Handbook On Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting Networks And .

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ITUPublicationsInternational Telecommunication UnionRadiocommunication SectorHandbook on digitalterrestrial televisionbroadcasting networks andsystems implementation2021 edition

Handbook ondigital terrestrialtelevision broadcastingnetworksand systemsimplementation2021 editionITU-R

ITU 2021 (Revised version)All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, by any means whatsoever, without the prior writtenpermission of ITU.

Handbook on digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks and systems implementationiiiEditors’ ForewordIn 2002 ITU published its first Handbook on digital terrestrial television under the title Digital terrestrialtelevision broadcasting in the VHF/UHF bands1 as guidance to engineers responsible for the implementationof digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB). In the Handbook, new digital broadcasting technologieswere explained in detail, for example a splendid description of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) codingthat is the basis of all past and present TV compression systems, as well as a very instructive chapter on signalpower summation.Most of that content are not repeated in this new Handbook on digital terrestrial television broadcastingnetworks and systems implementation. Therefore, the version 1.01, which was published by ITU in the year2002, has not lost value and should still be consulted.Since 2002, DTTB has tremendously evolved, not only in technical but also in regulatory aspects. For example,at the turn of the century, MPEG had just started to develop the compression scheme MPEG-4, and HEVCwas not known at all. In two sessions, in 2004 and 2006, the important ITU Regional RadiocommunicationConference RRC-06 was held in Geneva and agreed a new frequency plan for digital broadcasting in Region 1(except Mongolia) and in Iran. For all UHF stations, the Conference decided that the transition period fromanalogue to digital broadcasting would take place by 15 June 2015. Today, majority of developed countrieshave already introduced digital TV broadcasting and have closed their analogue TV services. However, manydeveloping countries have just startedSuccessive WRCs have identified new spectrum for the mobile service in the traditional UHF broadcastingbands. Consequently, spectrum for terrestrial TV broadcasting as well as for services ancillary to programmemaking or broadcasting (SAP/SAB) became scarcer within the existing UHF broadcasting bands. Morespectrum efficient transmission and compression schemes can only partly compensate for that loss as newrequirements for improved resolution, such as HDTV and UHDTV, demand significantly higher data rates.Also, new formats for multi-channel sound can need substantial amounts of transmitted data. So do the everincreasing amount of metadata and access services.Today, with the advent of broadband IP networks (wired and wireless), interactivity has become commonplace.Most modern TV sets are equipped with an interface for DSL or Wi-Fi in addition to the traditional antennainput for digital terrestrial, satellite and/or cable TV.This new ITU Handbook, entitled Digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks and systemsimplementation, concentrates on these new developments during the last 15 years. In this context, itcomplements ITU-D Guidelines for the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting2 which made use oftechnical, operational and procedural information from the ITU Radiocommunication Sector and directed itselfprimarily to the analogue-to-digital switchover in developing countries.Numerous experts of ITU-R Working Party 6A (Terrestrial broadcasting delivery) and of the parent ITU-RStudy Group 6 (Broadcasting service) have been involved in the development of this new Handbook. Thenames of these contributors are listed in the Acknowledgements section.1ITU-R DTTB Handbook – Digital terrestrial television broadcasting in the VHF/UHF bands V 1.01,ref. https://www.itu.int/pub/R-HDB-392ITU-D Guidelines for the transition from analogue to digital dfref.

ivHandbook on digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks and systems implementationHowever, one person must be mentioned here because of his outstanding dedication: most thanks go to theprincipal author, Professor Oleg Gofaizen (Ukraine), who led the process of writing this Handbook and whotirelessly acted towards its completion.The Study Group 6 approved this revision of the Handbook at its meeting on 26 March 2021.The Core Editing Team Christoph Dosch, David Hemingway and Walid SamiGeneva, March 2021

