urnal ofJoAResearchalS & ClinicIDISSN: 2155-6113Journal ofAIDS & Clinical ResearchMegersa et al., J AIDS Clin Res 2017, 8:12DOI: 10.4172/2155-6113.1000748Open AccessResearch ArticleKnowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practices towards SexuallyTransmitted Infection among Preparatory School Students of Arsi NegelleTownNega Degefa Megersa*, Sindew Mohamud Ahmed, Befikadu Tariku Gutema, Girum Sebsebie Teshome, Zeleke Aschalew Melketsedik andEshetu Zerihun TarikuArbaminch University, Arbaminch, EthiopiaAbstractBackground: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major global cause of acute illness, infertility, long-termdisability and death with serious medical and psychological consequences of millions of men, women and infants. Dueto their high prevalence, particularly in developing settings, STIs result in substantial productivity losses for individualsand communities, particularly where the majority of the population is less than 40 years of age.Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude and preventive practices of Arsi Negelle preparatory students towards STIs.Methodology: Institutional based cross-sectional study design and quantitative method of data collection wereemployed. A Proportionate Stratified random sampling technique was used and finally, a total of 303 respondents wereselected by systematic random sampling method. A standardized self-administered questionnaire was used to collectinformation from respondentsResults: Half of the respondents (50.8%) had good knowledge about STIs and 54.5% of respondents wereidentified to have positive attitude towards STIs and 38.6% of respondents had good preventive practice despite thefact that the rest 61.4% had poor preventive practice towards STIs.Conclusion: Most of respondents had heard about STIs in one or another way however nearly half of respondent'shave good knowledge regarding STIs. This study had called for continued and strengthened health education.Keywords: Sexually transmitted infection; Knowledge; Attitude;PracticeIntroductionThe term sexually transmitted infection (STI) is used to denotea variety of clinical conditions that are caused by pathogens whichcan be acquired and transmitted through sexual activity . STIs aretransmitted predominantly through unprotected sex and can also betransmitted during childbirth or breastfeeding, as well as sharingneedle . STIs are caused by more than 30 different kinds of pathogensincluding bacteria, virus, protozoa, and fungus. There are both curableand non-curable but preventable STIs [3,4].World Health Organization estimated new cases for the fourcommon STIs to be 498.9 million, in 2008, which holds 105.7 millioncases of C. trachomatis, 106.1 million cases of N. gonorrhea, 10.6 millioncases of syphilis and 276.4 million cases of T. vaginalis in people aged15-49 annually. In addition, 536 million people are estimated to beliving with incurable herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infectionapproximately 291 million women have a human papillomavirus(HPV) infection at any given point in time [4-7]. Globally, an estimated35.3 (32.2-38.8) million people were living with HIV in 2012. Therewas an average of 2.3 (1.9-2.7) million new HIV infections globally .Worldwide, up to 4000 newborn babies become blind every yearbecause of eye infections attributable to untreated maternal gonococcusand chlamydial infections. In pregnancy, untreated early syphilisresulted in a stillbirth rate of 25% and be responsible for 14% of neonataldeaths and an overall perinatal mortality of about 40% .In most African countries STIs remain the major public problemon account of their frequency, associated morbidity and mortalityand their economic cost. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women inAfrica ranges from 4%-15% [4,10,11]. The incidence of selected curableJ AIDS Clin Res, an open access journalISSN: 2155-6113STIs for WHO African regions estimated to be 92.6 million: with 8.3million cases of C. trachomatis, 21.1 million cases of N. gonorrhea, 3.4million cases of syphilis and 59.7 million cases of T. vaginalis .In Ethiopia currently, there is no systematic collection of surveillancedata on STIs, despite the routine syphilis tests for a pregnant mom with thecurrent national prevalence of 1.8%. [4,12]. However, the 2011 EthiopianDemographic Health Survey (EDHS) presented a self-reported prevalenceof STIs among women and men aged 15-49 years, 4.6% and 6.8%,respectively reported having STIs in the past 12 months .Knowledge, attitude and preventive