Credit-based Insurance Scores

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CREDIT-BASED INSURANCE SCORES:IMPACTS ON CONSUMERSOF AUTOMOBILE INSURANCEA Report to Congress by theFederal Trade CommissionJuly 2007

FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSIONDeborah Platt MajorasPamela Jones HarbourJon LeibowitzWilliam E. KovacicJ. Thomas ommissionerBureau of EconomicsMichael R. BayePaul A. PautlerJesse B. LearyDirectorDeputy Director for Consumer ProtectionAssistant Director, Division of Consumer ProtectionBureau of Consumer ProtectionLydia B. ParnesMary Beth RichardsPeggy TwohigThomas B. PahlDirectorDeputy DirectorAssociate Director, Division of Financial PracticesAssistant Director, Division of Financial PracticesAnalysis TeamMatias Barenstein, Economist, Bureau of Economics, Div. of Consumer ProtectionArchan Ruparel, Research Analyst, Bureau of Economics, Div. of Consumer ProtectionRaymond K. Thompson, Research Analyst, Bureau of Economics, Div. of Consumer ProtectionOther ContributorsErik W. Durbin, Dept. Assistant Director, Bureau of Economics, Div. of Consumer ProtectionChristopher R. Kelley, Research Analyst, Bureau of Economics, Div. of Consumer ProtectionKenneth H. Kelly, Economist, Bureau of Economics, Div. of Consumer ProtectionMichael J. Pickford, Research Analyst, Bureau of Economics, Div. of Consumer ProtectionW. Russell Porter, Economist, Bureau of Economics, Div. of Consumer Protection

TABLE OF CONTENTSiLIST OF TABLESiiiLIST OF FIGURESivI.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1II.INTRODUCTION5III. DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF CREDIT-BASED INSURANCE SCORESA.B.C.D.7Background and Historical ExperienceDevelopment of Credit-Based Insurance ScoresUse of Credit-Based Insurance ScoresState Restrictions on Scores7121517IV. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREDIT HISTORY AND RISKA.Correlation Between Credit History and Risk1. Prior Research2. Commission Researcha. FTC Databaseb. Other Data SourcesB. Potential Causal Link between Scores and Risk20202023232830V.EFFECT OF CREDIT-BASED INSURANCE SCORES ON PRICEAND AVAILABILITYA.Credit-Based Insurance Scores and Cross-Subsidization1. Possible Impact on Car Ownership2. Possible Impact on Uninsured Driving3. Adverse SelectionB.Other Possible Effects of Credit-Based Insurance ScoresC.Effects on Residual Markets for Automobile InsuranceVI. EFFECTS OF SCORES ON PROTECTED CLASSES OF CONSUMERSA.Credit- Based Insurance Scores and Racial, Ethnic, and Income Groups1. Difference in Scores Across Groups2. Possible Reasons for Differences in Scores Across Groups3. Impact of Differences in Scores on Premiums Paida. Effect on Those for Whom Scores Were Availableb. Effect on Those for Whom Scores Were Not AvailableB.Scores as a Proxy for Race and Ethnicity1. Do Scores Act Solely as a Proxy for Race, Ethnicity, or Income?2. Differences in Average Risk by Race, Ethnicity, and Income3. Controlling for Race, Ethnicity, and Income to Test for a Proxy Effecta. Existence of a Proxy Effectb. Magnitude of a Proxy Effecti3435394042464950515156585859616264676769

VII.VIII.ALTERNATE SCORING MODELSA.The FTC Baseline ModelB.Alternative Scoring Models1. “Race Neutral” Scoring Models2. Model Discounting Variables with Large Differences by Race ENDIX A.Text of Section 215 of the FACT ACTAPPENDIX B.Requests for Public CommentAPPENDIX C.The Automobile Policy DatabaseAPPENDIX D.Modeling and Analysis DetailsAPPENDIX E.The Score Building ProcedureAPPENDIX F.Robustness Checks and Limitations of the Analysisii

