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NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH FORUMPaint Film ComponentsNational Environmental Health MonographsGeneral Series No. 21998

1Paint Film ComponentsM van AlphenNational Environmental Health Forum MonographsGeneral Series No. 2National Environmental Health Forum1998Paint Film Components

2Copyright 1998Copyright in this publication is assigned to theDepartment of Human Services on the basisof an agreement with M van AlphenPrinted by Glenelg PressPublished by the National Environmental Health ForumPrepared for publication by Bill LockPublic and Environmental Health ServiceDepartment of Human ServicesPrice available on application.Correspondence with the author onPaint Film Components can be sent to:Mike van AlphenPO Box 3421 Rundle Mall SA 5000Minor amendments have been made to page 8.The list of Published Monographs has been updated.National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication;van Alphen, Mike.Paint film components.Bibliography.ISBN 0 642 30532 3.ISSN 1328 - 28671. Paint - Analysis. 2. Paint - Toxicology.I. National Environmental Health Forum.II. Title. (Series: National EnvironmentalHealth Forum Monographs. GeneralSeries; no. 2Paint Film Components

3ContentsAcknowledgements7Disclaimer7Published monographs8Preface91.Legislation affecting paint121.1 International121.2 Great Britain121.3 Australia131.3.1 Past legislation relating to paint manufacture and sale in Australia131.3.2 Queensland141.3.3 Tasmania151.3.4 New South Wales161.3.5 South Australia161.3.6 Australia161.4 Occupational health and safety and paint in Australia2.3.The Paint Industry17192.1 The export and import of paints192.2 The paint industry in Australia192.3 Pigment manufacture222.4 The early water paints - whitewash222.5 Pigments and paint formulation practice242.6 Pigment particle characteristics252.7 After-treated and core pigments262.8 World wide pigment utilisation26Lead pigments273.1 White lead273.1.1 Introduction273.1.2 White lead manufacture processes283.1.3 Properties of white lead283.1.4 Imitation mother of pearl - white lead303.2 White basic sulphate of lead313.3 Red lead paint323.4 Sublimed blue lead343.5 Calcium plumbate343.6 Lead titanate353.7 Lead chlorides in paint353.8 Lead chromates354.The mixing of lead and zinc in paint375.Zinc in paint385.1 Zinc oxide38Paint Film Components

46.Lithopone417.Titanium Dioxide447.1 Introduction8.9.447.1.1 TiO2 from ilmenite447.1.2 Anatase and rutile forms of TiO2457.1.3 Trace components of titanium dioxide pigments457.1.4 Extended TiO2477.1.5 Was TiO2 a well known pigment in the 1940s?47Lead, Zinc Oxide, Lithopone and TiO2498.1 TiO2 in Australia508.2 Summary: TiO2 in paint51Other pigment materials519.1 Antimony519.2 Arsenic529.3 Barium529.4 Bismuth549.5 Cadmium pigments549.6 Chromate pigments559.6.1 Introduction559.6.2 Chrome green and fast chrome green559.6.3 Chromium oxide569.6.4 Zinc chromate569.7 Cobalt579.8 Copper579.9 Iron589.10 Manganese589.11 Mixed metal oxide pigments589.12 Molybdate red and orange pigments599.13 Organic Nitro-ortho-toluidine609.14 Prussian blue: ferric ferrocyanide9.14.160Brunswick Green619.15 Ultramarine6210. Paint additives6310.1 Introduction6310.2 Mineral whites, fillers or extenders6310.3 Asbestos6410.3.1 Asbestos, asbestine and other nomenclature6410.3.2 The function of asbestos in paint6410.3.365Quantities of asbestos in paintPaint Film Components

510.3.4The risk of asbestos in paint6710.4 Driers6810.4.1Paint driers, old and recent6810.4.2Driers: usual practice7010.4.3The misuse of driers7110.5 Risks associated with paint driers7210.6 Fungicides7210.6.1Surface disinfection in hospitals7410.7 Insecticidal paints7510.8 Mercury in paint7510.8.1Mercury as a pigment7510.8.1.1Substitutions for mercury as a pigment7610.8.1.2Lingering use of mercury as a pigment7610.8.2Mercury as a biocide7810.9 Plasticisers8010.10 Stabilisers8110.11 Thixotropic agents8111. Chlorine in paint8211.1 Chlorinated rubber8211.2 Polychlorinated biphenyls in paint8211.3 Chlorinated paraffins in paint8312. Metal primers: General8413. Metallic materials in paint8513.1 Metallic lead as a primer8513.2 Zinc dust metal paints8614. Luminous and fluorescent paints8615. Some non-household paints8715.1 Vehicle paints8715.2 Marine paints8715.2.1Antifouling8816. Paint failure8916.1 Paint chalking descriptions8916.2 Paint chalking causes9016.3 Chalking of white lead paint9016.4 Susceptible pigments and modifications of pigments to address chalking9116.5 Properties of chalked paint surfaces9116.6 The risks of chalking paint9116.7 The durability and weathering of paint films9216.8 Gross failure9416.8.1Alligatoring and cracking9416.8.2Blistering9517. Renovating9617.1 Sandpaper abrasion of paint96Paint Film Components