practice of students on STIespecially on HIV has been extensively studied; however most of theliterature doesn’t address knowledge, attitude and preventive practiceof STIs other than HIV. So, this study assessed knowledge, attitude,and preventive practices of Arsi Negelle preparatory school studentstowards the common STIs including HIV.This study provided a baseline data for the town health office ongaps between dissemination of health information and students current*Corresponding author: Nega Degefa Megersa, MSc, Arbaminch University,Arbaminch, Ethiopia; Tel: 251921219662; 0461161218; Fax: 2510468810279;E-mail: [email protected] November 27, 2017; Accepted December 20, 2017; PublishedDecember 27, 2017Citation: Megersa ND, Ahmed SM, Gutema BT, Teshome GS, Melketsedik ZA,et al. (2017) Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practices towards SexuallyTransmitted Infection among Preparatory School Students of Arsi Negelle Town. JAIDS Clin Res 8: 748. doi: 10.4172/2155-6113.1000748Copyright: 2017 Megersa ND, et al. This is an open-access article distributedunder the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permitsunrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided theoriginal author and source are credited.Volume 8 Issue 12 1000748
Citation: Megersa ND, Ahmed SM, Gutema BT, Teshome GS, Melketsedik ZA, et al. (2017) Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practices towardsSexually Transmitted Infection among Preparatory School Students of Arsi Negelle Town. J AIDS Clin Res 8: 748. doi: 10.4172/21556113.1000748Page 2 of 6level of awareness, the lived perception and preventive practice towardsSTIs.Materials and MethodsStudy areaThis cross sectional quantitative study was carried out from March15-April 1 at Arsi Negelle town which is located in south eastern partof Ethiopia and in Mirab Arsi zone of Oromia region on the paved highway north of Shashemene. The town is 228km away from Addis Ababa.According to the 2007 national census total population for this workedwas 260,129 of whom 128,885 were men and 131,244 were women .Sample size and sampling procedureSample size was determined by using formula for single populationproportion by considering assumption like; 95% confidence level, 5%margin of error and prevalence of outcome variable that yields largestsample size (knowledge) was considered which is 39% from previousstudy at Gonder (p 0.39).n z α/22 p (1-p) n (1.96)2 0.39 (1-0.39) 366d2 (0.05)2The sample size was corrected using the following formulanf no 366/1 366/1100 275 1 no/NAfter considering 10% for non-response rate the final sample sizewill be 303.Ethical considerationThis study was approved by Ethical Review Board of Addis AbabaUniversity College of health sciences, school of allied health science.Participants were assured that their personal information and answerswould remain confidentialResultsSociodemographic characteristics of respondentsA total of 303 Kilture Preparatory School students participated inthe study with a response rate of 100%. The age of respondent’s rangefrom 16-24 years with mean age of 18.53 1.402 years. 181 (59.7%) ofrespondents were male (Table 1).Knowledge of Kilture Preparatory School students about STIsConcerning types of STIs 262 (86.50%), 256 (84.5%), 194 (64.0%),76 (25.1%), 7 (2.3%), 4 (1.3%) had mentioned HIV, gonorrhea, syphilis,chancroid, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C, respectively. 10 (3.3%) ofrespondents had mentioned TB as one of STIs erroneously. 88.9% ofrespondent identified virus as a primary cause for STIs, 32.6% bacteria,28.4% fungus, and there were also respondents who replied wronganswers like bad hygiene of women or men 73 (24.5%), using uncleanwater 7 (2.3%) and sex during menstruation 54 (18.1%) as a cause forSTIs. 302 (99.7%) of respondents mention that STI can transmit fromperson to person and 274 (90.4%) of them stated sexual intercourse asa primary mode of transmission (Table 2).The total calculated sample size was selected from all section bysystematic random sampling method by using their registrationnumber as reference.VariablesData collection procedures and instrumentSexA self-administered questionnaire with four parts was used for datacollection. 