BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON NEVADA NUCLEAR TESTS

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PIREVADA TEST ORMN ATIM. .410492#Nevada Test SiteMemury, N *a.-,,., ,.,. .’I,.:. .:.,“BACKGROUND INFORMATIM.onl“”bNEVADANUCLEAR —TESTS,——tA mmmryof previouskmlmsedinformationprovid answers to questions concemtig theneed for and value of nuclear tests, x8t u9eof the continental test site, on-site opemtions and controls, public safety, and somephases of organi tion and progti BEST COPY AVAILABLEI.-’0.:, \ -,.U.-;:.-j t, :.-.-,-.&“1;.*”*“’., ;”’’j,’.:;;,,:.-.Prepared byOFFICE OF TEST INFORMATION1235 South Xain StreetLas Vegas, NevadaRevised to July 15, 19571“.—7—--—--------- ---;—;., -:

,-.— .,I\fFOREWORDA large volume of official information has been issued concerning Nevada nuclear testing since Nevada TestSite was activated in Januw- 1951. The itio ation tiepublic has been contained in official publications andreports of the Atomic Ener Commissim, the Departmentof Defense, the Federal Civil Defense Administration,other Federal organizations, and the joint Nevada TestOrganization. Prior to the Spring 1952 series, the Test Organization received many requests from newsmen, from publicofficials, and from representatives of Federal agenciesfor a compilation of officially-approved basic informationto be used M a source book. As a result the firstcompilation of Background Information was issued duringthe 1952 series.In order to meet similar requests, the informationsumnary has been brought up-to-date for each subsequentNevada Series, incorporating data released officially inthe interim period.The present Background Information is such a compilation. It does not attempt to be all-inclusive. Manysupplementary details are available elsewhere, for instance in the 1957 revision of *’AtomicTests in Nevada,wthe various semiannual reports of the AEC to Congress,and the Government publication “The Effects of AtacWeapons.n Such publications are usually available inpublic libraries.All material summarized here has been officia’.lyreleased previously, following security and classificationreview by the Federal agency with primary responsibilityfor the subject matter.A-i-s CLO1’1’I FOLLCWI.SGNUCLEAR DET(T;ATIR(1?:SEI’A1)A-,

.-BACKGROUND INFOF34ATIONON hWADANUCLEAR TESTSOutline of Contents\\PageMaps, Charts and PhotographsInside Front Co;ercPhotograph of Nuclear Cloud . . . . . ) . . s .c“* “ iiPhotograph ofShotBalloon. . . . . . . .c .* iControl Room within the main Control Point Bldg at NTS . . . .List of All Full Scale Nuclear Detonations In Nevada. . . . . . . . till & coxOther United States,United Kingdomj and Russian Tests* Control Point Building at Nevada Test Site. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diControl Point of NTS from a Hillside View. . . . . . . . . . . . .photograph ofCampMereury. . . . . . . 0.“c“ “ ‘ 73Chart of Headquarters Agencies and Nevada Test Organization. . . . . t s .D . . Q * c c c‘rChart of Test Dire:torvs Organization. . . .’76.Photograph ofCampDesertRock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-.“ Inside‘ackcoverPhotograph of Underground Burst. . . . . . . (Map of Nevada Test Site Vicinity . . . . . . . .c o‘ack coverSchematic Arrangement of Balloon Shot Area. . . . , . Insert Between 38 & 39Schematic Arrangement of Tower Shot Area, . . . . . . . Insert Between 38 & 39’ Subject:Forward.‘,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D * . ““”” Section 1.Responsibility for U. S. Nuclear Weapons Programs . . . . . . . Atomic Energ Commission, Armed Forces, FCDASection 2.Why Nuclear Weapons and Devices are Field Tested. . . . . . . . 22OCO*Oo*To AdvanceWeapons Development . . . . . . . . .a.2 ”O*O-*O”Nine Developmental Purposes . . . . . . . . . . . .Designing Experimental Devices . . . . . . . . . QO ”OOO-**Need for Military IieaponsEffects Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .;Civil, Structural and Biomedical Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Summary of United States Nuclear Tests by Series . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 . Section 3.Origin, History and Value of Continental Testing . . . . .c “ “ “Triniljy,1945. e . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . .First Developmental Tests in the Pacific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Selection ofi3Continental Site.**.* ****””*”56Numbers and Types of Detonations . . .o.00c0o““’”o”””6&?c0Uses Made-Uf Individual Nevada Tests . . . . . . . . .“ o“ .8Costs ofNevadaTests. . . . . . . . . . . . . c.8“*““ Postponements e . . . . . . . . . . . . 0Operating Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . .Ycs“ “*Cla Arisingfrom Nevada Tests. . .”s” OO”.!c“ “ 0Suits inFederalCourts. . . . . . . . . . . .Value of a Continental Site to National Programs . . . . . . . . 0 UAEC Weapons Laboratories . . . . . . . . 0 .0“ - iii -A SHOT BALLOON AT NEVADA TEST SITE

