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Mapping Digital Media is a project of the Open Society Program onIndependent Journalism and the Open Society Information ProgramThe project assesses the global opportunities and risks that are created for media by the switchover from analog broadcasting to digital broadcasting; the growth of new media platforms assources of news; and the convergence of traditional broadcasting with telecommunications.These changes redefine the ways that media can operate sustainably while staying true to valuesof pluralism and diversity, transparency and accountability, editorial independence, freedom ofexpression and information, public service, and high professional standards.The project, which examines the changes in-depth, builds bridges between researchers andpolicymakers, activists, academics and standard-setters. It also builds policy capacity in countrieswhere this is less developed, encouraging stakeholders to participate in and influence change.At the same time, this research creates a knowledge base, laying foundations for advocacy work,building capacity and enhancing debate.Covering 56 countries, the project examines how these changes affect the core democratic servicethat any media system should provide—news about political, economic and social affairs.The MDM Country Reports are produced by local researchers and partner organizations ineach country. Cumulatively, these reports provide a unique resource on the democratic role ofdigital media. In addition to the country reports, research papers on a range of topics related todigital media have been published as the MDM Reference Series.These publications are all available apping-digital-media.E D I T O R I A L C O M M I S S I ONYuen-Ying Chan, Christian S. Nissen, Dušan Reljić,Russell Southwood, Damian TambiniThe Editorial Commission is an advisory body. Its members are not responsible for theinformation or assessments contained in the Mapping Digital Media textsOPE N S OC I E T Y P R O G R A M O N I N D E P ENDENT J OUR NAL I S M TEAMMarius Dragomir, senior manager/publications editor;Mark Thompson, policy projects officer; Meijinder Kaur, program coordinator;Sameer Padania, program officer; Stewart Chisholm, associate director;Gordana Janković, former directorO P E N SO C I E T Y I N F O R M AT I ON PR OGR AM TEAMVera Franz, senior program manager; Darius Cuplinskas, director

Mapping Digital MediaGlobal FindingsA R E P O R T B Y T H E O P E N S O C I E T Y F O U N D AT I O N SWRITTEN BYFernando BermejoYing ChanIulian ComanescuCarlos CortésAboubakr JamaïTanja Kerševan SmokvinaMarko MilosavljevićChristian S. NissenRita RudušaJustin SchlosbergRussell SouthwoodJelena Surčulija MilojevićDamian TambiniMartijn de WaalGraham WattsEDITED BYMarius Dragomir and Mark Thompson(Open Society Program on Independent Journalism)July 2014

2014 Open Society FoundationsThis publication is available as a pdf on the Open Society Foundations website undera Creative Commons license that allows copying and distributing the publication,only in its entirety, as long as it is attributed to the Open Society Foundationsand used for noncommercial educational or public policy purposes.Photographs may not be used separately from the publication.ISBN: 978-1-910243-03-9Published byOPEN SOCIETY FOUNDATIONS224 West 57th StreetNew York, NY 10019United StatesFor more information contact:MAPPING DIGITAL MEDIAOPEN SOCIETY PROGRAM ON INDEPENDENT JOURNALISMMillbank Tower, 21–24 MillbankLondon, SW1P 4QPUnited g/projects/mapping-digital-mediaLayout by Judit Kovács, Createch Ltd., Hungary

ContentsINTRODUCTION .9Marius Dragomir and Mark ThompsonMAJOR TRENDS BY THEMES AND REGIONS .21Themes .39CHAPTER ONEPublic Interest and Commercial Media: Digital Trends .Carlos Cortés41CHAPTER TWOPublic Media and Digitization: Seven Theses .Damian Tambini75CHAPTER THREEJournalism and Digital Times: Between Wider Reach and Sloppy Reporting.Ying Chan107CHAPTER FOURNews Choice and Offer in the Digital Transition .Jelena Surčulija Milojević129CHAPTER FIVETelecoms and News .Iulian Comanescu145CHAPTER SIXAccess to Spectrum: Winners and Losers .Marko Milosavljević and Tanja Kerševan SmokvinaOSF PROGRAM ON INDEPENDENT JOURNALISM20141595

CHAPTER SEVENDistributing the Digital Dividend .Christian S. Nissen175CHAPTER EIGHTBusiness and Ownership of the Media in Digital Times .Martijn de Waal191Regions .211CHAPTER NINEDigital Media in the European Union .Justin Schlosberg213CHAPTER TENDigital Media in the EU Enlargement Countries .Justin Schlosberg239CHAPTER ELEVENDigital Media in the Former Soviet Union .Rita Ruduša253CHAPTER TWELVEDigital Media in Latin America.Fernando Bermejo265CHAPTER THIRTEENDigital Media in South-East Asia .Graham Watts277CHAPTER FOURTEENDigital Media in Asia: India and Pakistan.Graham Watts293CHAPTER FIFTEENDigital Media in the Arab World.Aboubakr Jamaï301CHAPTER SIXTEENDigital Media in Africa: Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa .Russell Southwood6M A P P I N G D I G I TA L M E D I A313GLOBAL FINDINGS