TABLESTABLE 1.Typical Information Used in Credit-Based Insurance Scoring ModelsTABLE 2.Claim Frequency, Claim Severity, and Average Total Amount Paid onClaimsTABLE 3.Median Income and Age, and Gender Make-Up, by Race and EthnicityTABLE 4.Change in Predicted Amount Paid on Claims from Using Credit-BasedInsurance Scores, by Race and EthnicityTABLE 5.Estimated Relative Amount Paid on Claims, by Race, Ethnicity, andNeighborhood IncomeTABLE 6.Estimated Relative Amount Paid on Claims, by Score Decile, Race,Ethnicity, and Neighborhood IncomeTABLE 7.Change in Predicted Amount Paid on Claims from Using Credit-BasedInsurance Scores Without and With Controls for Race, Ethnicity, andIncome, by Race and EthnicityTABLE 8.Change in Predicted Amount Paid on Claims from Using Other RiskVariables, Without and With Controls for Race, Ethnicity, and Income, byRace and EthnicityTABLE 9.Baseline Credit-Based Insurance Scoring Model Developed by the FTCTABLE 10.Credit-Based Insurance Scoring Model Developed by the FTC byIncluding Controls for Race, Ethnicity, and Neighborhood Income in theScore-Building ProcessTABLE 11.Credit-Based Insurance Scoring Model Developed by the FTC Using aSample of Only Non-Hispanic White Insurance CustomersTABLE 12.Credit-Based Insurance Scoring Model Developed by the FTC byDiscounting Variables with Large Differences Across Racial and EthnicGroupsiii

FIGURESFIGURE 1.Estimated Average Amount Paid Out on Claims, Relative to HighestScore DecileFIGURE 2.Frequency and Average Size (Severity) of Claims, Relative to HighestScore DecileFIGURE 3."CLUE" Claims Data: Average Amount Paid Out on Claims, Relative toHighest Score DecileFIGURE 4.By Model Year of Car: Estimated Average Amount Paid Out on Claims,Relative to Highest Score Decile (Property Damage Liability Coverage)FIGURE 5.Change in Predicted Amount Paid on Claims from Using ScoresFIGURE 6.The Ratio of Uninsured Motorist Claims to Liability Coverage Claims(1996-2003)FIGURE 7.Share of Cars Insured through States' "Residual Market" InsurancePrograms (1996-2003)FIGURE 8.Distribution of Scores, by Race and EthnicityFIGURE 9.Distribution of Race and Ethnicity, by Score DecileFIGURE 10. Distribution of Scores, by Neighborhood IncomeFIGURE 11. Distribution of Neighborhood Income, by Score DecileFIGURE 12. Distribution of Scores by Race and Ethnicity, After Controlling for Age,Gender, and Neighborhood IncomeFIGURE 13. By Race and Ethnicity: Change in Predicted Amount Paid on Claims fromUsing Scores, by Race and EthnicityFIGURE 14. By Race and Ethnicity: Estimated Average Amount Paid Out on Claims,Relative to Non-Hispanic Whites in Highest Score DecileFIGURE 15. By Neighborhood Income: Estimated Average Amount Paid Out onClaims, Relative to People in Highest Score Decile in High Income AreasFIGURE 16. Estimated Average Amount Paid Out on Claims, Relative to HighestScore Decile, with and without Controls for Race, Ethnicity, andNeighborhood Incomeiv

FIGURE 17. FTC Baseline Model - Estimated Average Amount Paid Out on Claims,Relative to Highest Score DecileFIGURE 18. Distribution of FTC Baseline Model Credit-Based Insurance Scores, byRace and EthnicityFIGURE 19. FTC Score Models with Controls for Race, Ethnicity, and NeighborhoodIncome: Estimated Average Amount Paid Out on Claims, Relative toHighest Score DecileFIGURE 20. Distribution of FTC Credit-Based Insurance Scores, by Race and EthnicityFIGURE 21. An Additional FTC Credit-Based Insurance Scoring Model: The"Discounted Predictiveness" Model Estimated Average Amount Paid Outon Claims, Relative to Highest Score DecileFIGURE 22. Distribution of FTC Credit-Based Insurance Scores, by Race and Ethnicityv