Handbook on digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks and systems implementationvDedicationThis Edition of the Handbook on digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks and systemsimplementation is dedicated to the memory of Professor Oleg Gofaizen who contributed more than anyoneto its creation and development.AcknowledgementsFor the compilation of this Handbook, Working Party 6A established a special Rapporteur Group, which waschaired by Professor Oleg Gofaizen (Ukraine), who diligently worked over the years assembling numerouscontributions into a draft Handbook. This draft was considered by WP6A in its meeting in January-February2016. A Correspondence Group was formed with the task of finalizing the Handbook in time for the WP6Ameeting in October 2016. The Correspondence Group was co-chaired by Christoph Dosch (former Chairmanof Study Group 6 and currently Vice-Chairman of Study Group 6) and David Hemingway (BBC,Vice-Chairman of Working Party 6A), assisted by Walid Sami (EBU, Vice Chairman of Study Group 6 andWorking Party 6A). Additional contributors joined this work.A list of the experts who contributed to this Handbook is given below, to whom special thanks are due.NameOrganization / AdministrationDr. Abdullah Saleh ALARAIMIOmanDr. Pablo ANGUEIRA BUCETASpainDr. Vladimir BALYARUkraineMr. Vittorio BARONCINIItalyMr. Istvan BOZSOKIITU-DMr. Roger BUNCHAustraliaMr. José Ramón CAMBLORMinisterio de Industria, Energía y Turismo, SpainMr. Aldo G. CUGNINIUSAMr. Perez DE LEMASpainMr. Christoph DOSCHIRTDr. Charles EINOLFCBSMr. Luke FAYUSADr. Joseph FLAHERTYUSAProf. Oleg GOFAIZENUkraineDr. David GUERRA PEREDAUniversity of the Basque CountryMr. Jean-Jacques GUITOTFranceMr. Pham HAIITU-RMr. David HEMINGWAYBBCMr. Brandon HINTONUSADr. Shuji HIRAKAWAJapanMr. Klaus HUBERLS TelcomMr. Mark JORDANArqivaDr. Alina KARWOWSKA-LAMPARSKAPolandDr. Alexandre KHOLODSwitzerlandMs. Kyung-Mee KIMKorea

viHandbook on digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks and systems implementationNameOrganization / AdministrationMs. Lucia Luisa LA FRANCESCHINARai Way SpADr. Jae-Young LeeKoreaMr. Louis LibinUSAMr. Stephane MEBALEY EKOMEFranceDr. Alberto MORELLORAIMr. Amir Hassan NAFEZIranMr. Akira NEGISHINHKMr. Yukihiro NISHIDAJapanMr. Kyoungseok OHKorea (TTA)Mr. Larry OLSONUSAProf. PAN ChangyongTsinghua University, ChinaDr. Sung-Ik ParkKoreaMr. Rolly PURNOMOIndonesiaMr. Ari REFIKTDFDr. Walid SAMIEBUMr. Eli SOFERIsraelMr. Supatrasit SUANSOOKNBTC, ThailandMs. Sato TELEMIIRTMs. Anne-Lise THIEBLEMONTQualcommMr. Kengo TSUDANHKMr. Aljo VAN DIJKENNetherlandsDr. Manuel María VELEZ ELORDSpainMr. Tobias VIERACKERIRTDr. David WOODEBUMs. Norafidah YUSOFMalaysiaMr. Juan ZAPATAColombiaAdditionally, great thanks are due to all the other members of Study Group 6, past and present, who havecontributed – directly and indirectly – to this Handbook.Special thanks must go to Prof. Marc Krivocheev (Russian Federation), Honorary Chairman of SG6, for hiscontinued guidance throughout the drafting process.DisclaimerThe opinions expressed in this publication are those of the editors and authors and do not necessarily representthe views of the ITU. This publication is only intended for informational purposes only. Whilst every efforthad been undertaken to provide clear and correct information, neither ITU nor the contributors to thisHandbook can be made responsible for any decision taken or any investment made based on this Handbook.

