a bowl by using only our fingers?PINCH TECHNIQUE21 What is the process called when we build with small rope like pieces of clay? COIL22 Work that is thicker than 1 inch thick must be hollowed out and vented to reduce the chance inexplodes.23It is also important that your clay pieces are completely DRY before putting them into the kiln. AnyMOISTURE will cause the piece to explode.24. Can the areas where slab pieces meet and fit together be reinforced by adding and knitting a coil on theinside? Yes or no

25. List 3 main reasons for explosions of a clay piece in the kiln:1. TOO WET BEFORE FIRING2. TOO THICK3. AIR BUBBLE OR UNVENTED AIR POCKET26. Describe what SCULPTURE IN THE ROUND means? SCULPTING AN OBJECT FROM ALL VIEWPOINTS27. WHAT is NECESSARY TO HAVE while sculpting in the round to help accuracy and addition of details?REFERENCE IMAGES, PHOTOGRAPHS OR THE REAL OBJECT28. What do you do to your artwork if it begins to get too dry before you are finished building and refining it?SPRAY OR WRAP WITH WET PAPER TOWEL TO RE-HYDRATE OVERNIGHT IN A PLASTIC BAG.29. What can you do to speed up the drying process in your clay? USE A HAIRDRYER30. Circle the tools pictured below that are MOST helpful when trying to build a symmetrical coil form?ART HISTORY31 Who is the artist pictured to the right? MARIA MARTINEZ32 Which handbuilding technique did she work in? COIL33 Artists have used their ceramic artwork to express their cultural values.True or False34. Clay has been used by all different cultures throughout history and from allparts of the world. Explain any similarities and differences you have learnedabout of how these ancient cultures made and used pottery compared to howwe do it today. Such as FINDING MATERIALS: PAST MATERIALS DUG UP AND HAND mixedPRESENT CLAY BODY IS ORDERED THROUGH A CATALOG AND EQUIPMENT USEDTO MIX AND RECYCLEFIRING: PAST: WOOD FIRING MONITOREDPRESENT ELECTRIC KILN CAN BE PROGRAMMEDPURPOSE OF POTTERY: PAST: PRIMARILY FUNCTIONAL PIECES USED TO STORE GRAIN, TRANSPORT WATER,PRESENT : MANY EXPRESSIVE NON-FUNCTIONAL CERAMIC ARTISTS HAVE

FUNCTIONAL CERAMICWhat makes a piece of functional pottery successful? above all THE EASE IN WHICH A FUNCTIONAL PIECECAN BE USED SUCH AS AN EASY TO GRAB HANDLE, A SMOOTH LIP THAT IS NOT SHARP,etcCLAY TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTABCDEFGH35 What is the name of the tool pictured in BOX C FETTLING KNIFE What is it best used for? CUTTINGSLABS, PIERCING LARGER SHAPES,36 What is pictured IN BOX E? CANVAS Why do we use this in our studio? IT IS USED TO PREVENT WETCLAY FROM STICKING TO THE TABLE WHEN BEING ROLLED OUT INTO A SLAB37 What is pictured next to letter B? BANDING WHEEL When do we use this in our studio? WHEN TRYINGTO RAISE OUR WORK TO EYE LEVEL AND TRYING TO ACHIEVE A SYMMETRICAL FORM38 The piece of equipment next to letter G mixes and recycles our clay. What is it called? PUG MILL39 Letter A has a NEEDLE tool pictured next to it. What is this best used for? FOR PRECISE SLIPPING ANDSCORING OR PIERCING AREAS OF NEGATIVE SPACE. What should it NOT be used for? IT SHOULD NOTBE USED FOR DRAWING ONTO THE CLAY SURFACE40 The tool in BOX D is best used for SMOOTHING THE SURFACE OF CLAY . What is it called? METALSCRAPER41 The tool in BOX H is used for CUTTING THROUGH A THICK BLOCK OF CLAY OR REMOVING WHEELWORK FROM THE WHEEL . It is called the WIRE CUT-OFF TOOL

GLAZING42 When can you apply glaze to a project? After it has been BISQUE fired.43 What is the material in a glaze that makes the clay surface shiny and glass like (this gives it that “ping”sound).? SILICA44 In general, how many coats of glaze should be applied to your piece? 245 What do you do to the bottom of your glazed piece before you place it on a shelf to be glaze fired?DRYFOOTING (REMOVING GLAZE FROM THE BOTTOME Why is this necessary?BECAUSE GLAZE TURNS INTO A STICKY LIQUID IN THE KILN WHILE FIRING AND IT WOULD CAUSE THEPIECE TO STICK TO A KILN SHELF46 Glaze finishes can be described as:Gloss, HIGH SHINESatin, SOFT SHEENMatte, DULL SURFACEClear Transparent SEE-THROUGH CLEAR GLOSSTranslucent SEE-THROUGH COLOROpaque. NON-SEE THROUGH COLOR47 What is the difference between a Gloss Glaze appearance and a Matte Glaze appearance? HIGHSHINE VS DULL SURFACE48 What must you do the glaze buckets before glazing and why? GLAZE BUCKETS MUST BE MIXED WELLBECAUSE THE MATERIALS IN THE WATER SETTLE WHEN NOT IN USE. TRUE COLOR WILL NOT BEACHIEVED UNLESS ALL THE PARTICLES BECOME SUSPENDED IN THE WATER49 What must you do to your porous bisqueware BEFORE glazing? REHYDRATE WITH A CLEAN SPONGEWhy is this necessary? TO REMOVE DUST AND FINGERPRINTS BEFORE GLAZING THAT WOULD CAUSEGLAZE FAULTS TO OCCURArtistic QuestionsWORD BANK: Line, Shape, Form, Space, Color, Texture, Value, Balance, Emphasis/Focal Point, Contrast,Movement, Pattern, Rhythm, Unity/Harmony50 What are the elements of art? TEXTURE, SHAPE, VALUE, FORM, LINE, COLOR , SPACE51 What are the principles of design? UNITY/HARMONY, RHYTHM, BALANCE, EMPHASIS/FOCAL POINT,CONTRAST, MOVEMENT, PATTERN52 How can you create rhythm or pattern in a clay project? BY REPEATING A SHAPE OR OBJECT IN AWORK

