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"The Farm Tractor i n the Forest" i s a m a n u a l f o r w o o d l o t o w n e r sa n d s m a l l s c a l e w o o d s c o n t r a c t o r s . It o u t l i n e s t h e t y p e o f m o d i f i c a t i o n s a n d a u x i l i a r y e q u i p m e n t t h a t m a y b e n e e d e d if a f a r m t r a c t o ris t o b e u s e f u l in a f o r e s t r y o p e r a t i o n . G u i d e l i n e s f o r p l a n n i n g offorestry operations and safe work techniques are also provided.T h e last sections of t h e b o o k c o v e r the e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s of f a r m tractor-logging a n d provide e x a m p l e s of h o w to calculate costs toc o m p a r e different logging s y s t e m s .T h e original v e r s i o n of this b o o k w a s printed in S w e d e n . Illustrations a n d m o s t r e f e r e n c e s reflect current S w e d i s h conditions.H o w e v e r , in s o m e p l a c e s m i n o r c h a n g e s h a v e b e e n m a d e in t h eEnglish v e r s i o n to reflect conditions in N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h e National Board o fForestry, S w e d e nWritten by: Milton Nilssonillustrations: Nils F o r s h e dCover photo: Milton NilssonReference group: Thorsten AnderssonKarl-Gunnar LindqvistBertil S v e n s s o nProject leader: Karl-Goran E n a n d e rBengt PetterssonEditor: Bengt PetterssonEnglish translation: Forest Extension ServiceN.B. D e p a r t m e n t of Natural R e s o u r c e sR.R.#5Fredericton, N e w BrunswickCanada E3B 4X6LF A L L F 146 8 2 027Printed by: A B Faiths Tryckeri, V a r n a m o , S w e d e nISBN 91-85748-25-01982

The National Board of Forestry, Sweden published TheFarm Tractor in the Forest by Milton Nilsson in 1982. In August2017 the Swedish Forest Agency, successor organization to theNational Board of Forestry, granted Vincent Seiwert of BombadilTree Farm, Ashland, Maine, U.S.A. permission to reproduce anddisseminate The Farm Tractor in the Forest for noncommercialpurposes as he deems appropriate.You may download, save, print, and/or share this PDFversion, prepared by Vincent Seiwert from his English translationcopy of the book, in its entirety or in part, so long as you abide bythe same noncommercial purpose restriction.07 September 2017

ContentsW h e n c a n 1u s e m y f a r m tractor in t h e f o r e s t ?T h e basic f a r m tractorT h e forestry equipped f a r m tractorT h e p o w e r t a k e off shaftT h e tractor trailerWinchesMounting a mechanical winch on a farmtractorCranesM o u n t i n g the c r a n e a n d attaching the trailerGrapple loadersAccessoriesCablesControl and m a i n t e n a n c e of equipmentPersonal safety equipmentOff-road driving techniquePlanning the harvest operationC h o i c e of logging m e t h o dS h o r t w o o d to strip roadT r e e length or tree sections to strip roadT r e e length to landingShortwood to 08692

A l m o s t a n y f a r m tractor c a n be put to a variety off o r e s t r y u s e s b u t d o n o t e x p e c t it t o r e p l a c e askidder or other specialized machine designedspecifically for forestry. T h i s h a n d b o o k outliness o m e of the safety features a n d equipment thatcan be a d d e d to a f a r m tractor being a d a p t e d forw o o d s work. W h e n combined with proper workt e c h n i q u e s , t h i s e q u i p m e n t is s u i t a b l e for s m a l lscale forestry operations.