Handbook on digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks and systems implementationviiPREFACE – WHAT THE HANDBOOK IS ALL ABOUTThe aim of the Handbook is to provide assistance in technical and service issues such as networks and systems,audiovisual quality and quality of transmission as well as on other issues of interest for the introduction ofdigital terrestrial TV broadcasting (from multimedia systems to UHDTV) in different countries. The Handbooktakes into account progress and convergence of technologies, different environments for production, primaryand secondary distribution of broadcast programs as well as experiences in providing quality of service forDTTB.In more detail, the Handbook considers:1)Technical aspects on the introduction of digital terrestrial and multimedia broadcasting.2)Information on standardized broadcasting systems in digital terrestrial and multimedia broadcastingnetworks, and some guidance on their implementation.3)References to normative documents (standards, technical specifications, reports, recommendationsand other documents) that are important with respect to baseband (audio, video data) and transmissionquality, as well as to DTTB services including interactive TV and access services.4)The use of DTTB systems in electronic news gathering and contribution of audio-visual content.The content of the Handbook is structured as follows:PART 1 – NETWORKING ASPECTS OF DIGITAL TV BROADCASTINGChapter 1 “General Aspects of digital TV broadcasting” highlights general aspects, concepts and trends fortechnologies of digital TV broadcasting. The Chapter is useful for definition of general strategies ofdevelopment and implementation of digital terrestrial television and multimedia systems and technologies.Chapter 2 “Strategies for DTTB introduction” provides concrete strategies for the introduction of digitalterrestrial television, including information on related distribution schemes such as cable TV or satellitebroadcasting, on the cost for the implementation of terrestrial broadcasting networks, on spectrum sharing withother radio services, etc.Chapter 3 “Requirements for the implementation of digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks”describes user, service and spectrum requirements to terrestrial broadcasting networks (user functionality,parameters related to user requirements, set of services, elements of quality of experience, frequency usage,etc.).Chapter 4 “Broadcast network planning” defines broadcast network architectures and basic aspects ofterrestrial broadcast networks (network model, influence of parameter selection of digital terrestrial televisionbroadcasting system on network architecture, network structure for different frequency usage modes andothers).Chapter 5 “Sharing and protection” specifically deals with interference from other services and systems toDTTB as well as the interference DTTB may cause to other services in band or in adjacent bands.Chapter 6 “Cross-border coordination” provides information on frequency assignments and frequency allotmentsused for frequency planning of broadcast network as well as on coordination procedures in terrestrial networks anddescribes basic parameters, procedures and approaches that are used for the planning of terrestrial broadcastingnetworks.Chapter 7 “Quality of service for broadcast television” contains guidelines on the end-to-end qualityconsiderations at the radio and intermediate frequency level. For baseband quality considerations see Chapter 12,for requirements on audiovisual data-rates see Chapter 3.Chapter 8 “Satellite assistance” indicates how satellites can be used to feed and support terrestrial networksfor providing television and broadcast multimedia services.

viiiHandbook on digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks and systems implementationPART 2 – SYSTEM ASPECTS OF DIGITAL TV BROADCASTINGChapter 9 “Systems for digital terrestrial television broadcasting” contains structured information onarchitectural models, key technologies, physical and link layers, system performance and link budget for digitalterrestrial television broadcasting systems (ATSC, ISDB-T, DTMB, DVB-T, DVB-T2) as well as on so-calledmultimedia broadcasting systems such as T-DMB, ISDB-T, DVB-H, ATSC-M/H or DVB-T2 Lite.Furthermore, the system layer elements of digital broadcasting systems are presented (service multiplexmethods, service information, protocol stack, data transmission techniques and services over digital terrestrialand multimedia systems, transport interfaces, etc.).Chapter 10 “Interactivity and collaboration between DTTB and non-broadcasting systems” coversinteractive television technologies via terrestrial environment by providing information on interactivityaspects, system models, IBB systems (HbbTV, Hybridcast and others) and terrestrial interaction channelimplementations and depicts general trends and approaches to the interlinking of broadcast and non-broadcast(particularly broadband) technologies with respect to the application, network, and service layers.Chapter 11 “Conditional access and content protection in digital television broadcasting” contains generaldefinitions and approaches for the implementation of conditional access and the content protection in digitaltelevision broadcasting.Chapter 12 “Quality of the baseband signal” defines quality of service for broadcast television applicationsand provides, in particular, information on quality definitions, quality requirements, qualityestimation/assessment during signal compression and transmission for various examples of television systems.Chapter 13 “Digital TV receivers” deals with the requirements for consumer-type DTTB receivers includingconsiderations on middleware and Hybrid Broadcast-Broadband functionality.Chapter 14 “Accessibility aspects” describes access systems in DTTB that are intended for people withdisabilities and other groups with special needs.PART 3 – CONTRIBUTION AND ENG ASPECTS FOR DIGITAL PROGRAMME PRODUCTIONChapter 15 “Contribution and news-gathering systems” deals with issues on classification, concepts,frequency and user requirements for the outside production and news-gathering of SDTV, HDTV, or UHDTVand describes some transmission standards for their contribution links.

