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Cite as 81 OHIO ST. L.J. (2020)Copyright 2020 by The Ohio State UniversityThe Ohio State Law Journal (ISSN 0048-1572) is published six times a year in Columbus, Ohio. TheJournal Editorial and General Offices are located at 55 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 432101391.Subscriptions: Domestic, 45.00 per volume; 9.00 per regular issue; 10.00 per symposium issue.Foreign, 55.00 per volume; 10.00 per regular issue; 11.00 per symposium issue. Please enclosecheck with order. For further information, see www.ohiostatelawjournal.org. Back stock, reprint, andmicroform editions of the Journal are available through William S. Hein & Co., Inc., 1285 Main St.,Buffalo, N.Y. 14209-1987. Back issues of the Journal may also be obtained through HeinOnline athttp://www.heinonline.org.The Journal assumes that each subscriber desires to renew its subscription unless the subscriber notifiesthe Journal otherwise before the subscription expires. Change of address notice should be received atleast thirty days prior to the date of the issue with which that change is to take effect.The Journal welcomes the submission of unsolicited manuscripts through Scholastica for possiblepublication in print or online. The text and footnotes of all manuscripts should be double spaced, withthe text and footnotes on the same page. For further information, see www.ohiostatelawjournal.org.Postmaster: Please send address changes to the Ohio State Law Journal, 55 West 12th Avenue,Columbus, Ohio 43210-1391.

OHIO STATE LAW JOURNAL2020–2021EDITOR-IN-CHIEFMarjorie J. BurrellEXECUTIVE EDITORCaitlin M. ThroneCHIEF MANAGING EDITORMadison HillCHIEF ONLINE EDITORMeagan DimondCHIEF ARTICLES EDITORAngad ChopraSYMPOSIUM EDITORMegan PorterEXECUTIVE ARTICLES EDITORSBret BakerH. Cole HassayARTICLES EDITORSPeter ClouseJared ConnorsSilvia Francis-BongueSamuel HurynMegan LubyNicole MattinglySanjay NevrekarJordan C. PattersonJacob ZuberiMEMBERSHIP EDITORChristy WolfBUSINESS EDITORZachary ValdmanNOTE EDITORSDane SowersHannah WirtONLINE EDITORSAndria Dorsten EbertRichard McCutcheonMichael McDonaldJenson WangCHIEF NOTE EDITORSusanna SavageSOURCE EDITORNicholas O. SantosMANAGING EDITORSChristopher K. BattsLily BoehmerElizabeth BrownEleni ChristofidesDavid CruikshankPhilip EwingJacob SelsorAlexander WalkerSam WeirBrittney M. WelchSTAFF EDITORSLindsey M. AdamsJessica AkermanTristan T. AkersVictoria BakerAnnamarie L. BeckmeyerAlexander J. CalnonCaroline CarrollSamuel DeWittKyle A. DipreRyland A. DoerrNathaniel G. EckerNatalie L. EngelJacob FarrellJamie FeykoHelen FiteBenny FriedmanA. Riley GrantJustin HillRaegan HudsonZachery HunterAlex Q. JacobsTimothy D. LanzendorferPearle M. LipinskiMeg LloydTaylor LovejoyTaylor G. MacDonaldSarah MaderMeghan McDonnellMadison McDowellHannah MullerZachary NallenSteven NoscoBailey SandersJacob A. SandstromBrian SchultzNicholas V. SgroiFACULTY ADVISORSAnne E. RalphChristopher J. WalkerAaron M. ShaumCarly SinclairChip SkambisNathan SteinbergPeter W. StoeckleinDaniel W. TileyRachel M. TollefsrudWilliam TomlinsonBrooke N. Zentmeyer

THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY MORITZ COLLEGE OF LAWOFFICERS OF ADMINISTRATIONKristina M. Johnson, PhD, President of the UniversityBruce A. McPheron, B.S., M.S., Ph.D., Executive Vice President and Provost of the UniversityLincoln L. Davies, B.S., J.D., Dean of the College and Frank R. Strong Chair in LawCinnamon P. Carlarne, B.A., B.C.L., M.S., J.D., Assoc. Dean for Faculty & Intellectual Life, Alumni Society Designated Professor of LawKathy S. Northern, B.A., J.D., Assoc. Dean for Diversity & Inclusion and Robert M. Duncan/Jones Day Designated Assoc. Prof. of LawAnne E. Ralph, B.A., J.D., Associate Dean for Academic Affairs & Clinical Professor of LawPaul Rose, B.A., J.D., Associate Dean for Strategic Initiatives & & Robert J. Watkins/Procter & Gamble Professor of LawExecutive Director, Law, Finance & Governance @ Ohio StateLaura Fernandez, B.S., J.D., Assist. Dean for International and Graduate Affairs and Adjunct Prof.Sara A. Sampson, B.S., M.S., J.D., Assist. Dean for Information Services, Director of Law Library, and Senior LecturerDarren Nealy, B.A., J.D., Assist. Dean for Academic Affairs and Adjunct Prof.Michael States, B.A., J.D., Assist. Dean for Admissions & Financial AidFACULTY EMERITIMary Beth Beazley, B.A., J.D.Michael Braunstein, B.A., J.D.Sanford N. Caust-Ellenbogen, M.C.R.P., J.D.Albert L. Clovis, B.A., M.A., LL.B.Sharon L. Davies, B.A., J.D.Ellen E. Deason, B.A., M.S., J.D.Joshua Dressler, B.A., J.D.Howard P. Fink, B.A., LL.B.Gordon E. Gee, B.A., Ed.D, J.D.David A. Goldberger, B.A., J.D.Lawrence R. Herman, A.B., LL.B.Louis A. Jacobs, A.B., J.D., LL.M.Bruce S. Johnson, B.A., J.D., M.L.S.Michael Kindred, B.A., J.D., M.C.L., D.E.S.Joan M. Krauskopf, A.B., J.D.John B. Quigley, A.B., M.A., LL.B.Rhonda R. Rivera, B.A., M.P.A., J.D.Nancy H. Rogers, B.A., J.D.Michael D. Rose, B.A., J.D., LL.M.Allan J. Samansky, B.A., M.A., J.D.Joseph B. Stulberg, B.A., J.D., M.A., Ph.D.Gregory M. Travalio, B.A., J.D., LL.M.Vincene F. Verdun, B.A., J.D.Douglas J. Whaley, B.A., J.D.Charles E. Wilson, B.S., J.D.FACULTYAmna Akbar, B.A., J.D., Assoc. Prof. of LawDouglas A. Berman, A.B., J.D., Newton D. Baker-Baker & Hostetler Chair inLawMicah Berman, B.A., J.D., Assoc. Prof. of Public Health and LawGregory A. Caldeira, B.A. A.M., Ph.D., Distinguished Univ. Prof., Ann andDarrell Dreher Chair in Pol. Commun. and Policy Thinking and Prof. ofLawMartha Chamallas, B.A., J.D., Robert J. Lynn Chair in LawBryan H. Choi, A.B., J.D., Assist. Prof. of Law and EngineeringDaniel C.K. Chow, B.A., J.D., Frank E. & Virginia H. Bazler Chair inBusiness LawAmy J. Cohen, B.A., J.D., John C. Elam/Vorys Sater Professor of LawSarah Rudolph Cole, B.A., J.D., John W. Bricker Prof. of Law and Director ofProg. on Dispute ResolutionRuth Colker, A.B., J.D., Distinguished Univ. Prof. and Grace Fern HeckFaust Chair in Constitutional LawOlwyn Conway, B.A., J.D., Assist. Clinical Prof. of LawElizabeth Ilgen Cooke, B.A., J.D., Clinical Prof. of LawTerri L. Enns, B.A., J.D., Clinical Prof. of Law, Senior Fellow of Election Lawat MoritzKatherine Hunt Federle, B.A., J.D., LL.M., Joseph S. Platt-Porter WrightMorris & Arthur Prof. of Law and Director of the Center forInterdisciplinary Law and Policy StudiesEdward B. Foley, B.A., J.D., Charles W. Ebersold & Florence WhitcombEbersold Chair in Constitutional Law and Director of Election Law atMoritzWilliam Froehlich, B.A., J.D., Langdon Fellow in Dispute ResolutionLarry T. Garvin, B.A., B.S., M.S., J.D., Lawrence D. Stanley Prof. of LawAri Glogower, B.A., J.D., LL.M., Asspc. Prof. of LawArthur F. Greenbaum, B.A., J.D., James