4th ANSA & μETA International ConferenceSQUEAL ANALYSIS OF DISC BRAKE SYSTEMHao XingBeijing FEAonline Engineering Co.,Ltd. Beijing, ChinaKEYWORDS – disc brake, squeal, ABAQUS, ANSAABSTRACT – Squeal analysis of disc brake system continues to be a challenging issue inboth industrial and academia due to its complexity and frequent occurrence. Thanks to rapiddevelopment of computational device and commercial software, finite element analysisbecomes much more efficient and dominates the methods of analysis. Currently, two majorFEA approaches are used in general, the transient analysis and complex modal analysis.Complex modal analysis studies the stability of the steady state system under smallperturbation; if the vibration amplitude blows up, squeal may occur. Transient analysis iscapable to study the vibration of the system during whole braking process. Frequencies ofsqueal are then calculated from Fourier transform. Particularly, nonlinearity, such asthermodynamic and wear effects could be included. In our case, a disc brake system forpassenger car is modelled and analysed using both approaches. We use ANSA/META aspre/postprocessor and ABAQUS as solver. Furthermore, thermal effect is included intransient analysis. Results are compared and analysed in detail.1. INTRODUCTIONSqueal of brake, which causes customer dissatisfaction and complaint, is reported to be oneof the major contributors of automotive industry’s warranty cost . Since 1930s, research ofmechanism and prevention of brake squeal has been last for decades. Much progress hasbeen made. It is now believed that brake squeal is caused by friction-induced dynamicinstability. However, methodology of research is still under development; and squeal analysisof disc brake system continues to be a challenging issue in both industrial and academia dueto its complexity.Thanks to rapid development of computational device and commercial software, finiteelement analysis becomes much more efficient and dominates the methods of analysis.Currently, two major FEA approaches are used in general, the transient analysis andcomplex modal analysis. The complex modal analysis is widely used in engineeringcommunity to predict the squeal propensity of the brake system including damping andcontact for its clear physical meaning and relatively low computational cost. It studies thestability of the steady state system under small perturbation; if the vibration amplitude blowsup, squeal may occur. From a complex frequency analysis, one could find all unstable modesthat may develop a limit-cycle vibration . Transient analysis is capable to study the vibrationof the system during whole braking process. Frequencies of squeal are then calculated fromFourier transform. Particularly, nonlinearity, such as thermodynamic and wear effects couldbe included.In our case, a disc brake system for passenger car is modelled and analyzed using bothapproaches. We use ANSA as pre-processor and ABAQUS as solver. Furthermore, thermaleffects are included in transient analysis. Results are compared and analyzed in detail.2. FINITE ELEMENT MODELTo simplify the analysis, only pad and rotor are modelled. The mesh was generated by ANSAwith hex elements . We also use ANSA to assignment of the materials properties, definecontacts, and set appropriate boundaries and loadings during analysis. The finite elementmodel is shown in figure-1.
4th ANSA & μETA International ConferenceFigure 1 – FEM Mesh of pad(left) and rotor(right)3. COMPLEX FREQUENCY ANALYSISThe appearance of squeal is associated with coupled modes whose frequencies are close.When they merge at same frequency, one of the modes becomes unstable. Its amplitudegrows exponentially and the squeal may occur. We use the damping ratio -2 Re(λ)/ Im(λ) ,where λ is the complex eigenvalue to identify unstable modes. Mathematically, a negativedamping ratio indicates unstable mode.To apply complex frequency analysis in ABAQUS, we first setup a static step. In this step, allof the DOF at the centre of rotor except rotation about axis are constrained. The frictionalcontact of pad and rotor is established, see figure-2. And the pressure between pad and rotoris applied through contact. A following static step is used to applied rotor motion. The thirdand final step is a linear perturbation step to extract natural frequencies.Figure 2 – Boundary conditions and contact relationIn order to investigate the dependence of friction and squeal, we solve the problem withdifferent friction coefficients (FC). The frequency-damping ratio curves are shown in figure 3and figure 4. A comparison of results reveals that the effect of FC on unstable modes islimited especially when FC is mild. Both curves contain a negative extreme at frequency of7549Hz indicating that a strong coupled mode may exist. The vibration mode of the systemat 7549Hz is shown in figure 5. It can be seen a significant out of plane vibration of rotor.
