Partnerships for Reform through Investigative Science and MathNew PlantsConceptsWhat is a plant?What are the criteria forlife?How do we select andfind evidence for ourdecisions?HCPS III BenchmarksSC.2.1.1SC.2.4.1Duration1 (45 min.) periodSource ot alivedeadpredictexperimentLesson 1: What is a Plant?SummaryThis discussion and activity serves as an introduction for the unit.Students will be introduced to some organisms that they may or maynot be able to identify as plants. The discussion centers on whatdefines a plant, whether plants and parts of plants are alive, and howwe know. This leads into the question of how we can get new plantsfrom old ones.Objectives Students will be able to communicate ideas about what“counts” as a plant.Student will demonstrate their prior knowledge of plants.Students will begin thinking about plants as a diverse groupof organisms.Students will discuss what “counts” as being alive.MaterialsBlank paper (one per child)CrayonsA variety of plants, cuttings, and seeds. Some suggestions can befound in ‘Resources’ section.Carrot or beetSweet potatodead plantbroken branchFake flower/plantInsect or class pet dead or aliveGlass jars of seedsAlgae Water or limu (seaweed)Prepared chart papers (see teacher prep) and pens1 Homework sheet-What is a Plant?Making ConnectionsStudents will have some well-developed ideas about plants, and what“counts” as a plant. Most will use the presence of leaves, green parts,roots, or flowers as “evidence” that they are looking at a plant. Mostchildren in Hawaii will have some connection to plants thanks to theshade they provide, leis they have made or worn, and our richagricultural heritage. Although they are probably aware that plantscan die, they may not really be ready to believe that they areorganisms—living things--in the same way that animals areorganisms.What is a Plant?1
Partnerships for Reform through Investigative Science and MathTeacher Prep for Activity1. Conduct Unit Pre-Assessment (described under Assessment, below).2. Start Algae jar: Several weeks before the activity, set a glass jar of (preferably untreated)water on a windowsill. Cover with a paper towel (not plastic wrap) and a rubber band tokeep out mosquitoes. Algae—Earth’s most ancient plants--will begin to grow in the jar.(Limu is also a kind of algae—you can pick some up off the beach, or at the poke counterat the grocery store).3. Decide on whether you’d like students to work in groups or as a class. This lesson planwill treat the class as one group.4. Gather plants or cuttings of plants that represent a diverse array of forms. Providing bothwhole plants and cuttings (pieces) of plants will help stimulate discussions about whethereach is alive. Also include a fake flower or leaf.5. Gather an array of seeds of different sizes (remember, a coconut is a seed!) and forms(winged, tufted, hard, fleshy, etc). If you have students in groups, be sure to get enoughto let each group have several of each kind.6. Place small seeds in glass jars with lids, so they can be observed without being lost.7. You will need 4 charts for this activity, plus a word bank (ongoing list of vocabularywords) and a summary chart. If possible, arrange your 4 charts in a circle on the wall (itmight be easier to do this as you finish writing on each chart). Each chart will end upwith a record of a different step of the scientific method on it, and we really want toemphasize that the scientific method is a cyclical process—there is no correct start or end.Chart Headings:1. (Is it a) Plant? Alive? How do we know?2. How can we find out?3. I predict that 4. What we can learn: (If then )5. Summary: We know we are looking at a plant if ./Weknow something is alive if BackgroundThis is a discussion-based activity that revolves around three questions: Is it a plant? Is it alive?And how do you know? The idea is to gather information about student’s prior knowledge ormisconceptions about plants, and to encourage them to generate ideas about how to test whethertheir ideas are right or not. The point is not to enforce a particular, rigid definition of “plant” or“alive” at this time, but to map out the process scientists use to make these decisions. One ideahas been provided for mapping out this process on charts—but you certainly may come up withyour own way of organizing and displaying these ideas.One important job of a scientist is to classify organisms into logical categories. Classificationsystems simplify the task of recording and remembering lots of information, and help illuminatepatterns in processes and functions in the natural world. For instance, the discovery ofphotosynthesis was almost certainly helped along by the understanding that plants are differentfrom animals, even from those animals that are green. Imagine a space alien researcher trying tounderstand how a school functions: If he/she first correctly classifies students and teachers intodifferent groups, each with a different function, he/she will be heading in the right direction.What is a Plant?2