W. Shocknessy Prof. of LawL. Camille Hébert, B.A., J.D., Carter C. Kissell Prof. of LawMohamed S. Helal, B.A., M.A., LL.B., LL.M., S.J.D., Assist. Prof. of LawSean Hill, J.D.,, A.B., Assist. Prof. of LawDennis D. Hirsch., B.A., J.D., Prof. of Law, Director of Prog. on Data andGovernanceSteven F. Huefner, A.B., J.D., C. William O’Neill Professor in Law andJudicial Administration, Senior Fellow of Election Law at Moritz andDirector of Clinical Prog.Creola Johnson, B.S., J.D., President’s Club Prof. of LawKimberly Jordan, B.S., J.D., Clinical Prof. of Law and Director of Justice forChildren ProjectKatherine S. Kelly, B.A., M.A., J.D., Clinical Prof. of Law and Director ofAcademic Support Prog.Katrina J. Lee, B.A., J.D., Clinical Prof. of LawDeborah Jones Merritt, A.B., J.D., John Deaver Drinko-Baker and HostetlerChair in LawAlan C. Michaels, A.B., J.D., Dean Emeritus and Edwin M. CoopermanChair in LawDale A. Oesterle, B.A., M.P.P., J.D., J. Gilbert Reese Chair in Contract LawEfthimios Parasidis, B.A., M.BE, J.D., Prof. of Law and Public HealthCourtlyn Roser-Jones, B.A., J.D., LL.M., Assist. Prof. of LawGuy A. Rub, B.A., LL.B., M.A., LL.M., S.J.D., Prof. of LawDakota Rudesill, B.A., J.D., Assoc. Prof. of LawColleen Garrity Settineri, B.S., B.A., J.D., Assist. Clinical Prof. of LawPeter M. Shane, A.B., J.D., Jacob E. Davis & Jacob E. Davis II Chair in LawRic Simmons, B.A., M.A., J.D., Chief Justice Thomas J. Moyer Prof. for theAdministration of Justice and the Rule of LawMonte Smith, B.A., J.D., Assistant Clinical Professor of LawMarc S. Spindelman, B.A., J.D., Isadore & Ida Topper Prof. of LawTodd A. Starker, B.A., M.B.A., J.D., Clinical Prof. of LawDavid Stebenne, B.A., M.A., J.D., Ph.D., Prof. of History and LawChristopher J. Walker, B.A., M.P.P., J.D., Prof. of Law, Director ofWashington D.C. Summer Prog.E. Darryl Walton, B.S., J.D.; Jeff & Cynthia Harris FellowPaige L. Wilson, B.A., J.D., Assist. Clinical Prof. of LawPatricia J. Zettler, B.A., J.D., Assoc. Prof. of LawADJUNCT FACULTYKarim AliZaki AnwarElizabeth L. AnstaettDavid T. BallAllison BinkleyAmy BittnerBen BodamerJoseph BoeckmanJoseph M. CaliguriKwame ChristianPatrick ClarkHon. R. Guy Cole Jr.Erica L. CookMatt CooperLorenzo CorteJonathan E. CoughlanMarjorie DuffyScott E. FailorLaura Fernandez-AlvarezJacklyn FordChristopher GalanosGates Garrity-RokousHenrique GeigelFranz GeigerCatherine GeyerDavid W. GrauerChristopher HagaleChristopher HammondMichael HendershotRobb HernHon. John E. Hoffman Jr.Barton HubbardLindsay Karas StencelCaryn KaufmanJessica KimMarya C. KolmanMichael KolsenJames K.L. LawrenceGeorge LimbertTiffany Lipscomb-JacksonAngelyne LisiniskiEmma MacGuidwinSusan MalloyHon. Algenon L. MarbleyPatrick McCarthyRichard M. MescherAnne MilesCaitlin MillerRobert J. MillerRebecca MonroeMatthew NavarreRobert OastMatt PalmerKinal PatelFrank RayBlake RohrbacherDan D. SandmanHon. Edmund A. SargusHon. Jennifer L. SargusDonald ScheetzEdward M. SegelkenAmy SellarsAndrea ShembergScott V. SimpsonDouglas SquiresCarter StewartBob StinsonMark StrasserHon. Jeffrey S. SuttonJessica TobiasNikki Trautman-BaszynskiHon. Chelsey M. VascuraJonathon VinocurBradley WalentHon. Michael H. WatsonRobert WeilerTerrence WheelerStephen WhiteMegan WhitedDavid WillbrandHannah WilsonReid WilsonMary Beth YoungStephanie Ziegler