Project Information.327Published reports .329Translated reports .336Reference series .337Regional editors .337Methodology .338REPORT STRUCTURE .341Context .3411. Media Consumption: The Digital Factor .3412. Digital Media and Public or State-Administered Broadcasters .3443. Digital Media and Society .3354. Digital Media and Journalism .3475. Digital Media and Technology .3496. Digital Business .3527. Policies, Laws and Regulators .3548. Conclusions .3589. Recommendations .359OSF PROGRAM ON INDEPENDENT JOURNALISM20147


Mapping the World’s DigitalMediaMarius Dragomir and Mark ThompsonThe ProjectOver the course of the past decade, digital television and internet have brought aboutradical changes for media businesses, journalists, and citizens at large. Platformsdistributing journalistic content have proliferated, technological advances have drivenmedia companies to revamp their operations in the sometimes desperate attempt toremain lucrative and relevant, while journalists operate in an ever faster-paced industry,and citizens have access to a cornucopia of sources of news and information.By the end of 2013, over 55 percent of households worldwide had a television setreceiving digital signal, some 25 percentage points more than in 2008. In the developedworld that figure stood at more than 81 percent. By the end of 2014, the world isforecast to number almost three billion internet users, two thirds of them in thedeveloping world. With mobile phone saturation standing at nearly 100 percent of theglobal population, consumption on mobile platforms has surged dramatically as well.Mobile broadband subscriptions are predicted to reach 2.3 billion by the end of 2014.1But is this ever-more-connected world a better place for independent journalism? Thisis one of the questions that the Mapping Digital Media (MDM) project sought to answer.The Program on Independent Journalism (PIJ), formerly the Media Program, and theInformation Program at the Open Society Foundations launched MDM in 2011 as aglobal research and advocacy project that would assess the global opportunities and risksfor journalism and media created by the switch from analog to digital broadcasting,the emergence of new media platforms—particularly online—and the convergencebetween internet, broadcasting, and telecommunications.1.Data released by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) between December 2013 and May 2014.OSF PROGRAM ON INDEPENDENT JOURNALISM201411

During 2011 and 2014, the project generated a total of 56 country reports authored byalmost 200 local researchers coming chiefly from academia, journalism and civil societysector. The reports were based on a methodology common for the entire project. (Seethe Project Information.) The country reports were supplemented by 20 expert paperson specific new trends such as mobile television, net neutrality and online advertising.The countries included in the project are diverse in terms of technological and economicdevelopment, media systems, and social background. They range from small nationswith under one million souls such as Montenegro to giants like China and India, fromheavily rural Chile and India to the city-state Singapore, from low GDP Kenya withunder US 1,000 per capita to rich Sweden, Canada, Netherlands or the U.S. steadilyadvancing towards the US 50,000 threshold. They include overwhelmingly MuslimPakistan, Tunisia and Turkey, the largely atheist Czech Republic, and many religiouslydiverse countries. The total combined population of all 56 countries included in thestudy surpasses 5.1 billion, almost three quarters of the globe’s people today. In total,Mapping Digital Media generated 5,575 pages of analysis. This publication gathers themain findings of the project.Journalism in Digital TimesThe ProfessionDigitization has been one of the main drivers behind the changing nature of journalismas it affected news values, professional ethics, workflows, working conditions andnewsroom management. On the positive side, it tremendously improved access toinformation and dissemination channels, but at the same time it has unleashed a spateof unethical practices, the most worrying being plagiarism and lack of verification.Investigative journalists in particular have gained access to a flurry of new platformsto put out their stories, particularly on the internet. However, in most countries, thesocial impact of journalistic investigations remains limited. As never before, citizensengage in investigations and reporting and post their write-ups on the internet, but inmany cases the quality of these stories has come under critical scrutiny.The biggest gain from digitization is the growing space for free expression by minoritygroups, particularly ethnic and sexual minorities. More than ever before, marginalizedgroups have the opportunity to make their voices heard. Paradoxically, however,traditional media have not significantly reduced their bias, marginalizing practices,12M A P P I N G D I G I TA L M E D I AGLOBAL FINDINGS

or sensational coverage of minorities and other sensitive issues. Secondly, digitizationhas boosted more than ever before the space for political expression. Candidates inelections almost everywhere in the world use the internet and social media to reachvoters. This has created more vibrant political debates and dialog, but it has not oftentranslated into an increased number of political actors.Overall, with all these ups and downs, journalism entered an era of opportunities thatit has never had before. But how the environment journalists operate in has changed inthe past years is a different story.The EnvironmentWith few exceptions (mostly in Europe), governments have bungled the policies andregulation governing digital switch-over. Coupled with the disarray of an industryhit by economic crisis, changing audiences and technology challenges, it did little toimprove the environment in which journalism operates. Political wrangling and specialinterests and/or lack of vision and interest in the policy-making process have defeatedthe hopes that digitization would deliver a more diversified media. We have morechannels, but not more owners—and sometimes fewer than before.Public interest is rarely at the core of national digital switch-over policies. Publicconsultations are wholly lacking or, in some cases, a charade. Public media continueto suffer from political interference and funding cuts, as well as demoralization anduncertainty. Public serv

Mapping Digital Media is a project of the Open Society Program on Independent Journalism and the Open Society Information Program Th e project assesses the global opportunities and risks that are created for media by the switch-

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