I.EXECUTIVE SUMMARYSection 215 of the FACT Act (FACTA)1 requires the Federal Trade Commission(FTC or the Commission) and the Federal Reserve Board (FRB), in consultation with theDepartment of Housing and Urban Development, to study whether credit scores andcredit-based insurance scores affect the availability and affordability of consumer credit,as well as automobile and homeowners insurance. FACTA also directs the agencies toassess and report on how these scores are calculated and used; their effects on consumers,specifically their impact on certain groups of consumers, such as low-income consumers,racial and ethnic minority consumers, etc.; and whether alternative scoring models couldbe developed that would predict risk in a manner comparable to current models but havesmaller differences in scores between different groups of consumers. The Commissionissues this report to address credit-based insurance scores2 primarily in the context ofautomobile insurance.3Credit-based insurance scores, like credit scores, are numerical summaries ofconsumers’ credit histories. Credit-based insurance scores typically are calculated usinginformation about past delinquencies or information on the public record (e.g.,bankruptcies); debt ratios (i.e., how close a consumer is to his or her credit limit);evidence of seeking new credit (e.g., inquiries and new accounts); the length and age ofcredit history; and the use of certain types of credit (e.g., automobile loans). Insurance115 U.S.C. § 1681 note (2006). Appendix A contains the complete text of Section 215 of the FACT Act.The FRB will submit a report addressing issues related to the use of credit scores and consumer creditdecisions.3The Commission will conduct an empirical analysis of the effects of credit-based insurance scores onissues relating to homeowners insurance; the FTC anticipates that it will submit a report to Congressdescribing the results of this analysis in early 2008.21

companies do not use credit-based insurance scores to predict payment behavior, such aswhether premiums will be paid. Rather, they use scores as a factor when estimating thenumber or total cost of insurance claims that prospective customers (or customersrenewing their policies) are likely to file.Credit-based insurance scores evolved from traditional credit scores, andinsurance companies began to use insurance scores in the mid-1990s. Since that time,their use has grown very rapidly. Today, all major automobile insurance companies usecredit-based insurance scores in some capacity. Insurers use these scores to assignconsumers to risk pools and to determine the premiums that they pay.Insurance companies argue that credit-based insurance scores assist them inevaluating insurance risk more accurately, thereby helping them charge individualconsumers premiums that conform more closely to the insurance risk they actually pose.Others criticize credit-based insurance scores on the grounds that there is no persuasivereason that a consumer’s credit history should help predict insurance risk. Moreover,others contend that the use of these scores results in low-income consumers and membersof minority groups paying higher premiums than other consumers.Pursuant to FACTA, the FTC evaluated: (1) how credit-based insurance scores aredeveloped and used; and, in the context of automobile insurance (2) the relationshipbetween scores and risk; (3) possible causes of this relationship; (4) the effect of scoreson the price and availability of insurance; (5) the impact of scores on racial and ethnicminority groups and on low-income groups; and (6) whether alternative scoring modelsare available that predict risk as well as current models and narrow the differences inscores among racial, ethnic, and other particular groups of consumers. In conducting thisevaluation, the Commission considered prior research, nearly 200 comments submitted in2

response to requests for the public’s views, information presented in meetings with avariety of interested parties, and its own original empirical research using a database ofautomobile insurance policies. Based on a careful and comprehensive consideration ofthis information, the FTC has reached the following findings and conclusions: Insurance companies increasingly are using credit-based insurance scoresin deciding whether and at what price to offer coverage to consumers. Credit-based insurance scores are effective predictors of risk underautomobile policies. They are predictive of the number of claimsconsumers file and the total cost of those claims. The use of scores istherefore likely to make the price of insurance better match the risk of lossposed by the consumer. Thus, on average, higher-risk consumers will payhigher premiums and lower-risk consumers will pay lower premiums. Several alternative explanations for the source of the correlation betweencredit-based insurance scores and risk have been suggested. At this time,there is not sufficient evidence to judge which of these explanations, ifany, is correct. Use of credit-based insurance scores may result in benefits for consumers.For example, scores permit insurance companies to evaluate risk withgreater accuracy, which may make them more willing to offer insurance tohigher-risk consumers for whom they would otherwise not be able todetermine an appropriate premium. Scores also may make the process ofgranting and pricing insurance quicker and cheaper, cost savings that maybe passed on to consumers in the form of lower premiums. However, littlehard data was submitted or available to quantify the magnitude of thesebenefits to consumers. Credit-based insurance scores are distributed differently among racial andethnic groups, and this difference is likely to have an effect on theinsurance premiums that these groups pay, on average. Non-Hispanic whites and Asians are distributed relatively evenlyover the range of scores, while African Americans and Hispanicsare substantially overrepresented among consumers with thelowest scores (the scores associated with the highest predicted risk)and substantially underrepresented among those with the highestscores. With the use of scores for consumers whose information wasincluded in the FTC’s database, the average predicted risk (asmeasured by the total cost of claims filed) for African Americans3