OHIO STATE LAW JOURNALVolume 81, Number 4, 2020In MemoriamRuth Bader Ginsburg, The Great ProceduralistJeffrey S. Sutton. 605ArticlesCategorizing ChevronKristin E. Hickman & R. David Hahn . 611Bespoke Regulatory ReviewBridget C.E. Dooling . 673NotePrometheus: Giving Life to Formal Retrospective Review Through “ThinRationality” Judicial ReviewBret Baker . 723

Ruth Bader Ginsburg, The Great ProceduralistJEFFREY S. SUTTON Brooklyn is a place for breaking barriers, as one son and one daughter ofthe Borough confirm. Jackie Robinson and Ruth Bader Ginsburg did it the sameway, out-performing the existing stars and mastering the finer points of thegame.Throughout history, sad to say, newcomers rarely enter closed fields merelybecause they are as good as the current players. The secret to entry, the secret tochange, is establishing superiority, especially when it comes to the mostdifficult-to-execute parts of the game. Opening hearts requires opening minds.And opening minds often requires seeing how the new entrant will change thegame.For all of the talents and personal qualities that Jackie Robinson brought tothe challenges of ending the color barrier in baseball and other sports, he wasespecially good at the inside-baseball parts of the game. Sure, he batted over.300 for six straight seasons, stole lots of bases, could hit for power, and helpedthe Dodgers win many games.1 But what fellow players and astute fans likelyappreciated most were the less prominent, less measurable, parts of his game:his ability to take the extra base, his penchant for stealing home, his ability toavoid double plays on offense and turn them on defense, his fielding prowess,his ability to advance a runner. He not only could play like the rest; he was betterthan the rest, or at least most of them, especially if you pulled all of thesestatistical and non-statistical measures together. All of this through a MajorLeague Baseball career that did not start until age 28.2If 42’s wide-ranging skills brought shame to the color line, 107’s skill setdid the same for the gender line. No one has yet found a way to applysabermetrics to the legal profession. But they will. And when they do, whenthey come up with a Wins Above Replacement scorecard for practicing lawyersand an On Base Plus Slugging Percentage rating for justices, I have a prediction:lawyer Ruth Bader Ginsberg and Justice Ginsburg will do well.Why? Ask Jackie Robinson. She excelled at the parts of law that distinguishlawyers and judges the most. Sure, she won landmark constitutional cases as anadvocate and wrote them as a justice. But ask a first-year law student or grizzledlawyer what’s the most challenging general subject, and you will get the sameanswer: procedure. Procedural law is lawyer’s law. No sane individual wouldlearn it if they didn’t have to. But every litigator has to. Few enjoy it at the start.It’s technical. It’s dry as dust. It’s complicated. And it often turns cases.In the absence of sabermetrics evidence to prove me wrong, I wonder: wasJustice Ginsburg the greatest proceduralist to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court?Ample evidence suggests so. During her 27 years on the Court, no one to my Judge Sutton, United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.1 Rick Swaine, Jackie Robinson, SOC’Y FOR AM. BASEBALL RES., https://sabr.org/bioproj/person/jackie-robinson/ [https://perma.cc/ZEP5-5C8G].2 Id.