1st- Questions regarding Sociodemographic backgroundof students, 2nd- Question concerning knowledge of students aboutSTI 3rd- Question assessing attitude of students towards STI and 4th Question evaluating preventive practices of students. One day trainingwas given for data collectors and supervisors. A pretest was done on 5%of the sample.AgeReligionEthnicityData processing and analysisThe data was entered by using EPI data version 3.1. Software thenexported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Descriptive statistics was usedto organize and summarize back ground variables. The associationbetween variables was measured and tested by using bivariate andmultivariate logistic regression.Grade of studentWith whom doyou live?ScoringEach right answer was given 1 and wrong or uncertain answer wasscore 0. Total knowledge scores ranges from 0-43. Knowledge scoresfrom 0 to 19.23 were considered as poor knowledge while knowledgescores more than 19.23 was considered as having good knowledgeregarding STIAttitude concerning STIs patients was assessed using a 9 itemquestionnaire where, attitude scores between 0-7.5 were considered asunfavorable attitude, and scores 7.5-9 were considered as positive attitude.If students answer more than the mean score out of preparedpractice questions where as poor preventive practice: If students answerless than the mean score out of prepared practice questions.J AIDS Clin Res, an open access journalISSN: 2155-6113Do you have boy/girl friend?Mothers level ofeducationFathers level ofeducationCategoryFrequency (N)Percentage ayita31Other196.31119062.71211337.3Parents or family25483.8Friends or friend in rent268.6Alone in rental home155.0Others82.6Yes10936.0No19464.0No formal ege and above61No formal education3411.2Primary9330.7Secondary9230.4College and above8427.7%Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of Arsi Negelle Kilture PreparatorySchool student’s west Arsi zone, Oromia, Ethiopia 2016.Volume 8 Issue 12 1000748
Citation: Megersa ND, Ahmed SM, Gutema BT, Teshome GS, Melketsedik ZA, et al. (2017) Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practices towardsSexually Transmitted Infection among Preparatory School Students of Arsi Negelle Town. J AIDS Clin Res 8: 748. doi: 10.4172/21556113.1000748Page 3 of 6259 (85.8%) of respondent mentioned condom as first line preventionmethod and 7 (2.3%) incorrectly said that not eating with infectedVariablesResponseDo STIs transmittable?What are the modes oftransmission?302No10.3Unprotected sex27490.7Blood transfusion14247Sharing needle23076.2Mother to child17858.9Mosquito bite *258.399.7Sharing cloths *237.6Yes30299.7Can we prevent STIs?What are the preventionmethods?Frequency (N) Percent (%)YesNo10.3Condom25985.8individual can prevent the spread of the disease. Regarding the sign andsymptoms of STIs 215 (72.4%) respondents knew discharge from vaginaor urethra, 169 (56.9%) loss of body weight, 163 (54.9%) genital ulcers oropen sores, 56 (52.5%) itching of genital area, 135 (45.5%) failure to urinate,122 (41.1%), 20 (6.7%) lower abdominal pain and 6 (2%) of respondentreplied that they don’t know any sign and symptom of STIs. 154 (50.8%)of respondents were knowledgeable about the common aspect of STIs. Themean score of respondents was 19.23 5.73 with minimum and maximumscore of 8 and 38, respectively (Figure 1).Attitude of Kilture Preparatory School students towards STIs165 (54.5%) of respondents had positive attitude while the rest 138(45.5%) had negative attitude about STIs. 233 (76.9%) of respondentsbelieve that people who had STI can’t be easily identified in thecommunity, 189 (62.4%) of respondents perceives that STIs are notdangerous as afar as they can be treated, 69 (22.8%) of respondentsmisperceive that isolating individuals with STIs can help prevent thespread of the disease (Table 3).Abstinence24581.1Not eating withSTIs patients *72.3Not having multiplesexual partner18159.9Preventive practices of Kilture Preparatory School studentsNot receivingunscreened blood21370.5117 (38.6%) of respondents reported as they had history of sexualintercourse and 54 (46.2%) of them perform with fixed friend, 61(52.1%) with causal friend and 2 (1.7%) with other. From those whoencounter sexual intercourse 29% had used condom while 29 (9.6%) of* Wrong answers mentioned by respondentsTable 2: Modes of transmission and prevention method of STIs of KilturePreparatory school students, Arsi Negelle town, west Arsi zone, %49.17%48.50%48.00%good knowledgepoor knowledgeknowledge levelFigure 1: Kilture Preparatory School student’s level of knowledge about STIs, at Arsi Negelle west Arsi zone, 2016.Response indicating desirableattitude (%)according to 303Do you think patients with STIs are easily identified in the community?No1379676.9%Do you think sexually transmitted infections are not dangerous because they can be cured?No1256462.4%Do you