Overview On Industrial Robot, Scope And Application - IJSRD

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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development Vol. 5, Issue 02, 2017 ISSN (online): 2321-0613 Overview on Industrial Robot, Scope and Application Kiran S. Bhokare1 Chandrakant Akhade2 Swapnil S. Kulkarni3 1 Student 2Professor 1,2 Department of Mechanical Engineering 1,2 EDS Technologies Pvt Ltd, Pune, India 3 Ethika Engineering Solutions India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India Abstract— This treatise is intended to offer orientation to the reader to the mechanical aspects of the construction of the Robots in general while identifying the types of Robots in the context of the Industrial applications. Brief is offered over the utility of the robots with respect to the cell layout of the plant or the production lines on the shop floor. This orientation for the topic should offer a precursor for the reader over the potential use of Robots in the NextGen automation i.e. Industry 4.0.In conjunction with other supportive elements or sub-systems in the pool. The Robot selection process for the application as well as the simulation is also discussed. Major manufactures of Robots and the case studies in the industry are listed towards the concluding pages. Key words: Digital Manufacturing, Industry 4.0, Joints in Robot, Mobile Robot, Robotics The controller is the "brain" of the industrial robotic arm and allows the parts of the robot to operate together. It works as a computer and allows the robot to also be connected to other systems. The robotic arm controller runs a set of instructions written in code called a program. The program is inputted with a teach pendant. Many of today's industrial robot arms use an interface that resembles or is built on the Windows operating system. B. Robot Arms: I. INTRODUCTION An Industrial robot is an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications. Industrial robots are used as transporting devices (material handling of work pieces between machines) or in some kind of additive- (e.g. assembly, welding, gluing, painting etc.) or subtractive- manufacturing process (e.g. milling, cutting, grinding, de-burring, polishing etc.). Also the industrial robot controller has good capability of I/O communication and often acts as cell controller in a typical set-up of a flexible manufacturing cell or system. Until now, driven by the need from the car manufactures, material handling and welding has been the most focused area of industrial robot development. II. BASIC COMPONENTS USED TO DESIGN ROBOTS Fig. 2.2: Robot Arms Industrial robot arms can vary in size and shape. The industrial robot arm is the part that positions the end effector. With the robot arm, the shoulder, elbow, and wrist move and twist to position the end effector in the exact right spot. Each of these joints gives the robot another degree of freedom. A simple robot with three degrees of freedom can move in three ways: up & down, left & right, and forward & backward. Many industrial robots in factories today are six axis robots. C. Robot End Effectors: An industrial robot arm includes these main parts: Controller, Arm, End Effector, Drive and Sensor. A. Robot Controller: Fig. 2.1: Robot Controller Fig. 2.3: Robot End Effectors The end effector connects to the robot's arm and functions as a hand. This part comes in direct contact with the material the robot is manipulating. Some variations of an effector are a gripper, a vacuum pump, magnets, and welding All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 508

Overview on Industrial Robot, Scope and Application (IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 02/2017/137) torches. Some robots are capable of changing end effectors and can be programmed for different sets of tasks. D. Robot Drive: Fig. 2.4: Robot Drive The drive is the engine or motor that moves the links into their designated positions. The links are the sections between the joints. Industrial robot arms generally use one of the following types of drives: hydraulic, electric, or pneumatic. Hydraulic drive systems give a robot great speed and strength. An electric system provides a robot with less speed and strength. Pneumatic drive systems are used for smaller robots that have fewer axes of movement. Drives should be periodically inspected for wear and replaced if necessary. E. Robot Sensors: B. Robot manipulator consists of two sections: Fig. 3.1: Robot manipulator - a series of joint-link combinations C. Types of Manipulator Joints: Translational motion Linear joint (type L) Orthogonal joint (type O) Rotary motion Rotational joint (type R) Twisting joint (type T) Revolving joint (type V) 1) Translational Motion Joints: Linear joint (type L) Fig. 2.5: Robot Sensors Sensors allow the industrial robotic arm to receive feedback about its environment. They can give the robot a limited sense of sight and sound. The sensor collects information and sends it electronically to the robot controlled. One use of these sensors is to keep two robots that work closely together from bumping into each other. Sensors can also assist end effectors by adjusting for part variances. Vision sensors allow a pick and place robot to differentiate between items to choose and items to ignore. Body-and-arm - for positioning of objects in the robot's work volume Wrist assembly - for orientation of objects Fig. 3.2: Robot Linear Joint (L) Orthogonal joint (type O) Fig. 3.3: Robot Orthogonal Joint (O) 2) Rotary Motion Joints: Rotational joint (type R) III. ROBOT TYPES AND ANATOMY Articulated robots Cartesian robots (Linear robots) Selective Compliant Articulated Robot Arm(SCARA) robots Fig. 3.4: Robot Rotational Joint (R) Twisting joint (type T) Fig. 3.5: Robot Twisting Joint (T) Revolving joint (type V) A. Manipulator consists of joints and links: Joints provide relative motion Links are rigid members between joints Various joint types: linear and rotary Each joint provides a “degree-of-freedom”. Most robots possess five or six degrees-of-freedom All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 509