Ew!24 “-Armed Forces . . . . . . . . . . . .Civilian Programs . . . . . . . . .Why an Overseas Site is Also Essential . \. Section 4.Planning and Conducting NevadaOriginofaSeries. . . . . . . . . . .Each Shot Justified for Technical NecessityOperating Considerations. . . . . . . . . .Requirement for Technical Success . . .Public Safety Requirement. . . . . . . .Placement of Devices , . . . . . . . . .Placement to Avoid Contaminating AnotherHours of Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . .Division of Real Estate and of Air . . .Buildup in Laboratories and at the Site . .TheMovetoNevada. . . . . . . . . . . .Pre-Shot Schedule and Considerations. . . .Weather is Major Consideration . . . . .Factors Affecting Last Minute PostponementsPost-shot Operations. . . . . . . . .On-Site Monitoring . . . . . . . . .Cloud Sampling and Tracking . . , .Air ClosurebyCU. . . . . . . . .eEstablishing the Fallout Pattern . .Distant Monitoring . . . . . . . . . **. . . .“. . . .* k 0 9 w . . . . 0 . . . . . * . . . . ce . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . , . . . ,* . . . . e. . . . . .‘131313.l-f aIAuu15151617*.17 & le19.1919.191919 131313. .***.& 12 1111 Section 5,Training Programs and Other Activities Utilizing NTs.Other Nearby Locations . . . . . . . .Citil Defense Training and Technical Programs . .Military On-Site Training and Observation . .Air Crew Training and Indoctrination . . . .Public Health Service Training . . . . . . .Other Programs at Nevada Test Site and NearbyeThe Safety Experiment Program . . . . . .eLiyermore High Explosive Tests . . . . . .ee.NewTechnical Area. . . . . . . . .Tonopah Ballistics Range . . . . . . . . .Watertown Project . . . . . . . . . . . .*.Other Projects at NTS . . . . . . . . . . e 9 , . . . . * . . . . . . . Section 6.The Nevada Te#t Organization . . .A Joint-Agency Organization . . . . . . . . .AEC Albuquerque Operations . . . . . . . . .e*Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory . . . . . .University of California Radiation Laboratory (Livermore)SandiaLaboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Armed Forces Special Weapons Project. . . . .Armed Forces S cial Weapons Center . . . . .AEC Support Contractors . . . . . . . . . . .-iv- 202021212122222222222223 . .* 0. .s . . . 242A2-4 . . . 25 8. Y. . . *.*”e . . . .*.*.* . . .****. e C:-252526262’7c\4