S o m e factors to consider3

The basic farm tractorThis illustration s h o w s a tractor e q u i p p e d to m e e t S w e d i s hf a r m s a f e t y s t a n d a r d s . S t a n d a r d s m a y v a r y in o t h e r jurisdict i o n s . It m a y b e w o r t h w h i l e c o n s i d e r i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h i st y p e o f s a f e t y e q u i p m e n t e v e n if it is n o t r e q u i r e d b y l a w i nyour country.If used on public highways,the tractor must comply with localtraffic regulations.4

The CabThe tractor should be equipped withan approved cab or roll-over protection structure for safety reasons. Innorthern climates, a goodheater- -defroster is necessarywhen working in the winter. Air conditioning may be appropriate in otherIf a tractor with a cab is operated onfrozen lakes or rivers, it should havean escape hatch or removable roofon the cab.5

The SeatA farmer or woodlot owner mayspend over1,000 hiours per year ontfie seat of the tractor. Unless themachine has a properly designedseat, the operator may end up withbackache, disc degeneration,stomach or kidney problems resultingfrom the vibration and bouncing of thetractor.A well-designed seat will support theoperator's backbone in a natural way,allowing it to absorb machine vibrations. The seat should have adjustable dampening or springs adaptableto the weight of the operator. It shouldbe adjustable both horizontally andvertically.It is not enough to just have a welldesigned seat. The seat must bemaintained and checked regularly toensure the springs or dampening systems are working properly.StepsFor safety reasons the tractor shouldhave perforated, anti-slip stepsdesigned to prevent accumulation ofsoil, snow or ice.If the tractor does not have anti-slipsteps, it is relatively easy to weld on astrip of expanded metal to give thesteps anti-slip properties.6

The power take off (PTO)The power take off should have a permanently fixed shield. A pipe-shapedshield on the PTO shaft should coverall moving parts. If the PTO shield onthe tractor is made of expanded metalthe operator has a better view of thehitch when hooking up a trailer.The tow hookThe tow hook should be mounted asclose to the tractor axle as possible tominimize the risk of a back roll-over(back flip) or a side roll-over of thetractor. The hook should be designedso that the trailer cannot disconnectaccidentally.Some tractors have a combined farmequipment drawbar and a hydraulically controlled tow hook. The drawbar should be removed to increaseclearance for forestry work.For safety andconvenienceTwo-Way radioForest work involves many dangerousactivities. A two-way radio in the tractorcan be used to summon help in anemergency.Anyone working alone in the woodsshould carry a portable transmitter in hispocket to use in an emergency. Makesure someone is monitoring a base-station tuned to the frequency of your transmitterA two-way radio is also a convenience. Itcan be used to tell visitors where you areworking, tell the family when you will behome for dinner, or seek advice from afriend or co-worker elsewhere in theforest7

The forestry equipped farm tractorEquipping a farm tractor for forest w o r kd o e s N O T m a k e it i n t o a s k i d d e r . S u c h aconversion is not economical.T h e equipment added to the tractor shouldbe easy to disconnect w h e n the tractor isneeded for f a r m work. T h e type of equipm e n t selected will reflect t h e a m o u n t offorest work contemplated and theeconomic return from forest products.F e w manufacturers provide standardizedforestry equipment for f a r m tractors. T h eowner with access to a workshop and weldi n g e q u i p m e n t s h o u l d h a v e little t r o u b l e f a b ricating basic e q u i p m e n t like a belly plan,radiator protector and other small items.Basic equipment for the forestry-equipped tractor includes:Tire chains8

Protective screenA metal mesh screen will protect therear window and rear section of thetractor when loading with a crane.Screens should be installed on bothrear and side windows when a grapple loader is used.First aid kitThe kit should contain first aid bandages, band-aids and gauze bandages.Belly pansBelly pans are necessary to protectthe motor, transmission and frontaxle. The protective pans should bemade of metal at least 10 mm thick.Cun/ing the pans increases theirstrength and improves protectionagainst knocks and blows. Curvedbelly pans reduce the risk of hangingup on stumps or other obstacles.