53 How can you create an area of emphasis? CONTRAST (BLUE POT WITH A RED FLOWER, WHITESMOOTH CUP WITH A TEXTURED LIP)54 What is proportion? HARMONIOUS SIZE OF INDIVIDUAL PARTS TO EACH OTHER OR TO THEWHOLE55 What do we call the point at which your eye stops or is lead to? THE FOCAL POINT/EMPHASIS56 What is the difference between Symmetrical and Asymmetrical? WORK THAT IS SYMMETRICAL ISMIRROR IMAGE OPPOSITE A VERTICAL LINE.57 Positive and Negative areas can be created on your piece to show areas of SPACE58 When all parts of a piece work together as a whole, we call this UNITY59 The element used to describe our 3-Dimensional work? FORM60 The element that refers to the SURFACE QUALITY (visual or tactile) of an object is TEXTURE61 The element that refers to 2 –dimensional objects SHAPE62 The distribution of visual or physical weight of an artwork BALANCE63 Use the term ORGANIC or GEOMETRIC to correctly label the images below.Organic – rounded, curved, irregular as found in natureGeometric – mathematical shapes, such as squares, and circles64 Match the Picture with the Term that BEST Demonstrates the application of: Asymmetrical Design ,Symmetrical Design , and Positive and Negative Space

Matching Section: Match the Elements & Principles that BEST DESCRIBE the DOMINENT DESIGN ELEMENT inthe pieces below.WORD BANK: Line, Shape, Form, Space, Color, Texture, Value, Balance, Emphasis/Focal Point, Contrast,Movement, Pattern, Rhythm, RASTSYMMETRYEMPHASIS/FOCAL POINTCONTRAST

THE 4 STEPS OF ART CRITICISMThis is a four step process that will slow down your reaction and responses to artwork that ismore expressive and non-functional.1. DESCRIPTION- Describe what you see using. Keep it neutral and just list the facts, such asthe form and the materials. Examples: A Ceramic Bowl, A Painting of a Cow, A Photographof a Green Pepper, A Copper Necklace, Etc.2. ANALYSIS- This should explain how the artist used the Elements & Principles of Design tovisually organize the artwork. Elements- Line, Shape, Color, Form, Texture, Space, ValuePrinciples- Unity, Balance, Emphasis, Balance, Movement, Rhythm, and Contrast.3. INTERPRETATION- This should explain what is happening in the artwork. What is the artisttrying to say? What ideas, sensations, or feelings is the artwork/artist exploring? Is it Trying to shock? Trying to educate/create awareness? Trying to express beauty? Or, one themany, many other possibilities?Sometimes an artwork is accompanied by an ARTIST STATEMENT. This is usually a shortparagraph written by the artist that EXPLAINS THE MEANING OF/BEHIND THE ARTWORK. Seeexample belowWe have stumbled into the 21st Century with the technologies of'StarWars' and the emotional maturity of cavemen. If wecan't find more creative solutions to solving worldwide socialand political problems than sending young men and womento shred and incinerate one another's flesh with weapons ofever increasing efficiency, we will not survive to celebratethe passage into the 22nd Century -- the problems of humancivilization are far too complex to be solved by means ofexplosive devices. And our country and too many of ourworld's nations are now in the hands of right wing thugs andfundamentalist tyrants who are fumbling the planet towardsWorld War III.I continue to make ceramic sculptures which reflect on the socialand political dilemmas of our world. As André Malrauxobserved, "Art is a revolt against man's fate".Need I say more?4. JUDGEMENT- What do you think of the work? Do you like it or not? Why or why not? Here’syour chance to get personal, so tell us what you think!

Practice the four steps with the sculpture above by Adrien Arleo Description:Analysis:Interpretation:Judgement:

BisquefireBone iedGreenwareGlazefireGlazed ware

CLAY FACTS . 1. Rocks in mountains weather and erode from wind and rain. This eroded material makes clay. Clay comes from the weathering of a rock called _FELDSPAR_. It is found in Granite. 2. We wedge (kneading soft, plastic clay on a porous surface) for several reasons before we begin our projects. List all four reasons we wedge clay:

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