and Hispanics increased by 10% and 4.2%, respectively, while theaverage predicted risk for non-Hispanic whites and Asiansdecreased by 1.6% and 4.9%, respectively. Credit-based insurance scores appear to have little effect as a “proxy” formembership in racial and ethnic groups in decisions related to insurance. The relationship between scores and claims risk remains strongwhen controls for race, ethnicity, and neighborhood income areincluded in statistical models of risk. In models with credit-based insurance scores but without controlsfor race or ethnicity, African Americans and Hispanics arepredicted to have average predicted risk 10% and 4.2% higher,respectively, than if scores were not used. In models with scoresand with controls for race, ethnicity, and income, these groupshave average predicted risk 8.9% and 3.5% higher, respectivelythan if scores were not used. The difference between these twopredictions for African Americans and Hispanics (1.1% and 0.7%,respectively) is a measure of the effect of scores on these groupsthat is attributable to scores serving as a statistical proxy for raceand ethnicity. Several other variables in the FTC’s database (e.g., the time periodthat a consumer has been a customer of a particular firm) have aproportional proxy effect that is similar in magnitude to the smallproxy effect associated with credit-based insurance scores. Tests also showed that scores predict insurance risk within racialand ethnic minority groups (e.g., Hispanics with lower scores havehigher estimated risk than Hispanics with higher scores). Thiswithin-group effect of scores is inconsistent with the theory thatscores are solely a proxy for race and ethnicity.After trying a variety of approaches, the FTC was not able to develop analternative credit-based insurance scoring model that would continue topredict risk effectively, yet decrease the differences in scores on averageamong racial and ethnic groups. This does not mean that a model couldnot be constructed that meets both of these objectives. It does stronglysuggest, however, that there is no readily available scoring model thatwould do so.4

II.INTRODUCTIONOver the past decade, insurance companies increasingly have used informationabout credit history in the form of credit-based insurance scores to make decisionswhether to offer insurance to consumers, and, if so, at what price. Because of theimportance of insurance in the daily lives of consumers, the widespread use of thesescores raises questions about their impact on consumers. In particular, some haveexpressed concerns about the effect of scores on the availability and affordability ofinsurance to members of certain demographic groups, especially racial and ethnicminorities.In 2003, Congress enacted the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act(FACTA) to make comprehensive changes to the nation’s system of handling consumercredit information. In response to concerns that had been raised about credit-basedinsurance scores, in Section 215 of FACTA Congress directed certain federal agencies,including the FTC, to conduct a broad and rigorous inquiry into the effects of these scoresand submit a report to Congress with findings and conclusions. The report is intended toprovide policymakers with critical information to enable them to make informeddecisions with regard to credit-based insurance scores.Section 215 of FACTA sets forth specific requirements for studying the effects ofcredit-based insurance scores in the context of automobile and homeowners insurance. Itdirects the agencies to include a description of how these scores are created and used, aswell as an assessment of the impact of scores on the availability and affordability ofautomobile and homeowners insurance products. Section 215 also requires a rigorousand empirically sound statistical analysis of the relationship between scores andmembership in racial, ethnic, and other protected classes. The mandated study further5

must evaluate whether scores act as a proxy for membership in racial, ethnic, and otherprotected classes. Finally, Section 215 requires an analysis of whether scoring modelscould be constructed that both are effective predictors of risk and result in narrowerdifferences in scores among racial, ethnic, and other protected classes.Section 215 of FACTA also specifies the process to be used in conducting thestudy, and the contents of the report to be submitted. The Act directed the agencies toseek input from federal and state regulators and consumer and civil rights organizations,and members of the public concerning methodology and research design. The Actrequires the report to include “findings and conclusions of the Commission,recommendations to address specific areas of concerns addressed in the study, andrecommendations for legislative or administrative action that the Commission maydetermine to be necessary to ensure that . . . credit-based insurance scores are usedappropriately and fairly to avoid negative effects.”4The Commission has conducted a study addressing credit-based insurance scoresin the context of automobile insurance. Pursuant to statutory directive, the FTCpublished two Federal Register Notices5 soliciting comments from the public concerningmethodology and research design. The Commission supplemented this information withnumerous discussions between its staff and representatives of other government agencies,private companies, and community, civil rights, consumer, and housing groups. Thepublic comments and information obtained in meetings with the various interested parties415 U.S.C. § 1681 note (2006).Public Comment on Data, Studies, or Other Evidence Related to the Effects of Credit Scores and CreditBased Insurance Scores on the Availability and Affordability of Financial Products, 70 Fed. Reg. 9652(Feb. 28, 2005); Public Comment on Methodology and Research Design for Conducting a Study of theEffects of Credit Scores and Credit-Based Insurance Scores on Availability and Affordability of FinancialProducts, 69 Fed. Reg. 34167 (June 18, 2004).56