think people who are infected with STI must get treatment?Yes16411893.1%Do you think young people should get information/ knowledge about STIs?Yes17812098.3%Do you think getting HIV and other STIs are more frustrating than other consequences when having unprotectedsexual intercourse?Yes17110892.1%Do you think a person who does not want to become infected with STI should use condom?Yes17211695.1%Do you believe isolating an individual who had STI can help prevent spread of the disease?No1409376.9%Do you think there are both cured and non-cured STI?Yes1379375.9Do you think STIs can transmit by other means than?Yes142110380.9VariableMean (SD) Attitude score 7.5 (1.2), Min. scores 3- max. score 9Table 3: Attitudes of respondents towards STI in terms of their sex in Arsi Negelle town, west Arsi zone, Oromia, Ethiopia, 2016.J AIDS Clin Res, an open access journalISSN: 2155-6113Volume 8 Issue 12 1000748
Citation: Megersa ND, Ahmed SM, Gutema BT, Teshome GS, Melketsedik ZA, et al. (2017) Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practices towardsSexually Transmitted Infection among Preparatory School Students of Arsi Negelle Town. J AIDS Clin Res 8: 748. doi: 10.4172/21556113.1000748Page 4 of 6them didn’t utilize condom. From those who had utilized condom 36(11.9%) used always, 26 (8.6%) usually and 26 (8.6%) sometimes.From total of 117 students who had history of sexual intercourse only38.6% of respondents had good preventive practice despite of the fact thatthe rest 61.4% had poor preventive practice towards STIs (Figure 3).and fathers of student’s educational level was identified to have associationwith knowledge of students and p-value less than 0.2 was considered to runmultivariate logistic regression and thus, sex of respondent and student’sfathers’ level of education were identified to have significant associationwith knowledge of respondents. Hence, male students were 1.80 timesmore likely to have good knowledge about STIs than female students(AOR, (95% CI), 1.80 (1.096, 2.967)). Likewise, respondents whose fatherhad college and more educational level were 3.71 times more likely tohave good knowledge about STIs than those whose father had no formaleducation (AOR, (95% CI) 3.71 (1.539, 8.950)) (Table 4).Factors associated with knowledge of students towards STIsFactors associated with preventive practices of studentsWith respect to taking measure for individual who is vulnerableto STI 156 (51.5%) of respondents mentioned advising to abstain theindividual as primarily action, 7 (2.3%) wrongly advice individual as towash his/her genitalia prior to sex (Figure 2).In bivariate logistic regression respondent’s father’s and mother’sIn bivariate logistic regression, sex, living with whom status, motherspreventive ice to abstain advice to be faithfuladvice to usecondom2.3%2.3%advice to washhis/her genitaliabefore sexadvice to washhis/her genitaliaafter sexFigure 2: Kilture preparatory School Student’s preventive practice for individual who are vulnerable, for contracting STIs in Arsi Negelle town, west Arsi zone, 2016.good preventivepractice, 38.60%,39%poor preventivepractice, 61.40%,61%Figure 3: Kilture Preparatory School student’s levels of preventive practices towards STIs at Arsi Negelle town west Arsi zone, 2016.VariableCategoryKnowledge of studentsPoorN (%)Fathers level ofeducationP-valueAOR (95% CI)P-valueNo formal education23 (15.4%)11 (7.1%)1Primary46 (30.9%)47 (30.5%)2.14 (0.936, 4.8770.0722.13 (0.916, 4.969)0.07945 (45%)47 (30.5%)2.18 (0.955, 4.991)0.0642.31 (0.991, 5.398)0.05335 (23.5%)49 (31.8%)2.93 (1.265, 6.776)0.012*3.71 (1.539, 8.950)0.003Male82 (55%)99 (64.3%)1.47 (0.927, 2.333)0.101*1.80 (1.096, 2.967)0.02Female67 (45%)55 (35.7%)1149154 (100%)SecondaryCollege and aboveSexCOR (95%CI)GoodN (%)Total11*statistically significant association at p-value of 0.05Table 4: Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis result indicating factors associated with knowledge about STI among Arsi Negelle Kilture Preparatory Schoolstudents, West Arsi z one, 2016.J AIDS Clin Res, an open access journalISSN: 2155-6113Volume 8 Issue 12 1000748
