English Language Arts Curriculum: Entry–3

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INTRODUCTIONAcknowledgementsThe departments of education of New Brunswick, Newfoundland andLabrador, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island gratefully acknowledge the contribution of the regional English language arts commoncurriculum committee to the development of this curriculum guide.Current and past members of the committee include the following:New BrunswickPauline AllanBarb FullertonSusan MacDonaldKathy ProsserZoe WatsonDawn Weatherbie-MorehouseDarlene Whitehouse-SheehanNova ScotiaAnn BlackwoodLinda CookBarry FoxJudith MossipPeter SmithDoreen ValverdeNewfoundlandEldred BarnesLinda ColesEdward JonesBetty KingFlorence SamsonPrince Edward IslandMary CraneDebbie DunnPercy MacGouganLloyd MallardCathy ParsonsJeanette ScottThe regional English language arts common curriculum committeegratefully acknowledges the suggestions, vignettes, student work, andother contributions of many educators from across the Atlantic region.The regional English language arts common curriculum committee isalso grateful to the following Departments/Boards of Education for theuse of previously published material:Ministry of Education: British Columbia for material in “CueingSystems,” pp. 159–165, 188–190, adapted from Primary Program:Foundation Document, 1991.Scarborough Board of Education, Ontario for some material in “Specific Curriculum Outcomes,” adapted from Literacy Learning Indicators,1993.ATLANTIC CANADA ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM: ENTRY–3i

INTRODUCTIONiiATLANTIC CANADA ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM: ENTRY – 3

TABLEINTRODUCTIONOF CONTENTSTable of ContentsIntroductionBackground . 1Nature of English Language Arts. 2Meeting the Needs of All Learners . 3The Learning Environment . 10CurriculumOutcomesIntroduction . 13Curriculum Outcomes Framework . 13Essential Graduation Learnings . 14General Curriculum Outcomes . 15Key-stage Curriculum Outcomes . 16Connections: Essential Graduation Learnings/Key-stage Outcomes . 19Specific Curriculum Outcomes . 21Language and Literacy Development . 21Overview of Speaking and ListeningSpecific Curriculum Outcomes . 24Overview of Reading and ViewingSpecific Curriculum Outcomes . 27Overview of Writing and Other Ways of RepresentingSpecific Curriculum Outcomes . 32Emergent Speaking and Listening Curriculum Outcomes . 40Early Speaking and Listening Curriculum Outcomes . 46Transitional Speaking and Listening Curriculum Outcomes . 52Emergent Reading and Viewing Curriculum Outcomes . 62Early Reading and Viewing Curriculum Outcomes . 74Transitional Reading and Viewing Curriculum Outcomes . 86Emergent Writing and Other Ways of RepresentingCurriculum Outcomes . 104Early Writing and Other Ways of RepresentingCurriculum Outcomes . 118Transitional Writing and Other Ways of RepresentingCurriculum Outcomes . 130ATLANTIC CANADA ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM: ENTRY–3iii

INTRODUCTIONTABLE OF CONTENTSProgram Designand ComponentsivIntroduction . 145Organizational Approaches . 145Content . 148Speaking and Listening . 150Oral Language Development . 150Values of Classroom Talk. 150Establishing an Atmosphere That Encourages Talk . 151The Development of Listening . 151Contexts for Talk . 152Assessment . 156Reading and Viewing . 158Fundamental Principles . 158Process of Reading/Viewing . 158Cueing Systems . 159Reading Strategies . 166Assessment and Evaluation . 170Contexts for the Reading Process . 171Read Aloud . 171Shared Reading . 172Guided Reading . 173Language Experience . 175Independent Reading . 175Response to Texts . 180Writing and Other Ways of Representing . 188Fundamental Principles . 188Dimensions of Written Language . 188Process of Writing . 190Writing in the Primary Grades . 198Modelling Writing . 198Shared Writing . 198Independent Writing . 199Writing/Representing: Modes and Forms . 204Spelling . 208Handwriting . 217The Role of Literature . 219The Role of Information Literacy . 221The Role of Media Literacy . 228The Role of Critical Literacy . 230The Role of Visual Literacy . 232The Role of Drama . 233Integrating Technology with English Language Arts . 235ATLANTIC CANADA ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM: ENTRY – 3

TABLEINTRODUCTIONOF CONTENTSAssessing andEvaluating oduction . 243Strategies for Collecting Data . 244Observation . 244Work Samples . 253Self-Evaluation . 255Reporting the Information . 257Making Applications to Teaching . 258. 259. 273ATLANTIC CANADA ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM: ENTRY–3v