provided essential information that allowed the Commission to complete this report. Inaddition, feedback from state regulators, industry participants, and the consumer, civilrights, and housing groups had a substantial impact on the methodology and scope of theanalysis.This report discusses the information that the FTC considered, its analysis of thatinformation, and its findings and conclusions. Parts I and II above present an ExecutiveSummary and Introduction, respectively. Part III is an overview of the development anduse of credit-based insurance scores, and Part IV discusses the relationship betweencredit history and risk. Part V addresses the effect of credit-based insurance scores on theprice and availability of insurance. Part VI explores the impact of credit-based insurancescores on racial, ethnic, and other groups. Part VII describes the FTC’s efforts to developa model that reduces differences for protected classes of consumers while continuing toeffectively predict risk. Part VIII is a brief conclusion.III.DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF CREDIT-BASED INSURANCE SCORESA.Background and Historical ExperienceConsumers purchase insurance to protect themselves against the risk of sufferinglosses. They tend to be “risk averse,” that is, consumers would prefer the certainty ofpaying the expected value of a loss to the possibility of bearing the full amount of theloss. For example, assume that a driver faces a 1% risk of being in an automobileaccident that would cause him or her to suffer a 10,000 loss, which means that theexpected value of his or her loss is 100 (1% of 10,000). If the driver is risk averse, heor she would be willing to pay 100 or more to avoid the possible loss of 10,000.7

What makes insurance markets possible is that insurance companies do notsimply take on the risk of their customers, they actually reduce risk. This does not meanthat they reduce the total losses from car accidents or house fires, for example, but ratherthat they reduce the uncertainty that individuals face without themselves facing nearly thesame amount of uncertainty. This is possible because the average loss on a large numberof policies can be predicted much more accurately than the losses of a single driver orhomeowner. For instance, while it is extremely difficult to predict who among a group of100,000 drivers will have an accident, it may be possible to predict the total number ofaccidents for these 100,000 drivers with a low margin of error.6 By selling many policiesthat cover the possible losses for many consumers, an insurance company faces muchlower uncertainty as to total losses than would each consumer if they did not purchaseinsurance.Insurance companies have a strong economic incentive to try to predict risk asaccurately as possible. In a competitive market for insurance in which all firms haveaccess to the same information about risk, competition for customers will force insurancecompanies to offer the lowest rates that cover the expected cost of each policy sold. If aninsurance company is able to predict risk better than its competitors, it can identifyconsumers who currently are paying more than they should based on the risk they pose,and target these consumers by offering them a slightly lower price. Thus, developing andusing better risk prediction methods is an important form of competition among insurancecompanies.6This risk reduction is due to the “law of large numbers.” Uncertainty is reduced as long as there is asufficient degree of independence among the risk that individual consumers face. For example, sellingflood insurance to those who live in a single flood plain reduces risks less than selling the policies to thosewho live in a broader geographic area.8

For decades, insurance companies have divided consumers into groups based oncommon characteristics which correlate with risk of loss. Automobile insurancecompanies divide consumers into groups based on factors such as age, gender, maritalstatus, place of residence, and driving history, among others. Once insurance companieshave separated consumers into groups based on these characteristics, they use the averagerisk of each of these groups in helping to determine the price to charge members of thegroup.Insurance companies report that during the last decade they have begun to usecredit-based insurance scores to assist them in separating consumers into groups based onrisk. Insurers have long used some credit history information when evaluating insuranceapplications, for example, considering bankruptcy in connection with offeringhomeowners insurance. In the early 1980s, insurance companies and others beganassessing the utility of using additional information about credit history in assessing risk,leading to a more formal use of such information in a fairly simple manner by the early1990s.7In the early 1990s, Fair Isaac Corporation (Fair Isaac), drawing on its experiencedeveloping credit scores, led the initial research to develop credit-based insurance scores.The company developed the first “modern” credit-based insurance score and made itavailable to insurance companies in 1993.8 This score was developed to predict thelikelihood of claims being submitted for homeowners policies. Fair Isaac introduced acredit-based insurance score for automobile policies in 1995, and ChoicePoint introduced7Meeting between FTC staff and State Farm (July 13, 2004); Meeting between FTC staff and MetLifeHome and Auto (July 12, 2004); Meeting between FTC staff and Allstate (June 23, 2004).8E-mail from Karlene Bowen, Fair Isaac, to Jesse Leary, Assistant Director, Division of ConsumerProtection, Bureau of Economics (Jan. 30, 2006) (on file with FTC).9

