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FoodStatisticsPocketbook2015Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

ContentsForeword 5Summary 6Chapter 1: Food Chain1.1: Economic summary of the UK food chain71.2: Gross Value Added of the UK agri-food sector91.3: Trends in the total factor productivity of the UK food sector101.4: Agri-food sector employees, GB basis111.5: UK food & drink manufacturing by product type121.6: UK grocery market shares 131.7: UK Consumer expenditure on food, drink and catering14Chapter 2: Prices and Expenditure2.1: UK trend in food prices in real terms152.2: Trend in share of spend going on food & drinks in low income& all UK households 162.3: Income decline after housing costs, low income decile (UK)172.4: UK retail price changes by food group182.5: Percentage change in food purchases, low income households (UK)192.6: Factors influencing consumer product choice202.7: UK trend in sales of ethical produce212.8: Food prices in the selected countries compared to the UK22Chapter 3: Global and UK Supply3.1: Origins of food consumed in the UK233.2: UK Food production to supply ratio243.3: Trends in UK food production 253.4: UK trade in different food groups263.5: Trend in exports of food, feed and drink273.6: World trends in population, energy requirement, energy supplyand the prevalence of under-nourishment283.7: World agricultural commodity prices 293.8: World grains stocks to consumption ratio303.9: Retailer warehouse stock levels - 5 year change31Chapter 4: Environment4.1: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the UK agri-food sector4.2: Trends in CO2 emissions from UK food and drink manufacturing4.3: Food and drink sub-sectors represented within the FHC3323334

Chapter 5: Waste5.1: UK food and drink waste through the food chain355.2: UK cost of avoidable food and drink waste per household per week,by food group 365.3: Management of food waste by subsector for the UK hospitalityand food sector 375.4: Understanding out of home consumer food waste385.5: Collection of food waste by local authorities in the UK395.6: UK food & drink packaging waste in the supply to households405.7: UK avoidable household food and drink waste by food groupand reason for disposal 415.8: Food wasted at each stage of the supply chain in Europe and Russia42Chapter 6: Dietary Health6.1: Household purchases compared to the eatwell ideal436.2: UK Trend in purchases of fruit & vegetables446.3: Trend in the consumption of fruit & vegetables in men, womenand children in England 456.4: UK Trends in intakes of fat, saturated fatty acids, non-milk extrinsicsugars & sodium 466.5: UK average micronutrient intakes 476.6: The UK household diet compared with the eating out diet486.7: Trends in average energy intake from food & drink496.8: UK dietary indicators by equivalised income506.9: Levels of adult obesity in England516.10 UK Regional household consumption of fruit and vegetables526.11 UK Trend in average alcohol intake (including eating out)53Chapter 7: Safety and Confidence7.1: UK inspections and enforcement actions of food businesses547.2: Contamination incidents investigated in the UK by the FSA557.3: Number of unsatisfactory analyses found in imported food567.4: Factors that would make people trust food and drinkcompanies/brands more 577.5: Percentage of people concerned about certain food issues587.6: Percentage of people concerned about where food is produced597.7: Methods used to assess whether food is safe to eat607.8: Maximun time after use by date/best before date that respondentswould eat/use food 617.9 Frequency of washing raw meat, fish and poultry62Glossary 634

ForewordThis publication provides a concise round-up of statistics on food covering the economic,social and environmental aspects of the food we eat. It contains statistics for different timeperiods, but always using latest available data at the time of release.Data comes from surveys run by Defra and the Office for National Statistics and from awide range of other sources including government departments, agencies and commercialorganisations. Links to data sources are included on every page.Associated datasets containing all charts and key data sources from this year’s publicationare also available.Data are a mixture of National Statistics, Official Statistics and unofficial statistics. Unofficialstatistics are used where there are gaps in the evidence base. NationalStatistics (Official Statistics that comply with the national statistics code ofpractice) are indicated using the logo pictured here.Further information on National Statistics can be found on the UKStatistics Authority website.Related Defra publications: Family Food Total Factor Productivity of the United Kingdom Food Chain Agriculture in the United KingdomProduction team:Andrew Scaife, Julie Rumsey, Isabella Hayes, David Leeemail: [email protected]: 01904 455249Food Statistics teamDepartment for Environment, Food and Rural AffairsFoss House, Kings Pool1-2 Peasholme GreenYork YO1 7PXTel: 01904 4552495