PaJigSubject . 28282 29: 29. 29‘29 . Section 7. Where Nevada Tests Are ConductedLocation and Geography . . . . .Additions to the Original Site. .Contract and Construction Date. .Supporting Installations . . . .Camp Mercury . . . . . . . . .Camp Desert Rock . . . . . . .Indian Springs Air Force Base.Technical Areas-Within NTS. . . .The Control Point. . . . . . .Frenchman Flat . . . . . .YuccaBasin.O. * . . 0, .0. . . . . . . .*. ) ,.30303030313232 . Section /3.Technical Facilities and Instrumentation. .Purpose of Technical Facilities . . . . .Technical Structures and Instruments. .AirDrop Targets . . . . . . . . . .Test Towers . . . . . . . . . . . .Ealloon Winches and Winch Shelters .Instrumentation and Structures . . .Underground Instrumentation Bunkers.The Control Point. . . . . . .New Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . ;;,3233;;8363’7PARTIIJune 24, 1957Section 9. The 1957 Test SeriesThe Purpose . . . . . . . .Extent of Program . . . . .1957 Shots . . . . . . . .Shot Names . . . . . . . .Dual and Triple Capability.Yield Range of a Device . .The “Open” Shots. . . . . .Section 10. Balloons,Air-to-Air Rocket .Tunnel Shot . . . .Balloon Shots . . .0 . . . . . . .*. .,. . . 40414141. 42.0Tunnels and Rockets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F.- . -v-;;39.Section 110 Safety and Radiation ProtectionReduction-ef Fallout. . . . . . . . . . .Warning Procedures . . . . . . . . . . .Radiation Exposure Levels . . . . . . . .Radiological Monitoring . . . . . . . . .Cloud Sampling and Tracking; Airborne Monitoring.Paths of Radioactive Clouds . . . . . . . . . . .Monitoring Teams in Test Site Area. . . . . . . .Film Badges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-. . . . *.**.* . . . . . .0. .0.0 . . 4344444446L?k8/! 84950505L54

SmbkQPhysicians and Veterinarian . . . . . . .Automatic Radiation Reporting System. .Other Data Collecting Projects. . . . .Monitoring in Continental United StatesMeasurements of Radioactivity Outside theFallout Computers . . . . . . . . . . Section 12. Military Participation.Military Effects Experiments. . .UOS.A- . . . . . . . . . . .U. S.Navy. . . . . . . . . . .U, So Marine Corps. . . . . . . .U. S. Air Force . . . . . . . . .Section 13. Citil Effects ExperimentsCivil Effects Organization. . . . .Correlation of B ological Data. .Ang lar Distribution Studies .Shielding Studies. . . . . . .Blast Biology . . . . . . . . . .Countermeasures and Training. . .Animals Used in Experiments . . .Use of “Phantoms’tin Biological . ,. .0 . . .0.0. m . . . . . . 626363. . 63 . 0. . . . . ‘. 0 . . . . . *6464656566:;. . . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . 0 0.0 0 0. . . . . . . . .e. . . . . . .0e . . . . . . * .I6061 . .*. . . .*. . . .*. . . .*. . O. . . . .’ . . 555556575959 .,,,. u. s. . .*O* Section I-4. FCDA Participation.Shelter Tests. . . . . . .Foreign Shelters. . . . . . .Vault Design Test . . . . . .Air Zero Locators . . . . . .kll onryConstruction. . . . .Door Tests . . . . . . . . .Ventilation Equipment . ; . .Radiological Defense. . . . .Monitoring Techniques . . . .Evaluation of Instruments . .Field Operations . . . . . .Support Participation . . . . . .*676706768697G7070707:n7L71’72’72.@-ti-.//9.

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9.--LIST OF ALL FULL SCALE NUCLEAR DETONATIONS TN NEV.4DAi*of eliveryor Placement \Serien and T)ateRanger —Shot12345Firjne AreaWinter 1951 Series.lanuary27January 28February 1 “Februaxy 2Februaw 6AirAirAirAirAirFlatFrenchman FlatFrenchmanFlatFrenchman FlatFrenchmanFlatFrenchmanBuster-Jangle -- Fall 1951 seriesShot12345October 22October 28October 30November 1November 56 November 197 November 29TowerAir.AirhirAirSurface or UndergroundSurface or FlatFlatFlatFlatFlatFlat.Tumbler-Snapper —Shot1 April 12 April 153 April 224 May 15 May 76 Uay 257 June 18 June 5Upshot-Knothole —Shot1 March 172 March 243 March 314 April 35 April 116 April 187 April 258May89 May 1910 My 2511 June 4Spring 1952 SeriesAir.4irAirAirTowerTowerTowerTowerFrenchman FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatSPring 1953 l (hmAir--viii -Yucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatY lccaFlatYucca FlatFrenchnwm .latYucca FlatFrenchman FlatYucca FlatI