617.2 Paint removal using heat9618. Paint solvents9719. Paint Substrates9719.1 Putty9819.2 Wood preservatives9919.3 Wood9919.4 Corrugated iron9919.5 Paint failure on cement10019.6 Miscellaneous10120. Lead in paint on Australian houses10120.1 Queensland10120.2 Mort Bay, Sydney10120.3 Boolaroo, Newcastle10220.4 Port Pirie10220.5 Broken Hill10320.6 Paint lead in residential settings in Australia10320.7 Summary: The analysis of lead in paint in Australia10421. Paint covering and paint thickness, lead loadings and lead concentrations10521.1 Upper limits for lead content10521.2 Paint film thickness10521.3 Painted surface lead loadings10621.3.1Summary10922. How much paint lead on a house?11023. The amount of lead in a chip of paint11124. Lead added to soils113References117Appendix 1 Inorganic pigments124Appendix 2 Paint pigments128Appendix 3 Synthetic organic pigments132Paint Film Components

7AcknowledgementsMy work in the South Australian Health Commission since 1993 has been directed towards theinvestigation of child lead exposure and lead smelter emissions with a limited emphasis on paint lead.An early draft of this work emerged after the realisation of the presence of paint film componentssuch as asbestos, mercury, cadmium, and PCBs, among other components that may pose risks; inaddition to those of lead. This project emerged (after hours) given the early encouragement of MarkFarfel, Rob Fowler and Nick Kim.For unpublished paint lead analysis data provided by Dani Boddington of the Broken HillEnvironmental Lead Centre, and national paint lead survey data from Phil Anderson of the AustralianInstitute of Health and Welfare, I owe particular thanks.Two technical references provided a great deal of historical data for this work, the publishers of TheForensic Examination of Paints and Pigments (Charles C Thomas) and Paint Film Defects: theircauses and cure (Chapman and Hall) have kindly provided permission to reproduce extended extractsfrom their works.Comments provided on the text by Andrew Langley and Nick Kim were very useful, the finalpreparation of the document, review of the text and checking of calculations by Bill Lock was readilyappreciated. Any feedback on this work; be it requests for clarification, suggestions of alternatesources of information or any matters of debate; they would be greatly appreciated by the writer.Finally I thank Joe van Alphen - who has shared much practical knowledge, from some 40 years in thepainting trade.DisclaimerThis document has been prepared in good faith exercising due care and attention. However, norepresentation or warranty, expressed or implied, is made as to the relevance, accuracy, completenessor fitness for purpose of this document in respect of any particular user’s circumstances. Users of thisdocument should satisfy themselves concerning its application to, and where necessary seek expertadvice about, their situation. The NEHF, its participants and the SAHC shall not be liable to thepurchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused or allegedto have been caused directly or indirectly by this publication.Paint Film Components

8Published monographsWater Series1. Guidance for the control of Legionella (1996)2. Guidance on water quality for heated spas (1996)3. Guidance on the use of rainwater tanks (1998)Soil Series1. Health-based soil investigation levels, 2nd edition (1998)2. Exposure scenarios and exposure settings, 2nd edition (1998)3. Composite sampling (1996)Metal Series1. Aluminium, 2nd edition (1998)2. Zinc (1997)3. Copper (1997)Air Series1. Ozone (1997)2. Benzene (1997)3. Nitrogen Dioxide (1997)4. Sulfur dioxide (1999)General Series1. Pesticide use in schools and school grounds (1997)2. Paint film components (1998)3. Guidelines for the control of public health pests – Lice, fleas, scabies, bird mites, bedbugs andticks (1999)4. National Standard for licensing pest management technicians (1999)Indigenous Environmental Health Series1. Indigenous Environmental Health No. 1 (1999)Exposure Series1. Child activity patterns for environmental exposure assessment in the home (1999)Counter Disaster series1. Floods: An environmental health practitioner's emergency management guide (1999)Paint Film Components