Citation: Megersa ND, Ahmed SM, Gutema BT, Teshome GS, Melketsedik ZA, et al. (2017) Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practices towardsSexually Transmitted Infection among Preparatory School Students of Arsi Negelle Town. J AIDS Clin Res 8: 748. doi: 10.4172/21556113.1000748Page 5 of 6VariableCategoryPreventive practicePoorFathers level of No formal educationeducationPrimaryCOR (95%CI)p-valueAOR (95% CI)p-valueGood10 (18.5%)2 (5.9%)0.257 (0.042, 1.573)0.1420.257 (0.042, 1.57)0.14210 (18.5%)14 (41.2%)1.800 (0.501,6.463)0.3671.8 (0.501, 6.463)0.367Secondary25 (46.3%)11 (32.4%)0.566 (0.168, 1.908)0.3580.566 (0.168, 1.908)0.358College and above9 (16.7%)7 (20.6%)154 (100%)34 (100%)TotalMothers level of No formal education*educationPrimary118 (33.3%)5 (14.7%)0.202 (0.053, 0.776)0.0200.212 (0.050, 0.895)0.03514 (25.9%)10 (29.4%)0.519 (0.153, 1.759)0.2930.485 (0.133, 1.774)0.274Secondary14 (25.9%)8 (23.5%)00.416 (00.118, 10.463)0.1710.413 (0.109, 1.554)0.193College and above8 (14.8%)11 (32.4%)1Total54 (100%)34 (100%)1*Statistically significant association at p-value of 0.05Table 5: Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis indicating factors associated with preventive practice of students towards STI among Arsi Negelle KilturePreparatory School students, West Arsi zone, 2016.level of education were declared to be candidate for multi variablelogistic regression assuming p-value less than 0.2. In multi variablelogistic regression mother’s level of education were recognized to havesignificant association with respondent’s preventive practices towardsSTIs. As a result, respondents, whose mothers had no formal education,were 78.8% less likely to have good preventive practice when comparedwith respondents whose mother had college and more educational level(AOR, 95% CI 0.212 (0.050, 0.895)) (Table 5).DiscussionIn this study 298 (98.3%) of respondents had heard about STIsfrom different sources which was recognized to be almost similar withthe finding of a study at shone town which was 295 (97.4%) and it wasrelatively higher than a study held on Turkish Cypriot high schooladolescents which revealed that 91.25% of students had heard aboutSTIs from different sources the discrepancy in hearing about STIs mayoccurs due to increasing coverage of technology and information fromtime to time [15,16].With respect to knowledge of respondents about sign andsymptoms of STIs the finding of this study revealed that 72.4% ofrespondent were aware of the sign and symptoms of STIs which ishigher when compared with a study at Addis Ababa which was 17.9%and a study at Gonder which was 45.5% but the finding of this studywas lower than a study at shone preparatory school which was 91.75%.The difference in knowledge of students about sign and symptoms ofSTI may be attributable to time gabs between the studies and expansionof awareness creating programs and increased coverage of technologies[15,17,18].Considering the knowledge of students about the different typesof STIs in the current study 262 (86.5%) had mentioned HIV as STIswhile only 7 (2.3%) of respondents know that HB is STIs which wasconsiderably lower than the finding of a study done at Nepal whichshowed 96.6% boys and 86.6% girls had mentioned HIV/AIDS and56.66% Hepatitis-B as they are grouped under STIs the difference in thetwo-study population may arises from difference in levels of civilization,growth and expanded coverage in technology and wide spread mediacoverage .In this study 99.7% of respondents stated that they can preventthemselves from contracting STIs which was in line with the finding of astudy at Dares Salaam, Tanzania in which 96% of students said they wereable to protect themselves from contracting STIs the difference may beattributable to the time difference between these two studies .J AIDS Clin Res, an open access journalISSN: 2155-6113In this study 259 (85.8%) of students mentioned consistent use ofcondom as a primary method of prevention which is a bit lower thanthe finding of a study at Wolayita Sodo university which was 96.2%.the variation may resulted from difference in respondent’s level ofeducation and habits of discussion about STIs .With respect to misconception about modes of transmission ofSTIs 25(8%) of respondents perceive that mosquito bite can transmitSTIs when compared with the finding of study at Debrebrehanwhich showed 33% of participants perceived that STIs can transmitthrough mosquito bite thus, the difference might have resulted fromdissimilarity in perceptions that is held in the two study settings inwhich the participants interact with .In this study 45.5% of respondents had negative attitude which issignificantly larger when compared with findings of study conduct atshone preparatory school which was 15.18% and study at Gonder whichwas 34%, this considerable variance in attitude may be attributable tothe level of knowledge of students and sociodemographic [15,17].In this study 117 (38.6%) respondents reported as they hadhistory of sexual intercourse