SummarySummaryThe Agri-Food atering 103bnThe agri-food sector contributed 103 billion, or6.9% to national Gross Value Added in 20133.8mPeople employed in the agri-food sector in 2014.13% of national employment. 18.8bnThe value of food and drink exports in 2014.Beverages are the largest export category by far,at 6.5bn. 2.1%Food prices fell by 2.1% in real terms in the last12 months, following a 5 year period when foodprices were rising faster then general inflation. 198mTotal consumer expenditure on food, drink andcatering in 2014. On average, around 11% of allhousehold spending is on food.4.0Purchases of 5 A DAY increased to 4 portions in2013. Low income group households bought theleast fruit and veg: 3.2 portions per person/day. 470The average UK household spend on food thatcould have been eaten but is thrown away isaround 470 a year.1,645Food and environmental incidents investigated bythe FSA in 2014. 58% of incidents were classifiedas minor, with localised effects and few, if any,food safety implications.70mEmissions from the food chain in tonnes ofCO2 equivalent. Farming accounted for 56m.6

1 Food ChainTotal Consumers' expenditure (b)on food, drink and catering(64 million people)Total 196.6 bnConsumers' expenditure (b)Household expenditure (b)on catering serviceson food and drinkTotal 83.9 bnTotalCaterers (restaurants, cafes,canteens)Gross Value Added (c)Food & Drink RetailersGross Value Added (c) 26.9 bnEnterprises53,112Employees (d)1,623,000Sites 29.1 bnEnterprises115,951Employees (d) 112.7 bn1,129,000Sites448,95886,239Food & Drink WholesalersGross Value Added (c)Enterprises 10.7 bn15,525Employees (d)217,000Food & Drink ManufacturingIncludes everything from primary processing(milling, malting, slaughtering) to complexprepared foods. Many products will go throughseveral stages.Gross Value Added (c)Enterprises 26.5 bn (c)8,228Employees (d)402,000 (d)Sites9,625Exports (a)TotalImports (a) 18.8 bnTotalof which 39.5 bnof whichHighly processed 10.8 bnHighly processed 14.6 bnLightly processed 6.5 bnLightly processed 17.5 bnUnprocessed 1.5 bnUnprocessed7 7.4 bn

1.1: Economic summary of the UK food chain beyond agriculture1(a) Overseas trade data is full year 2014 from HM Revenue and Customs. (Data may notequal total due to rounding). Dashed lines indicate main trade flows.(b) Consumers’ expenditure, properly known as household final consumption expenditure, isprovisional from the Office for National Statistics for full year 2013 and is calculated at currentprices. (Data may not equal total due to rounding).(c) Gross Value Added (GVA) is the difference between the value of goods and servicesproduced and the cost of raw materials and other inputs used up in production. GVA figures arefrom the Annual Business Survey and is provisional data for full year 2013, calculated at basicprices (market prices less taxes plus subsidies).(d) Agricultural wholesaling includes an estimate of employment of wholesalers of agriculturalmachinery from the Annual Business Survey. (Employee data is rounded.)Excludes sectors downstream from food and drink manufacturing such as the food and drink supply industry(food processing machinery).18

1.2: Gross Value Added of the UK agri-food sector, 2013Agriculture and FishingFood and Drink ManufacturingFood and Drink WholesalingFood and Drink RetailingNon-Residential Catering 0bn 10bn 20bn 30bnThe agri-food sector contributed 103.0 billion or 6.9% to national Gross Value Added in 2013.The GVA of the food sector (excluding agriculture) increased 5.5% in 2013, following a 1.3%increase in 2012. Manufacturing and retailing sector GVA both increased by 7.0%, wholesalingby 5.1% and catering by 2.6%.Longer term, the food sector (excluding agriculture) increased by 58% between 2000 and 2013while the whole economy increased by 68%. The food sector has less scope for growth as thereis a limit to consumer intake capacity and therefore it relies largely on quality improvements.In 2013, there was a net increase of 5360 in the number of registered enterprises in the foodsector. Five year survival rates for businesses started in 2008 were 43% for food and drinkmanufacturing and 36% in non-residential catering2.Source: Annual Business Survey (ONS) & Agriculture in the United Kingdom (Defra)2Business Demograhpy, Enterprise Births, Deaths and Survivals, ONS 20149