9PrefaceThis work provides an insight into the use of potentially toxic materials in paints, which may be left inthe layers of paint films. The historical information presented is a guide to potentially toxiccomponents in paint films and their probable concentrations. For example, it will permit a broadunderstanding of what paint components may be expected in a 100 year sequence of paint layers.Such a history is a preliminary step in the risk assessment process and will contribute to betterinformed decisions about the assessment and remediation of homes with old paints.Simply put, paint is a material that obscures and protects the underlying surface and is able to bepigmented with a range of colours. Paints by their protective functions, have to be environmentallystable, containing long lived materials that will form a waterproof barrier able to withstand biological,physical and chemical attack. The protective requirements of paints have commonly resulted in paintcomponents being used which are potentially toxic as are some brilliantly coloured pigments.The manufacture of paints and pigments, particularly over the last hundred years, has been driven bythe imagination and industry of millions of people and tens of thousands of manufacturing sites worldwide. The diversity of raw materials and the different approaches to manufacture are responsible forwide variation in paint film composition. More subtle variations occur, particularly with respect tominor additives, whose concentrations may range over many orders of magnitude.Diversity in paint formulations is driven by the need for a range of colours, applied to a wide range ofsubstrates, a diversity of paint uses and differing exposure (weathering) conditions. There are manypaint properties such as covering or obscuring power, drying time, paint-film-hardness, filmflexibility, colour permanence, water resistance, UV resistance, ease of application, control of paintlayer thickness, rate of chalking, mould and fire resistance, among others, that are able to be modifiedby varying the properties and proportions of major components and minor additives. In manysituations one component may require the addition of others to balance the physical and chemicalproperties of the formulation. The constitution of paint materials is highly varied as are the toxicproperties of paint. Dusts generated by the abrasion of a number of different paint layers from anumber of different surfaces of different ages may readily contain or be derived from several hundreddifferent compounds.Some answers to questions on the contemporary risks related to old paint lie in the investigation ofdried paint films. However, to estimate past exposures, particularly in relation to pesticides, organicmercury, and plasticisers which are sufficiently volatile for a proportion to be lost from the paint filmover time, the analysis of original paint stored in good condition in-the-can may be useful. Suchmaterials from the 1950s are rare but may still available from deceased estates or hazardous wastemanagement depots, for example.The toxic properties of pigment particles or other materials in paint may be substantially influenced,and perhaps mediated, by the manner of encapsulation of that material by paint binding components.Examples of this may be the extent of encapsulation of asbestos fibres or lead-compound pigmentparticles by paint binders. The degree of rimming of potentially toxic particulates with paint binderand the nature of incorporation of toxic components with relatively inert components of a paint aswell as their means of liberation from a paint film are central to detailed assessment of health risks.Since the 1950s, technology in pigment manufacture has resulted in pigment particles beingindividually encapsulated with layers often only nanometres thick of more stable compounds such assilicates. Any experimental, or occupational exposure based assessment of pigment toxicity, that hasfailed to characterise pigment particle coating, will also fail to represent the long term risk of highlyweathered pigment where the pigment particle encapsulation has failed. Most animal studies ofpigment toxicity fail to document the status of pigment particle coating.The 'quick and easy' assessment of the potential health risk of a particular component of paint filmswill be the total analysis. Matters which may mediate or accentuate risk such as the fate of inorganicand organic paint components; the sandwiching of toxic component rich paint layers among otherPaint Film Components