from this 29 did not utilize condomwhile the remaining used condom and from users only 36 (11.9%) ofrespondents exploit it properly and consistently when compared withstudy conducted at shone about 41.25% of the respondents have historyof sexual intercourse, from those who had sex, 89 (71.20%) had usedcondom and 36 (28.80%) did not use it. Among condom users 31(34.83%) utilize always, which is a bit higher than in utilizing condomthe discrepancy might have resulted from difference in knowledgeand attitude about STI. Knowledge of respondents had significantassociation with respondent’s father’s level of education and sexof respondents. This finding is in line with the finding of a study atDebrebrehan .Limitation of the Study Self-reported information is subjected to reporting errors,missed values and biases. Since the study touches sensitivesibilityofunderestimationreporting cannot be excluded. Cross- sectional study design was employed for this study. Thistype of study design shows the exposure and outcome at thesame point in time, so that we cannot formulate cause and effect relationship.issuesandtheposunderVolume 8 Issue 12 1000748
Citation: Megersa ND, Ahmed SM, Gutema BT, Teshome GS, Melketsedik ZA, et al. (2017) Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practices towardsSexually Transmitted Infection among Preparatory School Students of Arsi Negelle Town. J AIDS Clin Res 8: 748. doi: 10.4172/21556113.1000748Page 6 of 6Conclusion and RecommendationMost of respondents had heard about STIs however, only nearlyhalf of them have good knowledge about STIs. Male respondents hadpoor preventive practice when compared with female. More than halfof study participants had positive attitude however still there wasmiss conception that an individual with STIs can be easily identifiedin the community and isolating this group of individual from theother community member, can be helpful in controlling the spreadof disease. School administration should design strategies on howto build on the existing level of knowledge, attitude and preventivepractice. Gender clubs and anti-HIV clubs. Further research mayneed to identify factors that are associated with gender inequalitiesin terms of knowledge, attitude and preventive practice towards STIsin the study area.5. Goldmeier AM (2015) Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) The importance ofa renewed commitment to STI prevention and control in achieving global sexualand reproductive health. WHO Libr Cat Data Sex, pp: 1-8.6. Cossio MLT, Giessen LF, Araya G, Pérez-Cotapos MLS, Vergara RL, et al.(2012) Uma ética para quantos. XXXIII: 81-87.7. World Health Organization (2014) Baseline report on global sexually transmittedinfection surveillance 2013. WHO 54.8. UNAIDS (2013) Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic.UNAIDS 272.9. WHO (2007) Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of SexuallyTransmitted Infections: 2006-2015, breaking chain of transmission. Sexual andreproductive health, Geneva, Switzerland 61.10. CDC (2007) Sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: Currentconcepts and strategies on improving STI prevention, treatment, and control.CDC, Geneva, Switzerland, pp: 1-60.Ethics Statement11. Kassie A, Shume A, Kloos H (2006) Sexually transmitted infectious. TheEpidemiology and Ecology of Health and Disease in Ethiopia.The study protocol was approved by Addis Ababa University College of healthsciences institutional review board AAU MF 008 version 2 with protocol number104/Nulfe on 21/01/2016.12. WHO, UNAIDS. Global AIDS response progress reporting 2015. WHO,UNAIDS, pp: 12-18.Acknowledgement13. Central Statistical Agency, ICF International (2012) Ethiopia Demographic andHealth Survey 2011. Central Statistical Agency and ICF International, AddisAbaba, Ethiopia and Calverton, Maryland, USA.I would like to express my profound gratitude and deep appreciation toAddis Ababa University College of health science school of allied health sciencesdepartment of nursing and midwifery who provides me this opportunity to carry outthis research.I am particularly very grateful for the special assistance of Mr. Girum Sebsebiefor the guidance and direction which he offered me throughout the process.Key messageThe existing facts that initiates me to carry out the current study was observedgaps or lack of knowledge of students regarding the common STIs including HIVwhich was confirmed by individuals who are a friend of me working in the studyarea school. The finding of this study identified that students have poor