4th ANSA & μETA International Conference0.0040.003dampratio0.0020.001001000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000-0.001-0.002-0.003-0.004frequency(hz)Figure 3 – Freq.-Damping ratio curve with friction coefficient equency(hz)Figure 4 – Freq.-Damping ratio curve with friction coefficient 0.2512000
4th ANSA & μETA International ConferenceFigure 5 – Vibration mode of system at 7549Hz4. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS WITH THERMAL EFFECTA subsequent transient analysis with ABAQUS/Explicit is taken to study the thermal effectduring deceleration of brake . The velocity of rotor is initially 266.1 rad/s, and decrease to 0.And it is assumed that the motion of rotor is only affected by pads. Both the pressure andfriction between pads and rotor are speed dependant, as shown in table 1.Speed(Km/h)010118230350Table 1 – Pressure and FCAngular 6FC0.3740.2780.2510.250.319To implement the speed dependence of loads, we developed an ABAQUS subroutineVUAMP. The Angular velocity is stored in a state variable SVARS (1) and the subroutineinterpolate pressure to be applied to pad surface linearly according to SVARS (1). In addition,when the angular velocity became zero, the subroutine terminates the analysis. In this case,we only include convectional heat exchange between brake system and environment.The temperature and stress distributions at different time are shown through figure 6 to figure8. Since the speed of heat generation is much rapid than convection, thermal stress appearsdue to temperature gradient. After several rotations, the distribution of temperature andstress become axisymmetrically uniform.
4th ANSA & μETA International ConferenceFigure 6 Temperature (left) and stress (right) distribution at the beginningFigure 7 Temperature (left) and stress (right) distribution at 1st rotationFigure 8 Temperature (left) and stress (right) distribution at 7th rotation5. CONCLUSIONSIn this paper, we present a method of brake squeal analysis with aid of ANSA and ABAQUS.Complex modal analysis is employed to extract natural frequencies and a transient analysisis carried out to study the thermal effects during braking. The effect of friction in complexmodal analysis is investigated. The coupling of thermal effect and squeal is to be studied infuture.
4th ANSA & μETA International ConferenceREFERENCES(1)ANSA version 12.1.5 User’s Guide, BETA CAE Systems S.A., July 2008(2)P. Liu et al., Analysis of disc brake squeal using the complex eigenvalue method,Applied Acoustics 2007; 68:603–615(3)H. Ouyang et al., Numerical analysis of automotive disc brake squeal: a review, Int. J.Vehicle Noise and Vibration 2005; 1:207-231(4)ABAQUS Analysis User's Manual, 6.10
KEYWORDS – disc brake, squeal, ABAQUS, ANSA ABSTRACT – Squeal analysis of disc brake system continues to be a challenging issue in both industrial and academia due to its complexity and frequent occurrence. Thanks to rapid development of computational device and commercial software, finite element analysis
(2) Install the front disc brake anti-squeal shim to each front disc brake pad. NOTICE Figure 3. 1 Front Disc Brake Anti-squeal Shim 3. Road test the vehicle to confirm proper brake pad installation. NOTICE When applying disc brake grease, use the grease enclosed with a front disc brake pad kit or supplied
on the disc squeal. The simulations performed in this work present a guideline to reduce the squeal noise of the disc brake system. 2. Methodology and numerical model 2.1. Complex eigenvalue extraction For brake squeal analysis, the most important source of nonlinearity is the frictional sliding contact between the disc and the pads.
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Keywords: Squeal, brake pad, wear, EDX, Optical Microscope Abstract. Brake squeal has always been a major NVH problem to many car makers due to significant number of warranty claims. Brake squeal is a high frequency noise (above 1 kHz) emanating from car disc brakes that get excited due to one or more mechanisms such as mode
pads and the disc, the stiffness of the disc, and the stiffness of the back plates of the pads, on the disc squeal. G. Lou  Disk brake squeal noise is mainly due to unstable friction-induced vibration. A typical disk brake system includes two pads, a rotor, a caliper and a piston. In order to predict if a
squeal, best method of analyzing brake disc is by complex Eigen value analysis. This technique is available in ANSYS 13 and can be used to determine stability of brake disc. The real and imaginary part of complex Eigen values is responsible for level of instability of brake disc assembly. Once imported frictionless support was given to brake disc
The existence of brake squeal has been recognized as a problem for some time primarily because of its occurrence in highway vehicle drum and disc brake systems. Rail transit cars have also exhibited brake squeal from their tread and disc brakes. In the United States three transit systems use disc brakes:
1.4 Disc brake components in brake squeal The “simplified FE model” of a brake system, see . Figure 3, is composed of brake disc, a pair of brake pads. Here, the brake pads include the backplate but no shim neither friction material under layer is modelled. The backplates is made of steel, see