Handbook on digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks and systems implementationixTABLE OF CONTENTSPagePART 1 – NETWORK ASPECTS .1CHAPTER 1 – General aspects of digital TV broadcasting.31.1Recognizing trends in DTTB .31.2Broadcasting relies on interoperability .31.3DTTB in the media environment .41.4The continuous development of DTTB .41.5The ITU DTTB model .5CHAPTER 2 – Strategies for DTTB introduction.72.1Factors for consideration when introducing DTTB .72.2Network costs and configuration .102.3DTTB introduction combining different network configurations .112.4Sharing of spectrum by broadcast and non-broadcast services .112.5Conclusion .11CHAPTER 3 – Requirements for the implementation of digital terrestrial television broadcastingnetworks .133.1Introduction .133.2User and service requirements .133.3Spectrum requirements .193.4Receiver related requirements .20CHAPTER – Broadcast network planning .234.1Digital terrestrial television networks .234.2Basic terms and definitions .234.3DTTB network considerations: physical layer and parameters .284.4Broadcast network planning .294.5Broadcast network coverage .314.6Network planning in MFN .414.7Network planning in SFN.45Annex 1 to Chapter 4 – Reference Planning Configurations and Reference Networks in the GE06Agreement .52Annex 2 to Chapter 4 – Example Implementation Scenarios .60

xHandbook on digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks and systems implementationPageCHAPTER 5 – Sharing and Protection .775.1Introduction .775.2Categories of Interference .775.3Sources for general technical characteristics and criteria for sharing .785.4Reference sources related to compatibility between DTTB and the Mobile service.795.5Reference sources related to other compatibility issues involving DTTB .805.6Indications about actual sharing between DTTB and SAB/SAP .80CHAPTER 6 – Cross-border coordination .816.1Coordination procedures .816.2Coordination examples .83CHAPTER 7 – Quality of service for broadcast television .917.1Overview: The DTTB chain .917.2Examples of Specifications to enable Quality of Service .927.3Measurements for monitoring QoS .937.4Examples for transmission quality in digital television.947.5Redundancy as a means of maintaining QoS .94CHAPTER 8 – Satellite assistance .978.1Introduction .978.2Satellites as feeder-links for terrestrial television broadcasting networks.978.3Using satellites as IP return channels for interactive television .988.4Joint usage of the terrestrial and the satellite broadcasting .98PART 2 – SYSTEM ASPECTS .101CHAPTER 9 – Systems for digital terrestrial television broadcasting .1039.1Broadcast system technologies .1039.2Digital terrestrial television and multimedia transmission systems .1329.3ATSC .1349.4DVB-T and DVB-T2 .1519.5ISDB-T .1959.6DTMB and DTMB-A .2119.7Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB) .2259.8RAVIS .2299.9MediaFLO .235

Handbook on digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks and systems implementationxiPageCHAPTER 10 – Interactivity and collaboration between DTTB and non-broadcasting systems .24510.1General aspects and opportunities of collaboration .24510.2Collaboration at the service layer .24510.3Technical commonalities .24710.4Collaboration at the network level .24710.5Detailed discussion on interactive television .249CHAPTER 11 – Conditional access and content protection in digital television broadcasting .25311.1General aspects .25311.2Approaches to CAS implementation .25411.3Content protection and copy management .257CHAPTER 12 – Quality of the baseband signal .25912.1Introduction .25912.2Objective quality estimation for compression systems in digital television .26012.3Subjective quality estimation for compression systems in digital television .262CHAPTER 13 – Digital TV receivers .26513.1General aspects for DTTB receivers .26513.2Requirements for DTTB receivers .26513.3Middleware for DTV receivers .26713.4Integrated Broadcast-Broadband functionality.268CHAPTER 14 – Accessibility aspects.27114.1ITU and the need for access services .27114.2Access services relevant to TV broadcasting .27214.3Receiver-processed versus broadcast-based access services .27314.4The use of subtitles/captions .27314.5The special importance of IBB (Integrated broadcast-broadband) systems .27314.6Production of access services – some aspects .27614.7Conclusions .276