Series and DateType of Delivery ‘or PlacementrTeapot -- Sprjng 1955 SeriesShot123bs678910U1213uFebruary 18Februa 22March 1March 7March 12March 22Much 23March 29March 29April 6April 9April lSMaysMaylSFiring AreaAirJOO-foot Tower 00-foot TowerSoO-foot Tower300-foot TowersOO-foot TouerUndergroundsOO-foot TowerA&’AirX&footTower@@footTower @O-foot TutiersOO-foot TowerYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca F*atYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatFrenchman FlatYucca FlatIYucca FlatSOO-foot TowerJOO-foot TowersOO-foot Balloon5130-footBalloon700-foot BalloonlsO@foot BalloonSOO-foot TowerAir to Air Missile 00-foot TgwerYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatFrenchman FlatYucca FlatYucca FlatYucca Flatyucca FlatPlumbbob -- Summer 1957 SeriesShot12i56May28June2’June5June 18June ;UIY l;.: July 199 July 2 �”’-.4’,.-.,.-,

NUCLEAR TEST DETONATIONS OFFICIALLY ANNOUNCED.BY THE UNITED STATES, THE .—.UNITED--- KINGDOM, AND THE USRRrCompiled through April 16,‘1957Number CumulativeU. S. DetonationsTrinity, New Mexico, July 16, 1945Crossroads, Bikini Atoll, July 1946Sandstones Eniwetok Proving Ground) APril 1948Ranger, Nevada Test Site, January & Februa j 1951Greenhousej EPG, April & May, 1951Buster-Jangle, NTSj October & No emberj 1951Tumbler-Snapper, NTS Aprilj MaY & Junej 1952Ivyj EPG, November 1952Upshot-Knotholej NTS, M rchf April, May & June, 1953castle, EPG, March, April & May, 1954Teapot, NTSj February, March, April & Yhy, 1955Wigwam Pacific Oceanj May 1955Redwing, EPGj Mayj June & July, 19561;:782111?i;61115;;324346606164USSR Detonations(As announced the U. S. Government and/or the USSR)1949: September tober 3, October 22.August 12 (thermonuclear), August 23 (pa of series)”October 26 (part of series).Aug. 4, Sept. 24 (part of series), NOV. 10 (?art of series))Nov. 23 (“largest Lhus far . . . in megaton range”).March 21, April 2 (part of series), Aug. 24 (part Of series),Aug. 30 (part of series), Sept. 2 (part of eries), SePt. 10[announced by USSR), Nov. 17 (announced same day by U. S. andUSSR).Jan. 20 (part of series), March 8, April 3 (part of series),April 6, April 10 (part of series), April 12 (@rt of series) April 16.October 3 (Montebello Islands).October 15, October 26 (both at Woomera).my 16, June 19 (both at Montebello Islands)j SePtO 271 “ 4 Oct. 119 Oct. 21 (last four shots, all at Maralingaj Constitutefourth British series).x

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.1.RESPONSIBILITY FOR U. S. NUCLEAR WEAPONS PROGRAMSThe Atomic Ener Commission is ‘responsible’for developingatomic weapons of requisite yield, variety practical u’,ility,anddeliverability, and for manufacturkg and putting into storage ordelivering to the Armed Forces atomic weapons of the types andnumbers specified in schedules established by the Joint Chiefs ofStaff.IFor the development of new and imp.mved nuclear weapons, theNation depends on the ingenuity of the scientists in its contractlaboratories at Las Alamos and Albuquerque, New Mexico and at vermore California assisted by military scientists who contributeideas and developmental concepts.The bs Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University ofCalifornia Radiation Laboratory at Liver-more(both operated for theCommission by the University o{ California) are concerned primarilywith devising systems whereby atomic explosives may be fitted intomilitarily useful systems.tAfter such a system has been devised, it still must be fitted ‘into an efficient and practical atomic weapon. The job of buildingthe explosive system into a practical weapon is the primary concernof the Sandia Laboratory (operated for the Commission by SandiaCorporation, a unit of the Bell System.).The Armed Forces are .-espnsible for establishing the criteriafor atomic weaponsj for developing and producing the vehicles fordelivery and mating the vehicles with the weapons} for training menin their employment} and for military defense a ainst nuclear attack.The major point of field coordination of the Armed Forces! programswith the A2c s weapons laboratories is in Field Conmandj Armed ForcesSpecial Weapons Project} Sand Basez Albuquerque.The Federal Civil Defense Administration is responsible primarily for determining the possible effects of nuclear attack onthe civilian pcpulation and of marshaling civilian resources fordefense against such an attack.The Xsponsibilities of all these agencies are interconnected,and all depend upon knowledge of atomic explosive phenomena and ofthe effects of nuclear detonations. Field tests are fired to obtainthis vital knowledge.-1)!) ./.-