1.3: Trends in the total factor productivity3 of the UK food 10010090908020002004Food chain200420082012802000Total factor productivity (TFP) of the food sector excluding agriculture increased by 0.5% between2012 and 2013, having risen gradually since 2002. Benchmarking against a wider economymeasure shows the average annual growth in the food sector between 2004 and 2013 was 0.5%compared to 0.1% in the wider economy.The TFP of the UK food sector is an indicator of the efficiency and competitiveness of the foodindustry within the UK. An increase in TFP indicates the industry is improving its competitiveness.Since 2000, productivity of food manufacturing and food wholesale have risen overall; foodretailing and non-residential catering have fluctuated but in 2013 have fallen to below base levels.The calculation is based on reliable data on business sales and costs, employment by industryand on price indices all collected by the Office for National Statistics.Source: Total Factor Productivity of the United Kingdom Food Chain 2000-2013, Defra, July 2015.34See Glossary for definition of Total Factor Productivity.Wholesaling includes tobacco (SIC 46.35).10

1.4: Agri-food sector employees (GB)5, Q1 2015Agriculture and FishingFood and Drink ManufacturingFood and Drink WholesalingFood and Drink RetailingNon-Residential Catering0.0m0.4m0.8m1.2m1.6m2.0mThe food sector in GB employed 3.4 million people in Q1 2015 (3.8 million if agriculture andfishing are included along with self-employed farmers), a 4.0% increase on Q1 2014. It covered11.9% of GB employment in Q1 2015 (13.4% if agriculture and fishing are included along withself-employed farmers).Non-residential catering accounts for 47% of the post-farm gate food chain. Employment in thissector increased 4.9% on Q1 2014, equating to around 75,000 jobs. Retailing accounts for aroundone third of food chain jobs (excluding agriculture) and also increased year onyear by 1.3%, oraround 15,000 jobs.In Q1 2015, one half of food sector jobs were part time. Women accounted for 57% of employeesin food retailing and 51% in non-residential catering. Men accounted for 65% of employees and69% of hours worked in food manufacturing.Source: Labour Market Statistics (ONS) and June Survey (Defra).5Food’ includes non-alcoholic drinks. ‘Drink’ is alcoholic drinks11

1.5: UK food and drink manufacturing by product type6GVA ofsector in2013 2.8 0.5 2.0 0.2 1.8 1.4 3.7 5.8 1.8 6.3bnbnbnbnbnbnbnbnbnbnNumberof SMEsProductMeat and meat products785Fish and crustaceans265Fruit and vegetables315Oils and fats35Dairy products420Grain and starch products80Bakery2155Other food products1000Prepared animal feeds290Beverages79505001000150020002500There were approximately 6100 micro, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the foodand drink sector with turnover of around 22 billion and 127,000 employees in 2014. In the foodsector (excluding beverages) SMEs accounted for 96% of businesses, 30% of employment and24% of turnover. More than a third of the 6100 SMEs are manufacturers of bakery products.In terms of Gross Value Added (GVA) beverages (including soft drinks and mineral water) is thelargest manufacturing group with a of 6.3 billion in 2013; contributing 30% to the total food anddrink manufacturing GVA. Alcoholic beverages contributed 4.8 billion of the total beverages GVAin 2013.The ‘other food products’ category had a GVA of 5.8 billion. This includes items such as preparedmeals, confectionery, condiments and seasonings.Source: Annual Business Survey (ONS), Business Population Estimates (BIS).For disclosure reasons some small contributions (less than 4% overall) to food and drink manufacturing GVAhave been treated as zeros.612