10paint layers, the bioavailability and particle size of toxic components at particular points in time, needto be considered when 'guideline' contaminant levels are being assessed.At various times, technical details relating to the manufacture of a pigment or the toxic properties ofan ingredient may have been secret, poorly understood, or not considered to have been relevant to aparticular manufacturing process and therefore not documented. Some details presented here mayreflect the imperfect knowledge of the 1950s to 1970s. The use of potentially toxic paint componentswere frequently detailed in texts pre-1970, whereas such information appears to be rarely found post 1970.The chronology of discovery, use and withdrawal from use, of paint components is documented wherepossible, as is the history of legislation relating to paint. Legislated maximum levels of substances inpaint in some situations, sometimes closely reflect actual levels and in numerous situations greatlyexceed actual levels. In the 1950s and 1960s it was necessary for manufacturers, wholesalers andretailers, to hold more paint in stock than they do currently. In the past, in relation to alreadymanufactured goods, legislation resulted in progressive declines in use of materials as stocks werecleared. Painting contractors and do-it-yourself painters may also store paints for future use. The dateof enacting legislation may not mark the absence of future use of particular materials. In a small,isolated community, dominated by a single industry, it has been common for paints such as red leadand other industrial paints to have been widely used in the community. Aspects of past paintcomponent use, particularly in the mixing of paint components by the user, involve modification oftradition, learned skills and behaviour. Such changes in behaviour are not implemented as rapidly oreffectively as when all paint sold is ready to use. Ready-made paints gradually assumed dominancebetween the 1940s and late 1950s with the painting trade, but were more readily accepted by the do-ityourself painter, when they were available.The revolution in paint formulation in relation to lead risk was the reduction in use of white lead asthe use of titanium dioxide pigments steadily increased, particularly from the early 1950s to the early1960s. Over that period, Australia played a dominant role in the supply of titanium dioxide to worldpigment markets. Titanium dioxide pigment, like other modern pigment particles, consists of apigment core coated with a thin layer of material designed to improve the pigment characteristics.Detailed examination of titanium dioxide pigment shows that it has varied greatly over time in termsof its methods of manufacture and trace element chemistry.A summary of existing data on lead in paint on Australian houses provides useful insights as to whatlevels of lead in paint may be encountered.Models to evaluate the potential mass of lead on house walls are explored. Hundreds of kilograms oflead in paint are readily present on the walls of older houses. A 'typical' painting regime is outlinedfor a house built in 1900, having 280 m2 of wall area that resulted in a paint lead loading value of 103mg Pb/cm2 such that the wall coatings would contain some 288 kg of lead. A worst case scenarioindicated that some 364 to 644 kg of lead in paint on the walls is possible.Insights into the potential magnitude of soil contamination; given particular paint lead settings andscenarios for the incorporation of lead in soil, are readily obtained from models provided in this work.Even low levels of paint loss from an old wall surface will generate high soil lead concentrations. A4m high wall having a paint lead loading of 80 mg Pb/cm2 which loses 10% of the lead from the wallwill lose 320 grams of lead per linear metre of wall. If 85% of the lead lost from the wall is evenlyincorporated into a 0.3m x 0.3m x 1.0m block of soil, the lead added to soil attributable to paint,would account for some 1780 mg of lead per kilogram of soil. A range of scenarios provide usefulindications as to the likely ranges of concentration of soil lead attributable to paint lead.The substrate upon which a paint is applied should not be ignored when evaluating or testing paintsfor toxic components; lead may be encountered in plasters, putty and PVC. Timber treatmentchemicals, and metal substrates, particularly plated metals may pose other problems. The tendencyfor particular paints to fail on particular substrates can help guide investigations into paintcomponents.Paint Film Components

11Much of the information on paint manufacture and formulation presented is generic. Most responsesto, or comments on, health risks associated with paint will also be generic, based on common practice.However local paint manufacture or painting practice may result in more idiosyncratic use of paintcomponents of which an investigator may need to be aware.Accounts of past formulation practice in the history presented here are not a complete assessment.Analysis of multi-layer paint films is one means of assessing matters such as the use and abundance ofparticular potentially toxic paint components suggested by the historical details of paint formulation.Paint solvents are discussed in this work, but are not investigated in detail.Paint is a universal component of the built environment and health risks associated with paintspotentially impact on large numbers of people. Because of the long-lived nature of paint materials inresidential settings, a good historical understanding of paint formulation and manufacture is requiredprior to undertaking scientifically valid health risk assessments.Paint Film Components