Tire chainsTire ciiains improve tiie off-roadcapabiiities of a farm tractor. Somejurisdictions restrict their use on public roads because of potential damage to the road surface. Instructionsfor mounting tire chains are found onpage 45.Chains withV-shaped studs (lugs)Chains with studded ringsValve stem protectionValve stems are easily damaged inoff-road work. If a tractor is to be usedin the woods, weld valve protectorsonto the tire rims before the tires aremounted.The valve protector may cover justthe valve stem or the whole rim.Fully covering protectivedisc, bolted to the rim.Because of the danger of explosion,never weld a rim when it has a tiremounted on it.10

Radiator protectorThis metal mesh screen must bestrong enough to prevent branchesfrom puncturing the radiator.Equipment boxA box for the chainsaw, fuel and oilcontainers and small logging equipment can be installed on the front ofthe tractor. DO NOT store this equipment on the floor of the tractor cab.Make sure the equipment box doesnot obscure headlights or licenceplates.Engine side guardRemovable metal screens or sheetmetal protectors will shield the motorcompartment during woods operations. An approved container withextra fuel could be mounted on thisscreen.11

Headlight protectionProvide protection for fieadiigfits,fiasfiers and position iigfits wfienworl ing in tfie forest.Fire extinguisherSpiiied fuei or dry materiai from tfieforest fioor can easiiy catcfi fire. Carrya fire extinguistier designed for useon gas, oii, eiectric and wood/paperfires. A 6 Kg type fire extinguisfier isrecommended.Tractor stabilityIncreasing tfie distance between tfiewheels improves the stability of thetractor. Some front axles aredesigned to be extended. Rear rimscan be installed "inside out" toincrease the distance between thewheels. Special extenders are alsoavailable for rear wheel mounts.IrJ11]IJpfyII12I

The power take off shaftA power t a k e off ( P T O ) s h a f t is n o r m a l l y m a d e u p of t h efollowing c o m p o n e n t s :Outer yokeUniversaljoint crossYoke with aninside pipeYoke with anoutside pipeUniversaljoint crossOuter yokeKeyway and clamp boltfor key-way shaftOutside yokesThe outer yokes can have differentsions, profiles and fasteners.dimen-Clamp bolt forkey-way shaft.Round hole withdowel hole.It is therefore important to know the correctdimensions, profile and fastener type whenordering a PTO shaft.Tapped holeBayonet jointLock pinUniversal jointsThere are three different kinds of universaljoints on the market. Only the conventionaluniversal joint is used for winches andcranes.Conventionaluniversal jointDoubleuniversal jointWide angleuniversal joint13

The conventional universal joint can operate at an angle of up to 35 .This is sufficient to permit lifting or lowering a winch or a shaft lengthIt is important to make sure that the shaft isthe correct length so that it is not damagedor pulled apart when the hitch is raised orlowered. If the shaft is too long, cut it,remove burr and lubricate.Remove burrLubricateLubricationPTO shaft will last ionger if properly lubricated. Insufficientlubrication can result in damage to bearings, overheatingand increased telescopic resistance. Lubricate as recommended below:Once a day14Once a weekOnce a day

PTO shaft shieldsThe PTO shaft must be fully covered by a protective shield.The universal joints at the tractor end and machine end musthave permanently mounted shields. The pipe shaped PTOshield must be fastened with two chains, one in each end, toprevent rotation. A damaged shield must be immediatelyreplaced. Never wait to replace a damaged shield.Permanentshield onthe machinePermanent shieldon the tractorThe permanent shield over the tractorPTO should withstand a heavy blow(1,200 Newton). The shield shouldnever be removed. If the shield ismade of a metal mesh or stretchmetal, you can see through whilehitching on a trailer.When the tractor PTO is not in use,the PTO outlet cover should be inplace.If a section of the PTO shaft is damaged it is generally cheaper to purchase a new shaft or use used spareparts rather than repair the brokencomponent.

The tractor trailerA trailer is a s i n g l e a x l e v e h i c l e t h a t m a y b e e q u i p p e d w i t heither single or bogie wheels. W a g o n s h a v e multiple axlesand are not suited for forestry operations.Trailers a r e better in t h e forest b e c a u s e part of t h e w e i g h t oft h e load is o n t h e tractor, i n c r e a s i n g traction. A tractor-trailerc o m b i n a t i o n is m o r e m a n e u v e r a b l e t h a n a t r a c t o r - w a g o ncombination.roA good trailer for forest work will have:Grabbing pin16Bogie

