Lecture 5Nomenclature for Trace Element ClassificationWe have already grouped elements into two classes, major elements and traceelements (Figure 1). In addition, there are many ways of classifying trace elements.Examples are:1) Siderophile elements: elements that concentrate in metallic iron such as Ni,Co, Os, IrChalcophile elements: elements that concentrate in sulfides, such as Se, As,Zn, CdLithophile clements: elements that concentrate in silicate phases, such as Rb,Sr, Ba, Nb, Ta, Th, U, REEAtmophile elements: naturally occurring gaseous elements such as N and raregasesThese definitions are useful when considering formation of major earthreservoirs, i.e., core, mantle, crust and atmosphere.2) Compatible and Incompatible elements: In an equilibrium system composedof minerals and coexisting silicate melt, compatible elements arepreferentially partitioned into the solid phases and incompatible elements arepreferentially partitioned into the melt. This terminology is commonly used inthe context of partial melting of mantle rocks to form basaltic magma. Uppermantle rocks are rich in olivine and pyroxenes and the elements Sc, Cr, Coand Ni are compatible (enriched) in these phases relative to a silicate melt.However, a key aspect of this definition is to specify what mineral phases are1
being considered, e.g. Sc is compatible in clinopyroxene but not in olivine, Zris compatible in zircon and P in apatite but neither is compatible in olivine orpyroxene.Incompatible elements are preferentially partitioned into silicate melts ratherthan coexisting minerals. Incompatible elements can be sub-divided based onthe ratio of charge/ionic radius (Z/r) (see Figure 10).3) Large Ion Lithophile – the term large-ion lithophile element (or LILE) isfrequently used, but poorly defined in the geochemical literature.Someauthors use LILE as a synonym for incompatible trace elements, whereasothers use LILE to refer to a specific subset of incompatible trace elementscharacterized by large ionic radius to ionic charge ratio (or low ”fieldstrength” elements). The term was first used by Gast (1972) to encompass thecations K, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, REE, Th and U. Gast also included Li as a LILE,since it has a large radius to charge ratio, even though it is small (IR 0.82).Because of the confusion in the literature regarding usage of LILE, it isrecommended that the term be restricted to lithophile trace elements having alarge ionic radius to charge ratio that have ionic radii greater than those ofCa2 and Na1 , the largest cations common to rock forming minerals. By thisdefinition, LILE are K, Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba, Pb and Eu 2 (Figure 10).2
CsLarge IonLithophile Elementsz/r 1.8Rb1.6Ionic radius (10 -10 m)K2 .02.0BaPb1.4Na1.2SrEuLaNdY1.0EuLuThUHigh FieldStrength ElementsCeLi0.8ZrHfNbTaTiU0.60.401234Ionic charge (z)567Figure 10. Ionic radii versus ionic charge for elements that are incompatible in mafic minerals.Elements with Z/r 2 are classed as high field strength elements; they are incompatible becauseof the difficulty in achieving charge balance when these ions with Z 3 to 6 substitute for majorelement cations with Z 2. In contrast, elements with relatively high ionic ratios, hence low Z/r,are classed as large-ion lithophile elements. Ionic radii are for CN6 (for Li and ionswith 4, 5, 6 charge) and CN8 (for all other alkalic metals, and ions with 2 and 3 charge) arefrom Whittaker and Muntus (1970).3
4) High Field Strength ElementsAlthough these elements do not have large IR, because of their high charge andthe consequent difficulty in achieving charge balance, they are typicallyincompatible. Usually HFSE is used to designate Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta allwith Z/r 2 (Figure 10); however, it is important to realize that these elementsdo not always partition in a similar manner.4
Nomenclature for Trace Element Classification . We have already grouped elements into two classes, major elements and trace elements (Figure 1). In addition, there are many ways of classifying trace elements. Examples are: 1) Siderophile elements: elements that concentrate in metallic iron such as Ni, Co, Os, Ir. Chalcophile elements
Introduction of Chemical Reaction Engineering Introduction about Chemical Engineering 0:31:15 0:31:09. Lecture 14 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lecture 25 Lecture 26 Lecture 27 Lecture 28 Lecture
4.3 More complex nomenclature systems, 49 4.4 Coordination nomenclature, an additive nomenclature, 51 4.5 Substitutive nomenclature, 70 4.6 Functional class nomenclature, 96 5 ASPECTS OF THE NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, 98 5.1 General, 98 5.2 Derivatives of Main Group elements, 98 5.3 Organometallic derivatives of transition .
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STM is a trace element which allows for several types of trace messages to be added to a trace stream. This trace stream may or may not also contain instruction flow trace streams. Adding STM messaging has several effects. STM trace messages can be a way of tracing the high-level state of the SoC-based system.
Nomenclature and the Nomenclature Committee of IUBMB. He was involved with the work of these two bodies from their inception and made many valued contributions to biochemical nomenclature. Nomenclature, just like chemistry, is a subject that develops continually. New classes of compound require new adaptations of nomenclature and
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