121.Legislation affecting paint1.1 InternationalOne of the early conventions directed towards the control of lead in paint was the InternationalLabour Office (ILO) White Lead (Painting) Convention 1921 (No. 13) (Browne, 1983). Accordingto Grut (1951) 27 countries had ratified the 1921 ILO convention which prohibited the use of whitelead or sulphate of lead in 'internal' painting.The regulation of the use of toxic pigments and dye in the manufacture of edibles, foods and objectsof daily use, in Germany, dates back to 1887, (Hess, 1965, p.205).Recent European regulations on cadmium use in pigments, are referred to in Buxbaum (1993, p.113114):'In 1981 Sweden prohibited the use of cadmium pigments (with some exceptions) for ecologicalreasons. In 1987 Switzerland prohibited the use of cadmium pigments in plastics. Exceptionsare possible if valid reasons can be given. In 1991 the EC passed a directive to prohibit theuse of cadmium pigments as colorants for certain plastics that can be easily be coloured withother pigments. . In 1996 the use in coating media will be prohibited. Use in artists' colorsand ceramic products is still permitted.'And also from Buxbaum (1993, p.124):According to Directive EEC 89/178 (Feb 22 1989) and GefStoffV, ( April 23 1990), leadcontaining coatings and paints with a total lead content exceeding 0.15% of the total weight ofthe finished product must carry the warning: "Contains lead. Should not be used on surfacesliable to be chewed or sucked by children".A range of international, and national pigment manufacture standards and material specifications islisted in Buxbaum (1993, pp2-7).1.2 Great BritainSimilarities in legislation and standards between Australia and the UK were strong, particularly up tothe 1970s.Regulations as to the methods of manufacture of lead pigments with regard to the control ofoccupational dust exposures appear to have been in place or introduced between the 1920s and 1940s(Hess, 1965, p.215). Early concerns were for the soluble lead content of paints ( Home Office Testfor Soluble Lead S.R.&P., No. 1621, 1926).'The UK, Lead Paints (Protection against Poisoning) Act, 1926 restricted lead in paints as follows:For lead paints to be applied by spraying, the Act lays down a maximum figure (5 percent) forthe lead compounds soluble in 0.25% hydrochloric acid, which is the concentration in normaldigestive juices. This soluble-lead figure is calculated as lead monoxide (PbO) and isexpressed as a percentage on the pigment. (see British Standard 282: 1963)[Morgans,1982,p.39]One interpretation of the above is that an extraction of a maximum of 5% lead, (calculated in terms ofthe PbO compound at 92.85% Pb) using a 0.25% HCl digestion of paint was permitted.This equates to paint returning an apparent analysis of 4.65 wt.% Pb by the weak HCl digestionmethod. According to Morgans (1982, p.39) in addition:Under the conditions of this method white lead and litharge are completely soluble, but thesoluble lead contents of lead chromes and chrome greens vary according to the composition.Paint Film Components

13Morgans refers to the UK Lead Paint Regulations 1927 but does not report the details of thislegislation. Hess (1965, p.212-213) notes various views on the restriction of paints for children's toys(BS 3443) as follows:'the maximum of total toxic materials including lead has been restricted to 1 per cent on the dryfilm' and for other paints 'The British Paint Manufacturers' Executive Committee hasrecommended to its members that paints containing more than 1.5 per cent toxic materials onthe dry film from January 1963 onwards should be labelled as unsuitable for surfaces likely tobe chewed by children.'An article in October 1961 by Burgess, of London City Council is referred to in Hess (1965, p.66) asproposing ' limits for the amounts of toxic pigments contained in lacquers for children's crayons andpencils In the lacquer for each pencil, etc., no more than 10 mgm. of metallic lead, solublechromium, soluble barium, cadmium, selenium or acid soluble antimony or arsenic should becontained.'The above reference to metallic lead as opposed to soluble lead, may suggest some additional cautionwith respect to lead, Hess notes that the general proposal could be problematic if more than one toxicsubstance was present.The British Toys (Safety) Regulations, 1974 set a limit of 250 ppm "soluble" chromium in dry film,presumably to reduce risks in relation to the use of zinc chromates and CrVI , (Morgans, 1982, p.85).Many British Standards have in the past been considered de facto Australian Standards in the absenceof local standards (Table 1). Building codes in the 1970s in various countries continued to requirelead-based timber primers, by way of reference to standards despite lead reductions in paint.Table 1: Some British Standards from 1961 to 1976 (after Boxall and Frauhoffer, 1980)British Standard 217:1961:Red lead for paints and jointing compoundsBritish Standard 282:1963:Lead chromes and zinc chromes for paints.British Standard 3698:1964:Calcium Plumbate Priming PaintsBritish Standard 3699:1964:Calcium Plumbate for PaintsBritish Standard 303:1965:Brunswick or lead chrome greens (pure and reduced) for paints.British Standard 2523:1966:Lead-based Priming PaintsBritish Standard 239, 254, 1967:338, 637 and 1851:White pigments for paintsBritish Standard 4313:1968:Strontium chromate for paintsBritish Standard 318:1968:Chromic oxide pigments.British Standard 3443:1968:Toy Paints: Code of Safety Requirements for Children's Toys andPlaythings. (available prior to 1965 (Hess, 1965, pp.207).British Standard 4310:1968:Permissible limit of lead in low-lead paints and similar materialsBritish Standard 5358:1976:Specification for low-lead solvent-thinned priming paint forwoodwork.1.3 Australia1.3.1Past legislation relating to paint manufacture and sale in AustraliaThe following section is a sample of the legislative regulations of paints. The history of legislativechange is difficult to research and detailed understandings of the nature of implementation andoutcomes of regulation will be difficult to evaluate. The following represents what was readilydiscovered in a limited time.Paint Film Components