Overview on Industrial Robot, Scope and Application (IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 02/2017/137) Fig. 3.6: Robot Revolving Joint (V) 3) Robot Body-and-Arm Configurations: Five common body-and-arm configurations for industrial robots: Polar coordinate body-and-arm assembly. Cylindrical body-and-arm assembly Cartesian coordinate body-and-arm assembly. Jointed-arm body-and-arm assembly. Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm (SCARA) Function of body-and-arm assembly is to position an end effector (e.g., gripper, tool) in space. Polar Coordinate Body-and-Arm Assembly Notation: TRL Fig. 3.9: Cartesian coordinate Body and Arm Assembly Jointed-Arm Robot Notation: TRR Fig. 3.10: Jointed Arm Robot General configuration of a human arm SCARA Robot Notation: VRO Fig. 3.7: Polar Coordinate Body and Arm Assembly Consists of a sliding arm (L joint) actuated relative to the body, which can rotate about both a vertical axis (T joint) and horizontal axis (R joint). Cylindrical Body-and-Arm Assembly Notation: TLO Fig. 3.8: Cylindrical Coordinate Body and Arm Assembly Consists of a vertical column, relative to which an arm assembly is moved up or down. The arm can be moved in or out relative to the column. Cartesian coordinate Body-and-Arm Assembly Notation: LOO Consists of three sliding joints, two of which are orthogonal. Other names include rectilinear robot and x-y-z robot. Fig. 3.11: SCARA Robot SCARA stands for Selectively Compliant Assembly Robot Arm. Similar to jointed-arm robot except that vertical axes are used for shoulder and elbow joints to be compliant in horizontal direction for vertical insertion tasks 4) Wrist Configuration: Wrist assembly is attached to end-of-arm End effector is attached to wrist assembly Function of wrist assembly is to orient end effector Body-and-arm determines global position of end effector Two or three degrees of freedom Roll Pitch Yaw Notation: RRT Fig. 3.12: Wrist Configuration All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 510

Overview on Industrial Robot, Scope and Application (IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 02/2017/137) Typical wrist assembly has two or three degrees-offreedom (shown is a three degree-of freedom wrist). 5) Joint Drive Systems: Electric: Uses electric motors to actuate individual joints. Preferred drive system in today's robots Hydraulic: Uses hydraulic pistons and rotary vane actuators. Noted for their high power and lift capacity Pneumatic: Typically limited to smaller robots and simple material transfer applications 6) Serial or parallel industrial robots: Serial robots are the most common. They are composed of a series of joints and linkages that go from the base to the robot tool. Parallel robots come in many forms. Some call them spider robots. Parallel industrial robots are made in such a way that you can close loops from the base, to the tool and back to the base again. It's like many arms working together with the robot tool Fig. 3.13: Parallel Industrial Robot IV. ROBOT SELECTION PARAMETERS Application and Robot I/O State Payload(Low, Medium and High) Maximum Reach Number of Axes Repeatability Mounting Position Space Optimized Robust and Low Maintenance Flexible Path Accuracy 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Spot Welding Laser Welding Mig Welding Tig Welding Plasma Welding Resistance Welding Flux Cored Welding Plasma Cutting Electron Beam. B. Material Handling Robot Applications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Fig. 5.2: Material Handling Robot Applications Pick and Place Palletizing Packaging Machine Loading and Tending Material Handling Dispensing Injection Molding Part Transfer Order Picking C. Other Robot Applications: V. ROBOT APPLICATIONS A. Welding Robot Applications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Fig. 5.3: Other Robot Applications Grinding Laser and Water Jet Cutting Coating Polishing Drilling and Milling Assembly Material Removal and Deburring Bonding/Sealing Painting and Routing Fiberglass Cutting Foundry Fig. 5.1: Welding Robot Applications 1) Arc Welding All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 511