1.6: UK grocery market shares arks and SpencerLidlIcelandOther multiplesInternetOther0%5%10%15%20%25%The combined market share of food and non-alcoholic drinks of the largest four food and drinkretailers was 58% in 2013, down from 62% in 2012. Tesco commanded the largest market shareat 22%, a decrease of 2 percentage points on 2012. The three largest discounters (Aldi, Icelandand Lidl) had a combined market share of 9.9%, up from 7.9% in 2012. Internet food shopping,which includes the largest supermarkets, increased by 1 percentage point on 2012, to 5.4% ofsales of food and non-alcoholic drinks.Data comes from the Living Costs and Food Survey which is fully representative of UK householdfood shopping.Alternative market share estimates from the Kantar Worldpanel7 are more up to date althoughnot restricted to foods and not as representative. In 2015 compared to 2014 (based on 12 weeksending 16 August) Kantar Worldpanel shows Aldi and Lidl gaining 0.8% and 0.5% respectively,whilst Tesco fell 0.5% and Asda 0.6%.Source: Living Costs and Food Survey (LCFS) 2013, (Defra/ONS)Kantar Worldpanel is a market research company, providing up to date statistics on sales by the grocerysector. Market shares also include sales of non-food.713

1.7: UK Consumer expenditure on food8, drink and catering 100food and nonalcoholic drink billion 80 60catering 40alcoholic drinks (onand off licence) 20 02005200620072008200920102011201220132014Total consumer expenditure on food, drink and catering has continued to rise, by 0.9% in 2014to 198 billion. However, expenditure on food (including non-alcoholic drinks) fell for the firsttime in ten years, by 1.5% to 94 billon. Spend on alcoholic drinks increased 3.9% and cateringincreased 2.6%.Spend on food shopping has increased 29% since 2007. In 2014 it accounted for 48% of spendin the sector. Spend on catering accounted for 28% of sector spend in 2013 and has increasedby 23% since 2007.Spend on all alcoholic drinks accounted for 25% of sector spend in 2014. It has increased by 13%since 2007. Spend reduced between 2007 and 2009, but has increased yearly thereafter.Status:Source: Consumer Trends, (ONS).8Food’ includes non-alcoholic drinks. ‘Drink’ is alcoholic drinks14

2 Prices and Expenditure2.1: UK trend in food prices in real terms, January 1996 to June20151120Index Jan 2005 1001101009080201220082004200060199670Food prices rose 11.5% in real terms between 2007 and their peak in June 2012 as measuredby the Consumer Price Index, following a long period in which they had fallen. Gradual pricereductions since 2013 have reduced that real terms increase to 8.0% compared to 2007.In the past 12 months food price inflation has fallen in real terms by 2.1%.Successive spikes in the price of agricultural commodities since 2007 have led tohigher retail food prices. They have not returned to low price levels of pre-2007.Oil prices also rose over this period, and inflation was higher than historically, but food prices haverisen above inflation.Those on lower incomes tend to buy different food items to those on average or high incomesbut food prices for these different shopping baskets have risen at about the same rate.A rise in food prices is more difficult for low income households to cope with because those onlow incomes spend a greater proportion of their income on food - a rise in food prices has adisproportionately large impact on money available to spend elsewhere.Source: Consumer Price Indices, (ONS).1Excludes alcoholic drinks and catering.15

% spend on food2.2: Trend in share of spend going on food and drink2 in low income and all UK households, 2003-04 to 201320Lowest 20% byequivalisedincome18161412108All UKhouseholds64202003/042005/062007200920112013The relative affordability of food can be measured by the share of the household budget thatgoes on food. Low income households are of particular concern as they tend to have a greaterpercentage of spend going on food.Food is exerting greater pressure on household budgets since 2007 when food prices started torise in real terms.Averaged over all households 11.4% of spend went on food in 2013, 0.9 percentage points abovethe 2007 level.For households in the lowest 20% by equivalised income3 16.5% of spend went on householdfood, 1.3 percentage points above 2007.In 2013, the energy content of household food purchases in income decile 2 was 13.0% lowerthan in 2007 at 1944 Kcals/person/day; in decile 1 the energy content was 8.3% lower than in2007 at 1803 Kcals/person/day.Source: Living Costs and Food Survey (Defra/ONS), Family Spending table 3.2e (ONS).23Excluding alcoholic drinks.See Glossary for definition of equivalised income.16