;2.WYNUCLEAR WEAPOl!SAND DEVICES ARE FIELD TESTEDIn a world in which free people have no nuclear monopoly, theUnited States must keep its atomic strength at peak level. That isthe primary reason why tests are held periodically in Nevada and inthe Pacific.Most of the tests are intended to advance weapons development.Four areas of work are involved in the laboratory and field test development of atomic weapons: primary experimental research, theoretical investigations and calculations, component developmentexperimentation, and full-scale nuclear detonations. If any one isneglected, the rate of weapons progress slows. The rate of testingrequired depends on the rapidity of generation of new ideas.At least nine developmental purposes are served by full scalenuclear tests:a.To proof test a weapon for d sired military characteristicsbefore it enters the national stockpile.b.To provide a firm basis for undertaking extensive engineering and “fabricationeffort which must be expanded to carrya “breadboard” model to a version satisfactory for stockpile purposes.c.To demonstrate the adequacy, inadequacy or limitations ofcurrent theoretical approaches.d.To explore phenomena which can vitally affect the efficiency and perfomnance of weapons but which are not susceptible to prior theoretical analysis of sufficientcertainty.e.To provide a basis of choice among existing theoreticalmethods of weapon improvement so as to concentrate effortalong lines of greatest practical significance.f.TO determine the validity of entirely new and untriedprinciples proposed for applications to improve performance.g“To provi e entirely new information pertinent and valuableto weapon development and arising simply as a by-productof scientific observation of full-scale detonations.h.To gain time in very urgent development programs by substituting tests for a portion of a possible but lengthyprogram of laboratory calculations and experiments.i.To provide as a by-product basic scientific information toadd to the stockpile of such knowledge.t.-2-.

\ Only for the first purpose, a proof test, would the detonationnecessarily be of a weapon as such. In most circumstances, an experimental device is designed, The device tested is simplified asmuch as possible to answer the basic question. It minimizes theexpenditure of active material. It has as lows yield as possibleto minimize off-site fallout. It is seldom a useful weapon design.The information obtained from its testing will, however, immediatelyor eventually affect the design of qtockpile weapons and improve thestockpile position.tThe Department of Defense .—and Armed Forces have a deep interestin the conduct of full cale tests. Full understanding of the out- ‘put characteristics of nuclear weapons and their effec s on varioustargets under varying conditions is essential to planning for theuse of weapons, for planning military defenses against nuclearweapons, and for developing the desired characteristics of newweapons.The Federal agencies charged with civil defense, biomedicalstudies, and with non-military applications of atomic energy havea continuing need for effects data paralleling the development of”nuclear weapons. Essential civil effects information is generallyin two categories, biomedical and structural, both distinct fromthe military effects data required by the Department of Defense.The Federal Civil Defense Administration has obtained such effectsinformation, and additionally has trained its personnel in varioustest-conducted programs. In all of this broad field of study ofthe effects of atomic energy, it has been found that certain answerscan only be obtained in the presence of a nuclear detonation. Inthis respect, the Nevada Test Site (and to some extent the Pacificsite) is used as an outdoors laboratory for non-military applications.While most field tests are therefore developmental in nature,the cost in mterial and effort is so great for any given test thatevery effort is made to answer with it as many other questions aspossible.Sumnary of United States Nuclear Tests by SeriesThe progressive frequency with which basic ideas have beengenerated and basic questions raised in weapons development andin effects is indicated by the schedule of detonations in Nevadaand the Pac fic. The scheduling and the number of series since 9j0 should indicate also the rate at which questions have beenraised and answered. Shot totals are those which have beenpublicly announced.Trinity Site, New Mexico, July 1945 (one)Bikini Atoll, mid-1946 (two)Eniwetok Proving Ground, spring 1948 (three)-3-cb