Five-ton capacityA five-ton traiier stiouid suit most farmtractors.PiatformA smaii platform sfiould be providedfor use wfien adjusting the load.Swivei eyeletA revolving eyelet bogie should be equipped withwheels which have valve stem protectors and tires approximately8.50x12. The bogie pivot should beslightly toward the rear of centre toallow the bogie to easily "climb" anobstacle.Good ground clearanceThe trailer should have good groundclearance, low loading height and a"clean" underside.17

Adjustable bunksAdjustable bunks make it possible tocarry products ofvarying lengtfis.3 Load widthKeeping bunk ends inside tfie wheelspacing will reduce the chance ofdamaging trees along the trail.mXT1I18

Dump beamA dump beam (described on page 43)can mai(e unloading easier.Anti-slide deviceAnti-siide devices on the beams pro-be 2 cm higher than the anti-siidedevice.19

WinchesT h e winch can b e either mechanically o r hydraulically powered.T h e r e a r e d r u m w i n c h e s , multi-groove roller w i n c h e s a n d caps t a n w i n c h e s . W i n c h e s e q u i p p e d w i t h t o w e r s w h i c h c a n b e tilteda r e c a l l e d tilt w i n c h e s .Cable storage0Drum winchThe cable is pulled in by thedrum which also acts as thecable storage.Pulling power variesdepending on the amount ofcable stored on the drum.Multi groove rollerwinchThe cable is pulled in or fedout by a number of groovedrollers.The cable must be hauledout by hand.This type of winch developsconstant pulling powerregardless of the amount ofcable on the separate storage drum.The cable will wear quicklyon a drum winch.There is less cable wearthan with a drum winch.This type of winch is relatively inexpensive.This type of winch is expensive.Capstan winchThe cable is pulled in or fedout by a single capstan.The cable is stored on aseparate drum.The capstan exerts a constant pulling power on thecable.There is less cable wearthan with a drum winch.This type of winch is expensive.Most woodlot owners use a farm tractor and winch in thewoodlot for only a short time each year. In these situationsthe mechanical drum winch is usually chosen because of itslow cost.20

Chain andsprocl et driveTractor powertal e offMechanical drum winchA mechanical drum winch consists ofa drum mounted on a frame withadjustable support legs. Usually thewinch frame can be mounted on thethree-point hitch of a farm tractor.The winch is powered by the tractorPTO. There is usually a chain andsprocket drive mechanism with someWinch powertal e inform of friction clutch to transferpower to the cable drum.The cable drum usually has a frictionbrake to prevent speeding and tangling when the cable is being pulledout.Always follow the manufacturer'sspecifications when adjusting theclutch or friction brake.

A typical mechanical drum winchHand protection deviceHigti snatcti biocl witti 360 swivelAdjustable support legs22

Mounting a mechanical winch on a farm tractor1. Attach the top link to the tractor.2. Place the winch on the groundbehind the tractor. The top side willend up facing the tractor. Dividethe PTO shaft and attach one halfto the tractor, the other to thewinch. If the tractor has two PTO's,use the one which turns at 540revolutions per minute.23

4. Tip tlie wincii up and fasten tfie toplinl . Sfiorten tfie sway bars so thewinch does not sway sideways.5. Raise the winch untii the PTO inieton the winch is ievei with the outieton the tractor. This is usuaiiy thepoint at which the PTO shaft isshortest.

7. Mounting ttie PTO stiaft: Piece ttietwo stiaft sections next to eacfiother and mal e sure the shaft islong enough even when the winchis lifted. Cut the shaft if it is toolong. Lower the winch. Remove thetractor PTO section. Push the twosections together and refasten thetractor PTO section. Attach thePTO shield halves so that they donot rotate.8. For remote control attach a controlline or radio control unit. If you usea control line, make sure it doesnot interfere with winch operations.If a radio control unit is used, connectthe radio to the tractor battery andinstall an antenna on the roof of thecab.9. Adjust the winch clutch and brakeaccording to manufacturer'sspecifications.25