knowledgeregarding the common STIs with exception of HIV in which they have relativelygood knowledge. So limitation of knowledge make students practice sexualintercourse in unsafe and non-protective manner which in turn put them on anincreased risk of contracting and transmitting STIs.References1. Casey CG, Rutledge TF, Boyd MF, Starr TM (2010) Morbidity and mortalityweekly report sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010department of health and human services. Sex Transm Dis 59: 1-110.2. Lazarus JV, Sihvonen-Riemenschneider H, Laukamm-Josten U, Wong F,Liljestrand J (2010) Systematic review of interventions to prevent the spread ofsexually transmitted infections, including HIV, among young people in Europe.Croat Med J 51: 74-84.3. Ethiopia (2003) H prevention and control office ministry of health in collaborationwith U president’s plan for a relief (PEPFAR) through department of health andhuman service C office in. National Guidelines for the Management of STIsUsing the Syndromic Approach 8-59.4. Matkins PP (2013) Sexually transmitted infections in adolescents. N C Med J74: 48-52.J AIDS Clin Res, an open access journalISSN: 2155-611314. Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia National Census (2007) Population andhousing census of Ethiopia. Results for Oromia region.15. Kejela G, Bikila S (2015) Assessment of knowledge, attitude and preventivepractices towards sexually transmitted infections among preparatory schoolstudents in Shone Town. Health Med Informatics 6: 1-6.16. Kaptanoglu AF, Suer K, Diktas H, Hincal E (2013) Knowledge, attitudesand behaviour towards sexually transmitted diseases in Turkish Cypriotadolescents. Cent Eur J Public Health 21: 54-58.17. Shiferaw Y, Alemu A, Girma A, Getahun A, Kassa A, et al. (2011) Assessmentof knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors towards HIV/AIDS and other sexualtransmitted infection among preparatory students of Gondar town, north westEthiopia. BMC Res Notes 4: 505.18. Cherie A, Berhane Y (2012) AIDS and clinical knowledge of sexuallytransmitted infections and barriers to seeking health services among highschool adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. J AIDS Clin Res 3.19. Gupta S, Khanal TR, Gupta N, Thakur A, Khatri R, et al. (2011) Knowledge,behavior and attitude towards sexually transmitted infections and acqui
Attitude concerning . STIs. patients was assessed using a 9 item questionnaire where, attitude scores between 0-7.5 were considered as unfavorable attitude, and scores 7.5-9 were considered as positive attitude. If students answer more than the mean score out of prepared practice questions where as poor preventive practice: If students answer
Cognitive attitude also exerts a positive impact on affective attitude. The empirical test of Hee-Dong et al. (2004)’s found support for a positive influence of cognitive attitude on affective attitude. Hence: H 9: Cognitive attitude positively influences affective attitude. Attitude may
5 posters Attitude Poem Attitude Equation Smile Attitude Treatment Attitude Attitude Acronym . Designed and written by Janice DAVIES Attitude Specialist Professional Conference Speaker, Business Trainer, Success Coach Author Inaugural sponsor of: New Zealand’s Self Esteem for
χ2 shows there is highly significant association between knowledge and attitude of student towards tobacco use. Regarding attitude towards tobacco use the 77% had healthy positive attitude and only 16.5% had negative attitude towards it. The χ2 test showed that there was statistically significant relationship (p .001) between knowledge and .
ledge, attitude and associated factors towards TB among the general population of Lesotho. Lack of knowledge of the people and a negative attitude towards TB is one of the major problems in preventing, controlling and end-ing TB. Thus, we assessed the knowledge, attitude and associated factors towards tuberculosis among the gen-
Sealants and preventive restorations: review of effectiveness and clinical changes for improvement Robert J. Feigal DDS, PhD Abstract Sealants are effective caries-preventive agents to the ex-tent they remain bonded to teeth. Preventive resin restora-tions (PRR) have a proven record, but ar
Preventive care guidelines for children.2 Recommended preventive care services for children will vary based on age and may include some of the following: Age-appropriate well-child examination. . 1 Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), many plans are required to cover certain preventive services without cost share .