xiiHandbook on digital terrestrial television broadcasting networks and systems implementationPagePART 3 – Contribution and ENG aspects for digital programme production.279CHAPTER 15 – Contribution and news gathering systems .28115.1Introduction .28115.2Terrestrial news gathering and contribution .284List of Abbreviations .303

1Part 1PART 1NETWORK ASPECTSIntroduction to Part 1The most dynamic and technically complex environment of TV content distribution is digital terrestrialtelevision broadcasting (DTTB). Traditionally, TV broadcasting served stationary receivers at home. Today’susers require information, infotainment and entertainment anywhere, at any time and on any device, if possibleinteractively and at the highest possible service quality. Modern broadcasting concepts try to cope with thesedemands that can only be satisfied by digital technologies. Digital terrestrial broadcasting can be designed towork with roof-top antennas but also with small antennas built into portable devices and for mobile reception.In case of a disaster, devices that do not depend on larger antenna installations are more likely to continueserving the public than, for example, satellite TV which relies on parabolic dish antennas.The service areas of terrestrial broadcasting plans are often interference-limited. The interference comes fromneighbouring broadcasting transmitters in the same and in adjacent channels, and from transmitters in otherservices. Terrestrial broadcasting needs careful frequency planning in order to make optimum use of theavailable frequency spectrum.The factors mentioned above need to be considered when designing and building terrestrial televisionbroadcasting networks. The information given in Part 1 should enable administrations and broadcasters, whenswitching from analogue to digital terrestrial broadcasting, or that are in the process of introducing digitalterrestrial television broadcasting, to choose the most effective way of implementation in accordance with theirindividual requirements, and to take as much advantage as possible from the digital technologies in terms ofspectrum resources, signal quality and the cost of introduction. Part 1 of this Handbook explores theseconsiderations.

3Chapter 1CHAPTER 1General aspects of digital TV broadcastingDigital broadcasting is a broadcast technology based on the transmission of audiovisual media information bybit streams. A broadcast signal is composed of video, audio and also includes data services such as teletext,subtitles (closed captions) or an EPG. In addition, descriptive and technical metadata are transmitted forprogramme identification and receiver configuration (e.g. information on the broadcast station, the appliedvideo and audio compression systems, on the sound channel arrangement or on control data for interactivity,aspect ratio and numerous others). Furthermore, access services such as audio-description or a sign-languagevideo can be incorporated within the broadcasting multiplex signal. Modern broadcasting makes use of a seriesof technologies which, together, allow for the creation of the broadcasting signal and its delivery to theend-users.31.1Recognizing trends in DTTBMedia technology continues to evolve in reaction to changing consumer needs and desires, and throughresearch and development. We need to respect and correlate these two elements if we are to serve thepublic [1.1].What the consumer finds attractive enough to buy depends on a range of factors. These begin with the kindsof content made available, continue with the absolute cost, the userʼs income, the user-friendliness ofthe equipment and of the services (make it simple for the end-users!), and include complements to TVbroadcasting – other delivery means which can make use of the equipment and can support it.1.2Broadcasting relies on interoperabilityOne of the important concepts of broadcasting is interoperability. Different systems or system elements caninterlink provided they are interoperable, i.e. they make use of agreed interfaces. Digital TV systems thus havetwo basic components:–Generic elements: These are elements which apply whatever the delivery system is (terrestrial, cable,satellite, etc.). They can benefit from common hardware and softw

1) Technical aspects on the introduction of digital terrestrial and multimedia broadcasting. 2) Information on standardized broadcasting systems in digital terrestrial and multimedia broadcasting networks, and some guidance on their implementation. 3) References to normative documents (standards, technical specifications, reports, recommendations

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