CranesA cable crane consists of a winchattached to a crane frame which hasa lifting boom.Some cranes are designed to allowthe crane frame and boom to beremoved so that the winch can beused alone.Lifting boomCrane frameWinch unitCranes mounted on tractors are morecommon than cranes mounted onwagons or trailers. The tractormounted crane results in less totalvehicle length.The trailer mounted crane has theadvantage of being easily separatedfrom the tractor. But the PTO shaft islonger and more exposed to stress.The trailer unit is less stable in earlystages of loading.The winch used is usually a mechanical drum type poweredby the tractor PTO. The winch must have an automatic brakethat will engage if the controls for the clutch or friction brakeare released.A crane should be equipped for remote control with a controlline.Warning: Do not use a one-channel radio remote control forloading and unloading operations since this kind of unit lacksan emergency stop function.26

Crane specificationsRecommended measurementsare indicated in tlie si etcli.Adjustable support legs27

An automatic braise must be abie tostop the wire drum any time the drivepower is removed. This is a safetyfeature to prevent a hoisted ioad fromfree-faiiing bacl to the ground.The crane shouid be designed toaiiow forsiow towering of a ioad.28

The power intake stiaft shouid havesplines. Avoid threaded shaftsbecause they are difficult to disconnect.Read the manufacturer'smanualbefore adjusting the clutch and brake.29

The drum diameter shouid be at ieast10 times greater than the cabiediameter. The adjustable support legs on thecrane shouid have springloaded locl pins which cannot shake loose. Thelegs should not extend below thecrane frame when locked in the "up" position to allow freemovement ofthe trailer drawbar.30

Mounting the crane and attaching the trailer2. Attach half the PTO shaft to thetractor and half to the crane. Ifthere are two PTO connections onthe tractor, use the one set to turnat 540 revolutions per minute.3. Lower the crane support legs 20cm. Remove lifting boom and placethe crane frame on the ground.Attach the two lower links of thehitch. Extend the sway bars ifnecessary.4. Tip the crane up and attach the toplink of the hitch. Shorten the swaybars so that the crane will notsewing sideways.

5. Check that the PTO shaft is theproper iength even with the cranein the raised position on the hitch. Ifthe shaft is too long, cut it and itsprotective cover to the properlength. Remove the part of theshaft attached to the tractor. Connect the two halves of the shaft andre-attach the tractor end. Attachthe pipe-shaped shields so thatthey will not rotate.wood.6. Adjust the lifting boom according tothe iength of wood to be loaded.For three metre wood, a boomlength of about230 cm is recommended. For saw logs, 280 cmwould be about right.7. Raiselowerliftingif it isthe crane support legs andthe crane frame. Attach theboom and outer snatch blockremovable.8. Thread the cable through all blockson the crane. Instructions for unwinding cable are on page 47.»

9. Attach the cable to the cable drumaccording to manufacturer'sinstructions.I10. Measure the desired length ofcable. Tape the cable on eitherside of where it will be cut. Cutwith a cold chisel.11. Attach the slide hook and cableeyelet as shown on page 48.Cable eyeletWedgeSlide hook12. Wind the cable onto the cabledrum, making sure the cable isevenly distributed as it rolls in. Aload on the cable helps maintaineven tension.33

13. Attach and tension the iiftingboom stabiiizer chains either iifting the boom by hand or by usingthe winch.14. Use a cranio to adjust the iowerlinl s to ievei the crane frame.Raise the crane so that the traiiercan be attached to the drawbar.15. Lower the crane untii it touchesthe traiier centrai beam (ioadingposition). Adjust the top linl of thehitch so that the crane is vertical.Checl that the top iinl is notworn. Locl the top iinl .16. Adjust the boom angle using thestabiiizer chains. A boom angle ofabout 110 degrees is best forloading.34

17. Secure any surplus chain withshacl les. Use cotter pins to lockthe shackles holding the stabilizerchains.18. Adjust the winch according tomanufacturer's instructions andmount remote control line. A twosnatch-block arrangement willincrease leverage and make control easier.19. Adjust the bunks on the trailerand fasten them in place. The endof the lifting boom shouid bedirectly above the mid-point of theload.20. If you are going to use a dumpbeam, it should be connected tothe trailer centre beam rightbelow the end of the lifting boom.35