Nevada Test Site, winter 1951 (five)Eniwetok Proving Ground, spring 1951 (four)Nevada Test Site, autumn 1951 (seven)Nevada Test Site, spring 1952 (eight)Eniwetok Proting Ground, autumn 1952 (two)Nevada Test Site,’spring 1953 (eleven)Eniwetok Proving Ground, spring 1954 (three)Nevada Test Site, spring 1955 (fourte%n)Pacific Ocean, spring 1955 (one)Eniwetok Proving Ground, spring 1956 (three)Charts showing announced world-wide test totals are at the front of thisbooklet.-4-I

I3.ORIGIN, HISTORY, AND VALUE OF CONTINENTAL TESTINGTrinity, 1942World War IIlg crash develo ent, of atomic weapons had thebenefit of a single, full-scale field test, that at Trinity (NewMexico) on July 16, 1945. There wa too little fissionable material and probably too little time for more. The two weaponsfired over Japan were inefficient and very bulky; they left muchto be desired.Following World War II, the Navy desired to test the effectsof atomic weapons on water and on ships. Bikini Atoll was chosenas a locale because of its isolation from population centers, andbecause”the relatively shallow and sheltered waters of the lagoonwere an excellent environment for the types of tests desired. TWOweapons of a type used over Japan were detonated in the 1946 operation above and below the surface of Bikir,ilagoon. The tests wereship-based and were viewed by public and foreign observers, andby news media representatives.First Developmental Tests in the PacificThe wartime work had bypassed, for the time being, very promising principles. Los Alamos Scientific Laborato had, in 19451947, opened new paths toward more efficient, more versatile weapons which needed exploration. The scientists urged a program offield tests to supplement laboratory work. The military’s needfor knowledge of weapons effects was no less acute.During 1947 first thought was directed toward a continentalsite which would facilitate use through location and through sufficient real estate. F!!litav and .LECpersonnel surveyed sites onthe North American continent. It was felt that, if the weaponslaboratories had a ‘lbackyard”testing site, restits of such testscould be reflected in weapons development or manufacture monthssooner than with overseas tests.The determination was, however, to use an ocean site. Variousfactors entered into the decision. One was greater security of information at an isolated island site. Another was that the phenomena of blast and of radiation and fallout were not well understoodand an oce%n site, remote from any centers of population, wouldavoid any public hazard. The Eniwetok site was used for the Sandstone series in April 1948.Selection of a Continental SiteThe need for a backyard test site became increasingly ap rentduringlate 1949 and 1950. The pace of weapons development had.“,.i.,.e: k. ‘,.-5-