INTRODUCTIONviATLANTIC CANADA ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM: ENTRY – 3

INTRODUCTIONIntroductionBackgroundThe curriculum described in Foundation for the Atlantic Canada EnglishLanguage Arts Curriculum and in this curriculum guide for AtlanticCanada English Language Arts Curriculum: Entry–3, referred to hereafteras English Language Arts Curriculum: Entry–3, has been planned anddeveloped collaboratively by regional committees for the AtlanticProvinces Education Foundation.The Atlantic Canada English language arts curriculum has been developed with the intent of responding to continually evolving education needs of students andsociety providing greater opportunities for all students to become literate preparing students for the literacy challenges they will face throughout their lives bringing greater coherence to teaching and learning in Englishlanguage arts across the Atlantic provinces.Pervasive, ongoing changes in society—for example, rapidly expandinguse of technologies—require a corresponding shift in learning opportunities in order for students to develop relevant knowledge, skills,strategies, processes, and attitudes that will enable them to functionwell as individuals, citizens, workers, and learners. To function productively and participate fully in our increasingly sophisticated technological, information-based society, citizens will need broad literacy abilities,and they will need to use these abilities with flexibility.The Atlantic CanadaEnglish Language ArtsCurriculumThe Atlantic Canada English language arts curriculum is shaped by thevision of enabling and encouraging students to become reflective,articulate, literate individuals who use language successfully for learningand communication in personal and public contexts. (Foundation forAtlantic Canada English Language Arts Curriculum) This curriculum isbased on the premise that learning experiences in English language artsshould help students develop language fluency not only in the schoolsetting, but also in their lives in the wider world contribute toward students’ achievement of the essential graduationlearnings(See Foundation for Atlantic Canada English Language Arts Curriculum,pp. 5–9).ATLANTIC CANADA ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM: ENTRY–31

INTRODUCTIONPurpose of the EnglishLanguage Arts Entry–3Curriculum GuideThis guide has been developed to support teachers in the implementation of the English language arts curriculum. It provides a comprehensive framework on which teachers of English language arts entry–3 canbase decisions concerning learning experiences, instruction, studentassessment, resources, and program evaluation.These guidelines recognize that language development at the entry–3 level is part ofan ongoing learning process reflect current research, theory, and classroom practice place emphasis on the student as a learner provide flexibility for teachers in planning instruction to meet theneeds of their students suggest experiences and strategies to increase the efficiency andeffectiveness of the learning and teaching processNature of EnglishLanguage ArtsEnglish language arts encompasses the experience, study, and appreciation of language, literature, media, and communication. It involveslanguage processes: speaking, listening, reading, viewing, writing, andother ways of representing.Language is the principal means through which we formulate thoughtand the medium through which we communicate thought with others.Thus, language in use underlies the processes of thinking involved inlistening, speaking, reading, viewing, writing, and other ways of representing. The application of these interrelated language processes isfundamental to the development of language abilities, culturalunderstandings, and critical and creative thinking.Language is learned most easily when the various language processes areintegrated and when skills and strategies are kept within meaningfullanguage contexts. The curriculum specifies that English language artsbe taught in an integrated manner so that the interrelationship betweenand among the language processes will be understood and applied bystudents. This integrated approach should be based on students’ priorexperiences with language and on meaningful activities involvingspeaking, listening, reading, viewing, writing, and other ways of representing.The English language arts curriculum engages students in a range ofexperiences and interactions with a variety of texts designed to helpthem develop increasing control over the language processes, use andrespond to language effectively and purposefully, and understand whylanguage and literacy are so central to their lives.2ATLANTIC CANADA ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM: ENTRY–3