Overview on Industrial Robot, Scope and Application (IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 02/2017/137) VI. ROBOT SIMULATION PROCESS E. Robot Coordinate System: A. Forward Kinematics: Given are joint relations (rotations, translations) for the robot arm. Task: What is the orientation and position of the end effector? B. Inverse Kinematics: Given is desired end effector position andorientation. Task: What are the joint rotations andorientations to achieve this? C. Open Kinematics: Fig. 6.3: Robot Coordinate System VII. ROBOT PROGRAMMING Robots are typically programmed via Laptop or desktop, Internal network or Internet. After installing the program, the PC is disconnected from the robot that now runs on the installed program. But most of the time a computer permanently “supervises” the robot and gives additional storage. Fig. 6.1: Open Kinematics in Serial Robot Mechanics of a manipulator can be represented as a kinematic chainof rigid bodies (links) connected by revolute or prismatic joints. One end of the chain is constrainedto a base, while an end effector is mounted to the other end of the chain. The resulting motion is obtained by composition of the elementary motions of each link with respect to the previous one. A. Two Ways of Robot Programming: Online Programming D. Closed Kinematics: Fig. 7.1: Online Programming Programming at or with the Robot also called as Lead through Programming Method to Program Teach Pendant: Handheld control and programming unit Manual Programmed: Via button and switch (out of date) Playback: Path given by human Fig. 6.2: Closed Kinematics in Robot Much more difficult. Even analysis has to take into account statics, constraints from other links, etc. Synthesis of closed kinematic mechanisms is very difficult. Fig. 7.2: Teach Pendant for Online Programming Offline Programming: All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 512

Overview on Industrial Robot, Scope and Application (IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 02/2017/137) Fig. 9.1: Robot Workcell Setup B. Production line: Robots are placed along a production line. Products are transported by the line and robots execute the programmed tasks (assembly, direct operations). Fig. 7.3: Offline Programming Offline Programming does not require the robot so that no working time gets lost Methods to Program Textual programming: Comparable to high programming languages CAD programming: Based on engineering drawings and simulation Macro programming; Shortened code of frequently recurring motions Acoustic programming: Natural language used to program the robot VIII. ROBOT CONTROLLER Limited sequence control-pick-and-place operations using mechanical stops to set positions Playback with point-to-point control records work cycle as a sequence of points, then plays back the sequence during program execution Playback with continuous path control greater memory capacity and/or interpolation capability to execute paths (in addition to points) Intelligent control-exhibits behavior that makes it seem intelligent, e.g., responds to sensor inputs, makes decisions, communicates with humans. Fig. 9.2: Production Line using Robot C. Workcells with a mobile robot: The robot is placed on a mobile platform; it is moved in different positions of the workcell to execute the programmed activities. The robot can operate with many machineries. Fig. 9.3: Mobile Robot on Gantry X. ROBOT TOOLS AND GRIPPERS Grippers/Tools are end effectors used to grasp, hold and do operations on objects. The objects are generally work parts that are to be moved by the robot. Fig. 8.1: Robot Controller system IX. WORK CELL BUILDING A robot is always used in cooperation with other machinery. These machines together form a workcell. A workcell must be designed in order to be efficient and to maximize the production. A. Workcells with a central robot: The robot is placed centrally, and its main task is to load/unload the surrounding machines. Fig. 10.1: Robotic Gripper and Tool (Spot Welding) All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 513