Covered “Eligible Preventive Care” also includes preventative care identified by the Department of Health and Human Services under the PPACA. Eligible Preventive Care is covered at 100% when the Member meets age and frequency requirements. The Preventive benefit can be applied to el
Billing Guideline for Preventive Services P a g e 2 Revisions from last publication are highlighted in yellow. Separate Payment Categories: Category 1: Preventive office visit Category 2: Separately payable (modifier may be required) Category 3: Not paid w/ preventive E/M code Category 4: No
PREVENTIVE DENTAL MATERIALS Shan Lal, DDS Pediatric Dentistry Preventive Dental Materials Tooth Paste Mouth Washes Fluorides Sealants Mouth guards Tooth Paste Components/composition 1. Colloidal binding agents - Na Alginate, methy cellulose Function: prevent se
We all do preventive maintenance -1.0 We all do preventive maintenance -2.0 2005 Texas City refinery explosion 15 workers killed 170 workers injured The pressure wave was so powerful it shattered windows off site up to ¾ miles away An area estimated at 200,000 square feet was burned "Technical failings included a lack of preventive maintenance on
Knowledge, Attitude, Health and Food Safety Health and food safety is one of the most important issues of nutrition science. The present study aims to examine the knowledge and attitude towards health and food safety among student
positive attitude towards SDGs. Spearman's rho coefficient correlation was applied to determine the relationships between variables (knowledge with practice and attitude with practice). The results revealed a weak negative correlation between the knowledge and practice towards SDGs (r -.264, N 382, p .00). However, there is a strong .
3 The TSP Body of Knowledge 7 Competency Area 1: TSP Foundations and Fundamentals 9 Knowledge Area 1.1: Knowledge Work 9 Knowledge Area 1.2: TSP Prerequisite Knowledge 12 Knowledge Area 1.3: TSP Principles 14 Knowledge Area 1.4: TSP Process Elements and Measures 15 Knowledge Area 1.5: TSP Quality Practices 17
RACI Knowledge User Knowledge Author Knowledge Reviewer (Content SME) Knowledge Manager / Coordinator(s) Knowledge Mgt Process Owner 1.0 Identify Knowledge AR 2.0 Author / Update Knowledge AR R 3.0 Review and Update Knowledge C R AR 4.0 Publish Knowledge I I I
Passive Attitude Control Schemes Actuators Sensors Active Attitude Control Concepts ADCS Performance and Stability Measures Estimation and Filtering in Attitude Determination Maneuvers Other System Consideration, Control/Structure interaction Technological Trends and Advanced Concepts.
The following section on attitude will help you rate your attitude and explain how you can make some improvements. Attitude is important—it affects: 1. How successful you are in achieving your academic and personal goals 2. How you feel, mentally and physically 3. How you look, what you say and what you do Do you have a positive attitude?
64. Survive and Thrive 65. Teamwork 66. Attitude 67.Attitude - Stress 68.Attitude - Kindness 69.Attitude - Kindness Practice 70.Principle Sharpening Test 71.PST - Truth, Fairness, and Honesty 72.Justified Violence 73.Self Defense 74.We the Jury 75.How Not to be a Victim of Violence
attitude system utilizing a commercial off-the-shelf GPS receiver and use this system to test the utility of a verbal attitude warning system. Much of the impetus for this project arose from the vast array of potential applications for pseudo-attitude systems and a desire to make these applications more straightforward. It was hoped
1 1 INTRODUCTION Wertz defines an attitude control system as "both the process and the hardware by which the attitude [of a spacecraft] is controlled" . This thesis consists of the attitude control system design for the CubeSat class satellite designed and built by students at the University of Illinois,
Academic writing is explicit in its signposting of the organisation of the ideas in the text: ever built in Britain. However, even by the end Partly this was because the current control of the land. Similarly, Marx was interested his own family. In addition, he has a between orders and bishops. For example, in the Northern context. Explicitness Academic writing is explicit .