141.3.2QueenslandA version of the Queensland Health Act (1937), of unknown age, which may or may not have beenamended and then consolidated, and whose relationship with the Act of 1922 is unknown, issummarised here.The Queensland Health Act (1937) prohibited lead, arsenic or antimony in toys, wallpaper, decorativepaper, paper serviettes and food wrapping paper amongst other things. In addition Section 127restricted the soluble lead concentration of paints to 5% and prohibited the use of paints containinglead on roofs. It may well be that the Queensland legislation was very similar to the 1926 UKlegislation. Section 127 of the Act did not appear to seek to legislate with respect to lead in interiorpaints. Structures already painted with 'soluble lead' could have attracted prosecution. Where paintsin excess of 5% soluble lead were discovered, the State had the power to enforce the removal of thatpaint. Section 128 of the Act required the labelling of the name or names of ingredients and thequantity or percentage of each in the paint. It appears that this legislation was not designed to limitthe amount of lead in paint (except roof paint) but to reduce the proportion of carbonate of lead to 5%(calculated as PbO), or 4.65 wt % lead soluble in weak hydrochloric acid.An undated pamphlet produced by the Australian Paint Manufacturers' Federation Inc., between 1993and 1994, containing an endorsement from the Minister for the Environment, states: 'Prior to 1950white lead was the principal white pigment used in house paints - although Queensland banned itsuse in 1922.' This assertion that white lead use was banned in 1922 has since been widely quoted,however the Queensland Health Act (1937) did not ban white lead; this did not happen until 1956.According to Hanson (1958), paints in Queensland up to that time were not lead free. Moresignificant provisions relating to lead in paint became law in January 1956. The Struggle AgainstLead Poison in the Painting Trade, Hanson (1958, p.7) makes the following comments regarding the1956 law:'The main points of the legislation are:(1) The manufacture, sale and use of paint containing basic lead carbonate (white lead) isbanned in its entirety.(2) Paint containing lead of any description cannot be used on the roof of a house or otherbuilding or structure; any exterior portion of any house or other building whatsoever; anyfence or gates whatsoever; any interior portion whatsoever of a house; or any householdfurniture.(3) Paint containing not more than 5% soluble lead chromate may be used on certain places butshall not be used on any exterior portion of a building which is accessible to children underfourteen years of age.'According to Hanson (1958, p.8) who quotes The Hon. WM Moore (ALP) from Hansard No 18,p.1295, 11/11/55:'Our goal is now in sight. With the passing of the Bill to prevent the manufacture, sale and useof paint containing white lead, we can confidently look forward to the day when there will notbe any white lead on any house in the State.'While Alperstein, Reznik and Duggin (1991, p.407) state that '.Australia led the world in measuresto protect children from the hazards of lead poisoning when, in 1922, legislation was passed inQueensland banning the use of lead-based paint on verandahs and outside surfaces that were withinthe reach of children' the removal of white lead and reductions of lead in paint were a more drawnout process.Paint Film Components

151.3.3TasmaniaIt appears that a 1942 Tasmanian Act relating to paint lead was based on the Queensland Act (pers.comm. Pamela Edwards, 1997). The Tasmanian Health Act 1962, sought to prohibit the sale,manufacture and use of paint containing basic carbonate of lead (Section 123), and sought to enforcerestrictions and labelling requirements (Section 124) in relation to the total lead content of paints(Table 2).Table 2: Labelling requirements from the Tasmanian Health Act, 1962.Up to 1 % PbContaining not more than one percent of lead.Between 1 and 5% PbContaining not more than five per cent of lead.For exterior use only -Not to be used on interior work or toys.More than 5% PbPoisonous. Not to be used where food is or on roofs ofbuildings fences, or gates.In addition, paints containing greater than 5% lead were prohibited from the exterior of a building(Section 125) although t

Paint failure 89 16.1 Paint chalking descriptions 89 16.2 Paint chalking causes 90 . 20.7 Summary: The analysis of lead in paint in Australia 104 21. Paint covering and paint thickness, lead loadings and lead concentrations 105 . This work provides an insight into the use of potentially toxic materials in paints, which may be left in

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