INTRODUCTIONPrinciples Underlying theEnglish Language ArtsCurriculumThe following principles underlie the English language arts curriculum: Language is a primary instrument of thought and the most powerfultool students have for developing ideas and insights, for givingsignificance to their experiences, and for making sense of both theirworld and their possibilities in it. Language is an active process of constructing meaning, drawing onall sources and ways of knowing. Language learning is personal and intimately connected to individuality. Language expresses cultural identity. Language learning develops out of students’ home language andtheir social and cultural experiences. Language learning is developmental: students develop flexibility andfluency in their language use over time. Language is best learned when it is integrated: all the languageprocesses are interrelated and interdependent. Language is learned holistically. Students best understand languageconcepts in context rather than in isolation. Students learn language through purposeful and challenging experiences designed around stimulating ideas, concepts, issues, andthemes that are meaningful to them. Students learn best when they are aware of the strategies and processes they use to construct meaning and to solve information-relatedproblems. Students need frequent opportunities to assess and evaluate theirown learning and performance. In the process of learning, students need various forms of feedbackfrom peers, teachers, and others—at school, at home, and in thecommunity. Language learning is continual and multidimensional; it can best beassessed by the use of multiple types of evidence that reflect authentic language use over time. Students must have opportunities to communicate in various modeswhat they know and are able to do. Assessment must be an integral and ongoing part of the learningprocess itself, not limited to final products.Meeting the Needsof All StudentsThis curriculum is inclusive and is designed to help all learners reachtheir potential through a wide variety of learning experiences. Thecurriculum seeks to provide all students with equal entitlements tolearning opportunities.The development of students’ literacy is shaped by many factors including gender, social and cultural backgrounds, and the extent to whichindividual needs are met. In designing learning experiences for theirstudents, teachers should consider the learning needs, experiences,interests, and values of all students.ATLANTIC CANADA ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM: ENTRY–33

INTRODUCTIONIn recognizing and valuing the diversity of students, teachers mightconsider ways to provide a climate and design learning experiences to affirm thedignity and worth of all learners in the classroom community redress educational disadvantage — as it relates to students living inpoverty model the use of inclusive language, attitudes, and actions supportive of all learners adapt classroom organization, teaching strategies, assessment strategies, time, and learning resources to address learners’ needs andbuild on their strengths provide opportunities for learners to work in a variety of learningcontexts, including mixed-ability grouping identify and respond to diversity in students’ learning styles build on students’ individual levels of knowledge, skills, and attitudes design learning and assessment tasks that draw on learners’ strengths ensure that learners use strengths as a means of tackling areas ofdifficulty use students’ strengths and abilities to motivate and support learning offer multiple and varied avenues to learning celebrate the accomplishment of learning tasks that learners believedwere too challenging for themA Gender-InclusiveCurriculumIn a supportive learning environment, male and female students receiveequitable access to resources, including the teacher’s time and attention,technology, learning assistance, and a range of roles in group activities.It is important that the curriculum reflect the experiences and values ofboth male and female students and that texts and other learning resources include and reflect the interests, achievements, and perspectivesof males and females.Both male and female students are disadvantaged when oral, written,and visual language creates, reflects, and reinforces gender stereotyping.Through critical examination of the language of a range of texts,students can discover what they reveal about attitudes toward genderroles and how these attitudes are constructed and reinforced.Teachers promote gender equity in their classrooms when they articulate equally high expectations for male and female students provide equal opportunities for input and response from male andfemale students model gender-fair language and respectful listening in all interactions with students review curriculum materials for gender bias in roles, personalitytraits, illustrations, and language confront their own gender stereotyping and biases4ATLANTIC CANADA ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM: ENTRY–3

INTRODUCTIONValuing Social andCultural DiversitySocial and cultural diversity is a resource for expanding and enrichingthe learning experiences of all students. Students can learn much fromthe diverse backgrounds, experiences, and perspectives of their classmates in a community of learners where participants discuss andexplore their own and others’ customs, histories, traditions, beliefs, andways of seeing and making sense of the world. In reading, viewing, anddiscussing a variety of texts, students from different social and culturalbackgrounds can come to understand each other’s perspectives, torealize that their ways of seeing and knowing are not the only onespossible, and to probe the complexity of the ideas and issues they areexamining.All students need to see their lives and experiences reflected in literature. To grow as readers and writers, students need opportunities toread and discuss the literature of their own and other cultures—toexplore, for example, the differing conventions for storytelling andimaginative writing. Learning resources should include a range of textsthat allow students to hear diverse social and cultural voices, to broadentheir understanding of social and cultural diversity, and to examine theways language and literature preserve and enrich culture.English as a SecondLanguage (ESL) StudentsStudents from language backgrounds other than English add valuablelanguage resources and experiences to the classroom. The first language,prior knowledge, and culture of ESL students should be valued, respected, and, whenever possible, incorporated into the curriculum. Thedifferent linguistic knowledge and experience of ESL students can beused to extend the understanding of linguistic diversity of all studentsin the class.While ESL students should work toward achievement of the samecurriculum outcomes a

ATLANTIC CANAD A ENGLISH LANGU AGE ARTS CURRICULUM: ENTR Y–3 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction The curriculum described in Foundation for the Atlantic Canada English Language Arts Curriculum and in this curriculum guide for Atlantic Canada English Language Arts Curriculum: Entry–3, referred to hereafter as English Languag

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