Overview on Industrial Robot, Scope and Application (IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 02/2017/137) Fig. 10.2: Mechanical Gripper Fig. 10.8: Adhesive Gripper Fig. 10.3: Dual Gripper Fig. 10.9: Universal Gripper with Different Applications XI. ROBOT REACHABILITY STUDY AND LOADING CAPACITY Fig. 10.4: Interchangeable Gripper The work volume, or work envelope, is the three-dimensional space in which the robot can manipulate the end of its wrist. Work volume is determined by the number and types of joints in the manipulator, the ranges of the various joints, and the physical size of the links. Its actual shape is dependent on the robot’s configuration: a polar robotic configuration tends to produce a spherical (or near-spherical) work volume; a cylindrical configuration has a cylindrical work envelope; and a Cartesian co-ordinate robot produces a rectangular work volume. Fig. 10.5: Multiple Fingered Gripper Fig. 10.6: Vacuum Gripper Fig. 11.1: Robot Reachability Study Fig. 10.7: Magnetic Gripper All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 514

Overview on Industrial Robot, Scope and Application (IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 02/2017/137) Nachi Normadic Otc-Daihen Panasonic Peugeot Schilling Seiko Sefroboter Staubli Yamaha XV. CONCLUSION Fig. 11.2: Robot Working Range and Load Diagram Working Envelop for reachability study is based on every joint of robot and Payload is decided by the robot manufacture and the application where the robot is being used. XII. ROBOTICS ADVANTAGES Robots can work in hazardous work environments Cost minimizing Automated Production Quality Speed Consistency and accuracy Reprogrammed Difficult handling task for humans Multishift operations Infrequent changeovers Part position and orientation are established in the work cell XIII. ROBOTICS CASE STUDIES IN DELMIA Centerline (Windsor) Limited Cenit Servicetrace Nikon Metrology’s Robot Integrated Laser Scanner Metris Based Adaptive Robot Control Brings Aerospace Tolerances To Automotive Robots Amt (Applied Manufacturing Technologies) Twi Group XIV. LIST OF ROBOT MANUFACTURERS Abb Bosch Comau Fanuc Hitachi Kawasaki Kuka Labman Manutec Mitsubishi Motoman This work had been undertaken with a view to walk the reader through the Industrial use for Robots and the branch of Robotics in general. While deliberating on the elements of an Industrial Robot and Motion types used in an Industrial Robot, the paper also highlights the selection parameters considered for a particular application. Variety of applications that the Industrial robot could be put to use are discussed. Robot simulation and programming has been touched upon as also the peripherals like Tools and Grippers used. The Robots could be used to an advantage while aiming to leverage the new era of Industry 4.0. The role of Robotics is crucial while dealing with Digital Manufacturing and Automation especially for the segment of the Automotive manufacturing applications. REFERENCES [1] Miroslaw Nowak, Jacek Buchowski, Daniel Wiśniewski, “Off-line Programming of Welding Robots – Process and Economic Advantages” [2] Adrian-FlorinNICOLESCU, Florentin-Marian ILIE, Tudor-George ALEXANDRU, “Forward and Inverse Kinematics study of Industrial Robots takinginto account constructive and functional parameter's modeling” [3] Pedro Neto, “Off-line Programming and Simulation from CADDrawings: Robot-Assisted Sheet Metal Bending” [4] ONO Kazuya, HAYASHI Toshihiro, FUJII Masakazu, SHIBASAKI Nobuhiro, SONEHARA Mitsuharu, “Development for Industrial Robotics Applications” [5] Florin Girbacia, Mihai Duguleana and Adrian Stavar, “Off-line programming of industrial robots using colocated Environments” [6] Claudio Melchiorri, “INDUSTRIAL ROBOTICS, Robotics and Automation” [7] Marius Fink andChristoph Kriehn, “Industrial robots” [8] CheeFai Tan, S. N. Khalil, N. Tamaldin, J. Karjanto, M. Y. Nidzamuddin, L. S. Wahidin, W. Chen, G. W. M. Rauterberg, “A Knowledge Based Industrial Robot Selection System for Manufacturing Industries” [9] Patakota Venkata Prasad Reddyand V V N Satya Suresh, “A Review on Importance of Universal Gripper in Industrial Robot Applications” [10] Balkeshwar Singh, N. Sellappan, Kumaradhas P, “Evolution of Industrial Robots and their Applications” [11] Digital Solutions, http://www.3ds.com/productsservices/delmia/ All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 515

An industrial robot arm includes these main parts: Controller, Arm, End Effector, Drive and Sensor. A. Robot Controller: Fig. 2.1: Robot Controller The controller is the "brain" of the industrial robotic arm and allows the parts of the robot to operate together. It works as a computer and allows the robot to also be connected to other systems.

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