,been stepped up, and it became clear that the -programwould requiremore frequent tests than could be conducted feasibly in the Pacific.The rate of development of new and improved nuclear weapons dependedon whether or not a continental site could be utilized.Available locations were surveyed again and checke againstcriteria such as: density of population; eather, particularly forits effects on radiological safety locally and nationally; operational factors such as air lanes, labor pool, transportation; realestate available to the government; and security. The Nevada site,then a portion of the Air Forcefs Las Vegas Bombing and GunneryRange, most nearly satisfied all of the criteria for a continentalsite.Careful review of all available research and test data relatingto fallout and to blast indicated that under the controls planned,relatively low power tests could be fired with adequate assuranceof public safety.The decision to establish a continental test site was made inDecember, 1950, and the Nevada Test Site was first used for anatomic test on January 27, 1951.Numbers and ‘fYPes of DetonationsForty-five weapons weapon prototypes, or experimental deviceswere fired in five series in Nevada between January 27, 1951, andMay 15, 1955. All were relatively small in yield, ranging from lessthan one kiloton (equal to 1,000 tons of TNT) to considerably lessthan 100 kilotons. These yields may be compared with the tremendous explosive force of the larger weapons or detices included amongthose tested in the Pacific, with ranges having been announced of upto about 500 kilotons for fission bombs and up to millions of tons(megatons) for thermonuclear devices.Of the 45 detonations} 22 were tower placements, 19 were airdrops, three were surface or underground placements, and one was a280 millimeter cannon shot. The details of detonations by seriesand by shots are given in a chart at the front of this compilation.Uses Made of Individual Nevada TestsA sizeable majority of the shots have been primarily developmental of aevices conceived by scientists in the Los Alamos Scientific Qboratory and the University of California Radiation Labora–t ry branch at Livermore2 and constructed by those laboratories withthe assistance of Sandia Laboratory. Los Alamos devices have beentested in all series, while Livermore entered the continental testingprogram in the spring 1953 series.-.4u)’/

Other shots have been pr arily for military weapons effects,but almost all have been used to answer both diagnostic (for weapons development) and effects questions (for military or civilianagencies). For exmple, one recent series had 24 formal technicalprograms, of which seven were diagnostic, nine ere for militaxyeffects, and eight were for civil effects.Ikperiments to measure thekffects of atomic weapons, from themilitary viewpoint, are conducted under the technical direction ofthe Armed Forces Special Weapons Project, through its Field CommandWeapons Effects Tests Division, Sandia Base, Albuquerque. The experiments are conducted by laboratories and organizations of theArmed Forces, by their contractors, and by cooperating laboratoriesof other government agencies. These experiments have includedtests of blast effect on structures, on military aircraft andother vehicles, on material and military-type installation, onvarious types of surfaces such as lakes or forests, and haveincluded biomedical studies using large and small animals.The civil effects program includes experiments and studies todetermine the structural and biolc&ical effects. These are cogducted under the direction of the n u;s Division of Biolo and Medicine.Participating are AEC National Laboratories, the Federal Civil Defense Administration, educational institutions, private medical orresearch institutions, and private industrial organizations.,Essentially as part of the civil effects program, there havebeen continuing scientific projects for study of radiation effectsthrough off-site fallout. These projects have included efforts todoc’ment intensity patterns, particle size, and radiostronti deposition. Field studies have been made on the way fallout particles are tzke

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Jun 02, 2009 · CLUB; SKY TOP VENDING, INC., a Nevada Corporation d/b/a CAN ROOM; LA FUENTE, INC., a Nevada corporation d/b/a CHEETAH'S; C.P. FOOD AND BEVERAGE, INC., a . CHECKER CAB CORPORATION, a Nevada corporation d/b/a CHECKER CAB COMPANY; NEVADA STAR CAB CORPORATION, a Nevada corporation d/b/a STAR CAB COMPANY; NEVADA YELLOW

Nevada Mining Summary - 2019 In 2019 Nevada Mining provided 32,976 Nevada Jobs. 2.6 Billion in total paid salary 5th leading producer of GOLD in the WORLD! (Behind China, Australia, Russia, and Canada) 20 minerals are produced in Nevada at over 100 mines 12.4B impact to Nevada's economy, representing 3.1% of GDP Ranked 3 rd best mining

STATE OF NEVADA STATE BOARD OF COSMETOLOGY 4600 Kietzke Lane, Building I, Suite 200 Reno, Nevada 89502 (775) 688-1442 Fax (775) 688-1441 STATE OF NEVADA STATE BOARD OF COSMETOLOGY 1785 E. Sahara Avenue, Suite 255 Las Vegas, Nevada 89104 (702) 486-6542 Fax (702) 369-8064 April 7, 2005 Director of Legislative Counsel Bureau 401 S. Carson Street

Any nuclear reactor or radiological accidents involving equipment used in connection with naval nuclear reactors or other naval nuclear energy devices while such equipment is under the custody of the Navy. DoD's Definition of Nuclear Weapon Accident An unexpected event involving nuclear weapons or nuclear