2.3: Income decline after housing costs, low income4 decile (UK)120food prices inreal -092007-082006-072005-06802002-03852004-05income afterhousing costs at2012-13 prices2003-04Index 2002-03 100115Median income after housing costs fell 6% between 2003-04 and 2013-14 for low income decilehouseholds. Over the same time period, food prices (in real terms) increased 12%. In 2008-09the median income for low income decile households reached its lowest level, 17% below thatof 2002-03. Small increases between 2009 and 2011 were partially reversed in 2012 and 2013.In 2013-14, all income groups with the exception of the lowest, saw increases in median incomeof between 0.1% and 2.4% (deciles 2 and 8). The lowest income decile decreased by 0.9%. Allbut the lowest income decile group are above the 2003-04 level.The most commonly used threshold of low income in the UK is having an income which is lessthan 60% of the median. In 2013-14 the percentage of individuals in relative low income (beforehousing costs) was 15%5, equating to around 9.6 million individuals.Source: Living Standards, Poverty and Inequality in the UK, 2015; Institute for Fiscal Studies.45See Glossary for definition of Low income.Households Below Average Income, ONS July 2014.17

2.4: UK retail price changes by food group, 2007 to 2015All items CPICateringFood and non-alcoholic beveragesVegetables, potatoesAlcoholic drinksProcessed foodSoft drinksMilk, cheese, eggsFruitBread, flour, cerealsMeatFishCoffee, tea, cocoaSugar, jam, confectioneryButter, margarine, cooking oil222329232426262731323335364242% increase in price June 2007 to June 2015All foods groups have risen in price since 2007 (the start of the recession), with rises ranging from22% to 42%. Meat, fish, coffee, tea and cocoa, fruit, sugar, jam and confectionery prices have allrisen by 30% or more since June 2007. Food prices (including non-alcoholic drinks) rose 8.0% inreal terms between 2007 and 2015.Rising prices seen up to 2014 have begun to fall in the year to June 2015 in all food groups withthe exception of fruit and catering. Catering increased by 1.5%, while fruit prices rose by 1.4%Butter, margarine and cooking oils saw the greatest fall, down by 9.2% in the year to June 2015.Prices for bread, flour and cereals, meat, milk, cheese and eggs, soft drinks, processed food andalcoholic drinks all fell by more than 2.0%.Food price rises have a strong effect on food shopping for low income households. Since 2007,households in income decile 1 (lowest income group) bought less beef, bacon, butter, fish, fruit,tea and biscuits/cakes, but bought more pork, poultry and eggs6.Source: Consumer Price Indices, (ONS).6Family Food 2013, Defra, December 2014.18

2.5: Percentage change in food purchases 2007-2013, in lowincome households (UK)Fish4%Cheese2%Confectionery1%Non-carcase meat and meat products‐0.4%Fresh and processed fruit‐2.49%Fresh and processed vegetables, excludingpotatoes‐2.50%All Food (excludes drinks)‐7%Flour‐10%Soft drinks‐14%Carcase meat‐33%In 2013 compared to 2007, the lowest income households (equivalised income7 decile 1) purchased33% less carcase meat, 14% less soft drinks and 10% less flour.Purchases of fish increased (4.4%) between 2007 and 2013 and purchases of cheese increased1.6%.Between 2007 and 2013, average households traded down to cheaper products to save 7%while the lowest income households traded down to a much lesser extent, possibly as they werealready buying cheaper products.Food is the largest item of household expenditure for low income households after housing, fueland power costs.Source: Family Food 2013, Defra.7See Glossary for definition of equivalised income19