21. When the crane is not in use,secure the end of the cabie tothe crane frame with a safetysnap-hool(.22. If the crane is to remain on the tractor for a long time, itshouid be attached to a special frame by two articulatedbars instead of to the top link of the three-point hitch. Thisprovides four attachment points and makes the cranemore stable. The top link of the hitch would only be used' when connecting or disconnecting the crane unit.The special frame must not be attached to the tractorcab. Remember welding on the tractor cab and safetyframe is unsafe.36

Grapple loadersA g r a p p l e l o a d e r o n a f a r m t r a c t o r Is n o t agood solution f r o m e r g o n o m i c a l point ofview. T h e o p e r a t o r w o u l d b e f o r c e d t o sit i na twisted position or stand o n his k n e e s o nthe seat w h e n o p e r a t i n g t h e loader. S u c hpositions could affect t h e o p e r a t o r ' s b a c ka n d j o i n t s if l o n g t i m e p e r i o d s a r e i n v o l v e d .The grapple loader cannot be used towinch w o o d f r o m t h e s t u m p t o a trail d u r i n ga thinning o p e r a t i o n . A s e p a r a t e w i n c h unitwould h a v e to b e p u r c h a s e d for this.A grapple loader-equipped f a r m tractord o e s not h a v e the capabilities of speciallydesigned forestry forwarders. Stability islimited in off-road s i t u a t i o n s a n d t h e g r a p ple r e a c h is s e l d o m m o r e t h a n f i v e m e t r e s .T h e grapple loader will probably require as p e c i a l h y d r a u l i c p u m p a n d t a n k if t h e u n i tis m o u n t e d o n a f a r m tractor.A g r a p p l e l o a d e r is e x p e n s i v e a n d a l a r g ea m o u n t of w o r k w o u l d h a v e to be d o n e tojustify purchasing s u c h equipment.If a g r a p p l e l o a d e r i s s u i t e d t o y o u r n e e d s , t h e r e a r e t w o t y p e s t o c o n s i d e r :Tractor mounted grapple loaderTrailer mounted grapple loaderAdvantages:This type of unit can reach wood infront of the tractor. The tractor can beeasiiy disconnected from the trailer.Stability is better in early stages ofloading and the vehicle combinationis short.Advantages:In transport position the grapple canbe hooked right to the load and is notaffected by turning actions. Disconnecting the trailer also disconnectsthe grapple from the tractor.Disadvantages:The grapple must be hooked to thefront of the tractor during transport. Ifthe grapple is hooked to the load onthe trailer it can be twisted and damaged when turning unless it has a socalled "flotation"position.A swinginggrapple can damage residual trees.Disadvantages:This grapple will not reach wood infront of the tractor and has limitedstability until there is some wood onthe trailer. The vehicle combination islong and the hydraulic connectionsbetween the tractor and trailer aremore exposed to damage.

AccessoriesControl equipment:Remote control lineRadioRadio controi eliminates ttie need forcontrol lines. Single channel radiounits for controlling mechanicalwinches are relatively inexpensive.Make sure the control unit will stopthe winch without any delay. Forsafety reasons radio controls shouldnot be used when loading or unloading with a crane.38

Skidding and loadingEyelet and slide hookAn eyelet on the end of the cable Iseasy to push under a bundle of pulpwood. The eyelet hooks into a slidehook which is designed to minimizecable wear. The hook releases automatically when tension is removedfrom the cable. If you use skid tongs,attach them to the eyelet with a screwshackle.SlidehooiBundle hookA sturdy metal hook helps pull thecable under a bundle of wood. Youcan easily make this type of hookyourselfSkid tongsThere are several models of skidtongs which are used for both skidding and loading logs.Unless you have a remote controlledwinch, use skid tongs with springs sothat the long teeth dig into the woodeven when there is no tension on thecable.A slide hook of pipeThis type of hook does not slide aseasily along the cable. This makes itslower to work with.

Skid panA skid pan can be made out of anylight material such as aluminum orfibreglass. A recycled car hood issometimes suitable. The skid panmakes winching easier and preventsdamage to the residual trees and theground. Skid pans used with cranesshould be detachable from the cable(see page 88).Skid conesSkid cones are useful for haulinglarge, de-limbed stems. Severalcones can be used together, eachattached to the top of a stem to bechoked. Sliding blocks on the chokersbring all the cones together for skidding.Corner hookA corner hook can be used to quicklychange the hauling direction. NOTE:It is not strong enough to be used asa snatch block.StrapSeveral types of straps are availablefor use with snatch blocks. The mostconvenient is in the form of a loopwhich can be attached to any sizetree.