606OHIO STATE LAW JOURNAL[Vol. 81:4knowledge took on more of the procedural cases than she did. Her serialassignments confirm what Chief Justice Rehnquist, Chief Justice Roberts, andeveryone else knew: she was the go-to justice when it came to untangling vexingprocedural disputes. It didn’t hurt that, before joining the Court, JusticeGinsburg had taught civil procedure for nearly two decades and had handledmany cases on behalf of the American Civil Liberties Union.3 Withcharacteristic precision and clarity, she brought order (and unanimity) to someof the Court’s most perplexing procedural cases over nearly three decades.No example stands taller than Arbaugh v. Y & H Corp.4 Justice Ginsburgpenned a unanimous, to-the-point opinion that brought coherence to an areasorely in need of it: clarifying when a statutory requirement restricts a federalcourt’s subject matter jurisdiction.5 She noted that “jurisdiction” had come to bea word of “many, too many, meanings,” and that courts had been “profligate”in imprecisely using the term.6 She showed how courts, too often, had beenconfusing mandatory claim-processing rules for jurisdictional limitations.7Failure to appreciate the distinction had real-world consequences. Because aparty may not forfeit or waive a jurisdictional limitation, any lax labeling ofthese requirements permitted sharp-elbowed litigants (or slow-to-learn litigants)to raise the limitation for the first time on appeal. That is always inefficient andsometimes unfair. Mindful of these and other consequences, Justice Ginsburgimposed order on chaos, laying out a “readily administrable bright line” rule: aprocedural requirement creates a jurisdictional limitation only if Congressclearly says so.8In the last 14 years, over 7,000 cases have invoked Arbaugh.9 The U.S.Supreme Court has issued an opinion applying it to a new proceduralrequirement in almost every one of those years.10 Justice Ginsburg, no surprise,3 Ruth Bader Ginsburg, OYEZ, https://www.oyez.org/justices/ruth bader ginsburg[https://perma.cc/5GWY-Y9CE]; see, e.g., Duren v. Missouri, 439 U.S. 357 (1979); Califanov. Goldfarb, 430 U.S. 199 (1977); Edwards v. Healy, 421 U.S. 772 (1975); Weinberger v.Wiesenfeld, 420 U.S. 636 (1975); Kahn v. Shevin, 416 U.S. 351 (1974); Frontiero v.Richardson, 411 U.S. 677 (1973) (arguing as amicus curiae on behalf of the ACLU); Reedv. Reed, 404 U.S. 71 (1971).4 546 U.S. 500 (2006).5 Id. at 510.6 Id. (quoting Steel Co. v. Citizens for Better Env’t, 523 U.S. 83, 90 (1998)).7 Id.8 Id. at 515–16.9 Citing References to Arbaugh v. Y & H Corp., WESTLAW EDGE, https://westlaw.com(search “546 U.S. 500”; then bring up “Citing References”; follow “Cases”).10 See Fort Bend Cty., Tex. v. Davis, 139 S. Ct. 1843, 1851–52 (2019); Patchak v.Zinke, 138 S. Ct. 897, 906 (2018); Hamer v. Neighborhood Hous. Servs. of Chi., 138 S. Ct.13, 20 n.9 (2017); United States v. Kwai Fun Wong, 575 U.S. 402, 409–10 (2015); Sebeliusv. Auburn Reg’l Med. Ctr., 568 U.S. 145, 153 (2013); Gonzalez v. Thaler, 565 U.S. 134,141–42 (2012); Stern v. Marshall, 564 U.S. 462, 480 (2011); Henderson ex rel. Hendersonv. Shinseki, 562 U.S. 428, 435–36 (2011); United Student Aid Funds, Inc. v. Espinosa, 559U.S. 260, 271 (2010); Reed Elsevier, Inc. v. Muchnick, 559 U.S. 154, 162–63 (2010); UnionPac. R.R. v. Bhd. of Locomotive Eng’rs and Trainmen Gen. Comm. of Adjustment, Cent.