2.6: Factors influencing consumer product choice8Price36Quality or performanceSpecial offers/promotions186Familiar135710Brand6Ethical or eco-friendly30323913297Healthy optionEase of using1215Taste or smellUse by or sell by date24396348Most importantRated within top 2Rated within top 529271913Percentage of shopper responsesPrice is increasingly important in driving product choice, with 36% of shoppers naming it as themost important factor and 90% listing it within their top five influences. Quality was rated as thehighest influence by 18% of respondents, followed by taste or smell (13%) and healthy (10%).Quality is highly influential with 62% listing it in the top 5 factors, although only 18% considered itmost important. Only price featured more highly as a top 5 influence.Use by dates were considered most important by only 5% of shoppers although half (51%) ofshoppers included it in their top 5 influences. Taste or smell were considered most important by13% of shoppers. Familiarity and brand names still have a sway in many purchase decisions, with47% and 35% of shoppers naming them in their top 5 influences.Ethically produced products and whether a product was easy to use were considered leastimportant factors with 18% of shoppers listing them in their top 5 influences.Table 7.4 shows another analysis of consumer product choice relating to ethical and environmentalfactors.Source: IGD ShopperVista 2014.IGD ShopperVista 2014, base: all main shoppers, fieldwork June 2014. Sample is managed to berepresentative of main grocery shoppers but may contain unquantifiable biases.820

2.7: UK trend in sales of ethical produce8,0007,000Spend million6,000Others*Vegetarian meat alternativesFairtradeRainforest AllianceOrganic5,0004,0003,0002,0001,00001999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013*Others include free range eggs and poultry, freedom foods and sustainable fish.Sales in “ethical” food and drink, including organic, fair-trade, free range and freedom foods roseto 8.4 billion in 20139, 8.5% of all household food sales.Sales of ethical produce have increased year on year since 2007, despite the economic downturn.Rainforest Alliance made up the largest share in 2012, accounting for 19% of the total ethical foodsector at 2.0 billion; an increase of 47% on 2011. Fairtrade and organic products are the nextlargest contributors at 15% ( 1.6 bn) and 13% ( 1.3 bn).Yearly decreases in sales of organic food and drink have led to an overall decrease of 33% sincetheir peak in 2008.Sales of sustainable fish rose by 20% in 2012 to 0.4 billion.Figures are determined by the Ethical Consumer Market Report by The Ethical ConsumerResearch Association based on administrative data held by ethical labelling organisations, tradeassociations and market research data.Source: Ethical Consumer Market Report 2014, Ethical Consumer Research Association.9Excludes food and drink boycotts.21

2.8: Food prices in selected countries compared to the UK, od and non‐alcoholic beveragesFoodBread and cerealsMeatFishMilk, cheese and eggsOils and fatsFruits, vegetables, potatoesFranceOther foodGermanyNon‐alcoholic beveragesIrelandAlcoholic beveragesBased on price level indices10, in 2014 food and non-alcoholic drinks were 1% more expensive inFrance, 3% more expensive in Germany, and 8% more in Ireland, than in the UK.Overall UK prices were 5.7% higher than the EU average.Alcoholic beverages were 36% cheaper in France and and 43% cheaper in Germany than in theUK. In Ireland prices were 21% higher than in the UK. Finland and Sweden were the only othercountries with higher prices than the UK.Bread and cereals, meat and fish were all more expensive in France and Germany, together witheverything but oils and fats in Ireland, than in the UK. Oils and fats were 4% lower in France andIreland, and 8% lower in Germany than the UK. Meat was over 20% higher, although only 7% inIreland.Food prices rose 34% in the UK between January 2007 and May 2015 while rising 20% in Germanyand 13% in France. Averaged across the EU, food prices rose 21% over the same time period.Source: Eurostat.Price level indices are based on Purchasing Power Parities, which compare prices in different countries, afterremoving the effects of exchange rate differences.1022