a competing score at about the same time.9 These scores were developed to predict theloss ratios – claims paid out divided by premiums received – of automobile policies.Following the introduction of these third-party scores, some insurance companies begandeveloping and using their own proprietary scores.Since the mid-1990s, the use of credit-based insurance scores has growndramatically. According to industry sources, some of this growth is attributable tochanges in technology and industry practices that have made it easier for companies todevelop10 and use these scores.11 For example, during the 1990s insurance companyactuaries began using advanced statistical techniques that made it easier to control formany predictive variables at the same time.12 This made it easier for them to developproprietary scores and perhaps made them more receptive to using third-party scores.Insurers also explained that at this time they began combining more and more data fromthroughout their companies into integrated databases, and this “data warehousing” madeit much easier for actuaries and others to engage in the research needed to developscores.13More fundamentally, however, insurance companies increasingly used creditbased insurance scores because their experience revealed that they were effective9Id.; E-mail from John Wilson, ChoicePoint, to Jesse Leary, Assistant Director, Division of ConsumerProtection, Bureau of Economics (June 13, 2005) (on file with FTC).10Developing scores is a fairly expensive process, requiring significant information technology resourcesand technical expertise. It also requires a large amount of data on loss experience. Many smaller firms,and even some larger firms, therefore do not develop their own scores. See, e.g., Lamont Boyd, Fair IsaacCorporation, Remarks at the Fair Isaac Consumer Empowerment Forum (Sept. 2006) (noting only six firmsuse a proprietary scoring model).11Industry participants estimate that of the firms that use credit-based risk scores, one-half (as measured bymarket share) use a proprietary score and one-half use a score that others developed. Among insurers whouse a non-proprietary score, about two-thirds use a ChoicePoint score, and one-third use a Fair Isaac score.12These techniques are known as Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). GLMs make it easier to control formany predictive variables at once, and can be used to develop credit-based scoring models. GLMs play acentral role in the analysis presented in this report, and are discussed in more detail in Appendix D.13Meeting between FTC staff and The Hartford (July 14, 2004).10

predictors of risk. For example, according to a published case study, in the early 1990s,Progressive entered the lower-risk portion of the automobile insurance market.Progressive used sophisticated risk prediction techniques that it had developed in its otherlines of business to identify consumers who other insurers were overcharging relative tothe risk they posed. Progressive offered these consumers the same coverage at a lowerprice, thereby persuading some of them to switch to Progressive.14 The success ofProgressive’s strategy provided a powerful incentive for incumbent firms to improvetheir own risk prediction techniques to compete more effectively.15 Many of themresponded to this incentive by increasing their development and use of credit-basedinsurance risk scores.16Insurance companies now widely use credit-based insurance scores. Today, thefifteen largest automobile insurers (with a combined market share of 72% in 2005) allutilize these scores.17 Many smaller automobile insurers also use credit-based insurancescores.18The development and increased use of credit-based insurance scores has beenaccompanied by concerns and criticisms about the validity of the underlying relationshipbetween scores and risk and the fundamental fairness of using credit history informationto make decisions about insurance. According to critics, credit-based insurance scores: 1)14See, e.g., F. Frei, Innovation at Progressive (A): Pay as You Go Insurance, Harv. Bus. Sch. Case Study9-602-175 (Apr. 29, 2004).15Incumbent firms had an incentive to use the new risk prediction technology in any case. The vigorouscompetition of Progressive, however, likely spurred incumbent firms to move more aggressively to use thistechnology than they otherwise would have.16See id.17National Association of Insurance Commissioners, “Auto Insurance Database Report 2003/2004” (2006)(on file with the FTC); FTC staff reviews of websites and discussions with industry representatives. Nomarket share data more recent than 2005 was available.18Fair Isaac Corporation states that it sells credit-based insurance scores to roug

Credit-based insurance scores evolved from traditional credit scores, and insurance companies began to use insurance scores in the mid-1990s. Since that time, their use has grown very rapidly. Today, all major automobile insurance companies use credit-based insurance scores in some capacity. Insurers use these scores to assign

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