Snatch blocksThere are both "open" arid "closed"snatch blocks. The cable can beremoved from the "open" block without opening the block. (1)A "closed"block must be opened to insert orremove the cable. (2)Closed blocks with twistable halves(3) open in such a way that the cablecannot get between the wheel andthe side wall of the block. Ball-bearings make this type of block easy toopen.Loading and unloadingPicaroonA picaroon allows you to stand backwhile guiding a load. This reduces therisk of injury if the load should slip orfall.Lifting hooksSwedish lifting hookshandling roundwood.not a pulp hook wichperpendicular to theare useful when(Note: This ishas the handlehook).Rope hookA branch with a hook on it makes ahandy tool for catching the cablewhen loading or unloading with acrane. A hook holder can be madesimply by welding a piece of pipe tothe crane frame. Drive a nail in theend of the branch and it will serve asa primitive picaroon for guiding aload.41

Load strapsIf you use a dump beam to unloadyour trailer you should have one moreset of load straps and binders thanyou have assortments of wood.Eyelet, preferablyspllced IdIf you are fonvarding softwood pulpand hardwood pulp, for example, youwould need at ieast three sets ofstraps and binders (see illustrationpage 91).5-4 m steel cable diameter 8 mm1.5-2 m steel chain diameter 9 mmCabiechokerRunner, can beremovedCable strapChainchokerChokersA c h o k e r is m a d e u p o f a runner,a strap a n d an end piece.Cable chokers are less expensivethan chain chokers but wear out morequickly. Cable tends to twist and create sharp wire ends that could injurethe operator. Safety mittens with reinforced palms are recommendedwhen using cable chokers.Runner(permanent—cannotbe removed)Chain chokers are recommended forrocky or bare ground conditions orany time large stems are beingwinched. Chain chokers are heavybut oniy a few are needed whenwinching large logs. They are easy tolose in underbrush so paint them abright color.The choker cable or chain should beof smaller diameter than the mainwinch cabie. If the load is too heavy,the choker will break protecting themore expensive winch cable.42

Dump beamsIt Is easy to make a dump beam forunloading a trailer (see page 90).Parts i n c l u d e :Metal p l a t e s 8 - 1 0 m m t h i c k o v e r a n dunder the trailer centre b e a m boltedtogether as illustrated.Guide r a i l s T h e t w o p a r a l l e l t r a i l s f o rthe d u m p b e a m a r e w e l d e d o n t h eupper plate p e r p e n d i c u l a r to t h etrailer b e a m . T h e g u i d e rails s h o u l dbe a b o u t 4 0 c m l o n g w i t h h o l e s in t h ebottom corners for a steel pin.Shackle to attach cable during dumpingHole to lock beam during transportNotchThe pin w i l l s e r v e a s a p i v o t f o r t h ed u m p b e a m during d u m p i n g . T h e pincan b em o v e d t oo n e o ranother sidedepending on which side the load isgoing.PlatesFour 1/2" boltsThe d u m p b e a m :Length atleast 2 mW i d t h approximately 5c mHeight approximately 8c mMaterial 5 m m sheet metalT h e lower side o fthe d u m p b e a mshould have a notch designed toc a t c h t h e pin in t h e g u i d e rails a n dhold during unloading. T h e oppositee n d should h a v e a shackle for attaching the crane cable. T h e d u m p b e a mshould b e designed t ob e stored inside t h e centre b e a m o fthe trailerduring transport.43

Hydraulic dump beamThe hydraulic dump beam is attachedto the tractor hydraulic system. It cantip in two directions, depending

When can 1 use my farm tractor in the forest2 ? The basic farm tractor 4 The forestry equipped farm tractor 8 The power take off shaft 13 The tractor trailer 16 Winches 20 Mounting a mechanical winch on a farm tractor 23 Cr

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