3 Global and UK Supply3.1 Origins of food consumed in the UK, 2014154%27%4%4%4%4%2%1%UK (a)EUAfricaAsiaNorthAmericaSouthAmericaRest ofEuropeAustralasia(a) Consumption of UK origin consists of UK domestic production minus UK exports.Sourcing food from a diverse range of stable countries, in addition to domestically, enhances foodsecurity2.Based on the farm-gate value of unprocessed food twenty two countries accounted for 90% of UKfood supply in 2014. The UK supplied over half (54%). The leading foreign suppliers were theNetherlands (5.6%), Spain (5.1%), France (3.1%), Germany (3.1%) and Irish Republic (3.0%).Three countries accounted for 90% of dairy product and egg supply (UK supplied 86%).Threecountries accounted for 90% of meat and meat preparation supply (UK supplied 84%).Twelvecountries accounted for 90% of supply of cereals and cereal preparations (including rice). TheUK supplied 56%.Twenty four countries accounted for 90% of fruit and vegetable supply (UK supplied 23%).Source: Defra.122014 figures are final.UK Food Security Assessment, January 2010 (Defra).23

3.2: UK Food production to supply ratio, 1998-201410090Indigenous TypeFood8070%60All Food50403020104%Australasia20142012Rest 02Asia1%2%4%4%20001998Africa4%19961994EU1992UK (a)27%1990198854%0Food Production to Supply Ratio is calculated as the farm-gate value of raw food production(including for export) divided by the value of raw food for human consumption. It provides a broadindicator of the ability of UK agriculture to meet consumer demand.A high production to supply ratio fails to insulate a country against many possible disruptions toits supply chain.The ratio in 2014 was 62% for all food and 76% for indigenous type food. This compares with60% and 73% respectively in 2013.In 2014, the overall value of UK food production remained unchanged.Production potential is more relevant at EU level than United Kingdom level, and the EU as awhole has a food production to supply ratio of around 90%.Source: Agriculture in the United Kingdom, Defra.24

3.3: Trends in UK food productionTotal cerealsFresh fruit and 201019901995Meat20002005201019901995Poultry l output at market prices*160140120100806019901995200020052010Final output3 of UK agriculture is a proxy for UK food production. The overall volume of all outputsincreased by 6.5% between 2013 and 20144, driven by large increases in the volumes of cropsproduced in 2014. Longer term trends have shown little variation.Total UK cereal production has fluctuated, with significant dips in 2001, 2007, 2012 and 2013,linked to adverse weather conditions in those years. 2014 saw an increase in production drivenby a 39% rise in production of wheat compared to 2013.Since 1990 there have been large increases in production levels of poultry meat, part of a longerterm upward trend since the late 1970’s. Although production dipped during the 2000’s it reacheda record level in 2013. This was followed by a slight decrease in 2014 as the growth in the sectorseen in recent years steadied.Red meat production showed a downward trend through much of the 1990’s, driven by acombination of facto

1.3: Trends in the total factor productivity of the UK food sector 10 1.4: Agri-food sector employees, GB basis 11 1.5: UK food & drink manufacturing by product type 12 1.6: UK grocery market shares 13 1.7: UK Consumer expenditure on food, drink and

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What is food chemistry? Food Science deals with the production, processing, distribution, preparation, evaluation, and utilization of food. Food chemists work with plants that have been harvested for food, and animals that have been slaughtered for food. Food chemists are concerned with how these food products are processed, prepared, and .

6 Food storage 7 Food processing 8 Food display 9 Food packaging 10 Food transportation . substantial transformation of food or the sale or service of food directly to the . take all necessary steps to prevent the likelihood of food being contaminated; and

food technology disciplines supporting a multibillion-dollar food industry. Food Microbiology not only assures the quality and shelf life of different food products but also ensures that food products are safe for the consumer. The production of food under food safety parameters and regulations is beyond the simple memorization of knowledge.

Alter Metal Recycling . 13 . 9/21/2015 156.73 9/24/2015 66.85 9/27/2015 22.24 9/30/2015 35.48 10/3/2015 31.36 10/6/2015 62.97 10/9/2015 36.17 10/12/2015 80.48 10/15/2015 84.99 10/18/2015 90.93 10/21/2015 82.

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