2020]IN MEMORIAM: JUSTICE RUTH BADER GINSBURG607wrote a good many of them. Time after time, she convinced all nine membersof the Court to speak as one through her voice, one nearly inaudible at a dinnertable but one that spoke volumes in an opinion.11She did the same thing in another area that had bewildered litigants andlower court judges. Exxon Mobil Corp. v. Saudi Basic Industries Corp. tackledthe “Rooker-Feldman” doctrine,12 which purports to explain when a state courtjudgment divests a federal district court of jurisdiction to hear claims relating tothat judgment.13 Here again, a tricky point of process had been “[v]ariouslyinterpreted in the lower courts,” and “construed to extend far beyond [its]contours” in ways that betrayed a misapprehension of subject matter jurisdictionlimits.14 What had divided the lower courts united the Supreme Court withJustice Ginsburg at the helm. She wrote a unanimous opinion, mopping up themess and distilling the inquiry into a one-sentence test: the Rooker-Feldmandoctrine strips federal district courts of jurisdiction only to hear “cases broughtby state-court losers complaining of injuries caused by state-court judgmentsrendered before the district court proceedings commenced and inviting districtcourt review and rejection of those judgments.”15Exxon Mobil’s statistics outrun Arbaugh’s. It’s racked up more than 8,000case citations.16 And the Court has barely touched it since,17 suggesting JusticeGinsburg did some good in an area that had spawned seven certiorari petitionsin one year.18 While the lower courts have not all followed her lead and whileRegion, 558 U.S. 67, 81–82 (2009); John R. Sand & Gravel Co. v. United States, 552 U.S.130, 134 (2008); Bowles v. Russell, 551 U.S. 205, 211 (2007).11 See Fort Bend Cty., Tex. v. Davis, 139 S. Ct. 1843 (2019); Hamer v. NeighborhoodHous. Servs. of Chi., 138 S. Ct. 13 (2017); Sebelius v. Auburn Reg’l Med. Ctr., 568 U.S.145 (2013); Union Pac. R.R. v. Bhd. of Locomotive Eng’rs and Trainmen Gen. Comm. ofAdjustment, Cent. Region, 558 U.S. 67 (2009). Not to mention, Justice Ginsburg wrote atleast one unanimous case foreshadowing Arbaugh: Kontrick v. Ryan, 540 U.S. 443 (2004).I’ll hazard a guess that she wrote one more—her fingerprints are all over the Court’s percuriam opinion in Eberhart v. United States, 546 U.S. 12 (2005).12 544 U.S. 280, 284 (2005).13 Id. at 283.14 Id.15 Id. at 284.16 Citing References to Exxon Mobil Corp. v. Saudi Basic Indus. Corp., WESTLAWEDGE, https://westlaw.com (search “544 U.S. 280”; then bring up “Citing References”;follow “Cases”).17 See Skinner v. Switzer, 562 U.S. 521, 532 (2011); Lance v. Dennis, 546 U.S. 459,466 (2006).18 See Blaisdell v. City of Rochester, N.H., 544 U.S. 957 (2005) (First Circuit); ExxonMobil Corp. v. Saudi Basic Indus. Corp., 544 U.S. 284 (2005) (Third Circuit); Stacey v. Cityof Hermitage, Pa., 546 U.S. 931 (2005) (Third Circuit); Hollowa

OHIO STATE LAW JOURNAL 2020–2021 EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Marjorie J. Burrell EXECUTIVE EDITOR CHIEF MANAGING EDITOR Caitlin M. Throne Madison Hill CHIEF ONLINE EDITOR Meagan Dimond CHIEF ARTICLES EDITOR CHIEF NOTE EDITOR Angad Chopra SYMPOSIUM EDITOR Susanna Savage Megan Porter EXECUTIVE ARTICLES EDITORS SOURCE EDITOR

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