Partnerships for Reform through Investigative Science and MathWhile the process of sorting seems very simple, there are almost always gray areas, or discrepantevents, that throw any classification scheme into question. The platypus is a perfect example. Ithas fur, and warm blood, like a mammal, but it has venom, like a reptile or insect, and lays eggsand has a duck-bill, like a bird. Similarly, a classification rule that says an organism with leavesis a plant, may need to be changed the first time a cactus is encountered. And how do youdetermine whether something like a seed is alive at the moment it is encountered?Classifying objects requires us to ask the most fundamental of scientific questions: “Is this a?” And if it is a scientific question, one can use the scientific method to answer it. Inschool, most students learn the five-step, linear version of the scientific method:1. Question2. Prediction (Hypothesis)3. Experiment4. Observation5. ConclusionWhile this was fine for doing a science report, much of the scientific community has agreed thatit gives students and the general public false ideas about science as an absolute and strictlyanalytical process. Scientific research rarely follows these steps in order, and almost alwaysmakes several passes through the entire process backwards and forwards, before getting to auseful conclusion. Further, many steps are left out, particularly social input, ethics, inspiration,and reflection.The true nature of science is cyclical, in that science should always be heuristic: one conclusionshould lead naturally to another set of related questions. There is no “right” path through themultitude of steps; as luck, timing, creativity, and inspiration are critical components of allscientific discovery, great or small. This lesson outlines the scientific method as you classifysome plant-related items into groups. You will record the traditional steps on chart paper toidentify these steps, but will hopefully show your students that the route through the stepsmeanders, and returns to the start.Procedure1. Gather at the rug. Start with a typical plant. A typical plant to a second grader has leaves,a stem or trunk, branches, roots, may or may not have flowers or fruits, and is rooted intosoil.2. Ask the students to describe it using their senses—what is it? Is it alive? How do youknow? What does it feel like? Does it move? Etc.3. Fill in Chart 1, Line 1: Plant’s name, yes/no, yes/no. (Students will most likely agreethat it is a plant and that it is alive). How do they know it is a plant? How did theydecide?What is a Plant?3
Partnerships for Reform through Investigative Science and MathSample Chart 1: Observations and Questions(note: these are examples of possible answers from students: not meant to becorrect noyesseednonoHow do we know?Green leaves, flowers, wet dirt, leaves are softNo leaves, no dirt--plants need dirt to liveI grew a carrot plant from a carrot top in kindergarten.If my carrot top grew, then it was alive, so this one is too.not a plant yet. all dried up, it will come alive after you waterit4. Add evidence to the chart under the heading “How we know it’s a plant.” Evidencemight include: being green, having leaves, stem, flowers. Weak evidence might includebeing tall and thin. Include even wildly incorrect ideas, to be corrected as you go.5. Add evidence for the plant being alive. Students may have a hard time articulating whythey think this obviously living thing is alive. “It looks alive” is a typical answer. Otherevidence might be: It’s green, it’s not brittle, it’s growing (how do they know this?), itlooks pretty, it moves in the wind. These may not be the scientific criteria for life, butthey are valid second grade criteria.6. Repeat with less “typical” plants, such as a grass, cactus, jade plant, plastic or silkflowers, pictures of plants, algae jar, or limu from the ocean.7. Add to, or challenge the evidence in the “how we know” list.8. Pass around the seeds. What are these? Are they plants? Are they alive? While youmay know that a seed contains all the necessary material to develop into a whole plant,the students may not. They may decide that it is only part of a plant. Can part of a plantbe alive? Write “not sure” or “part of a plant,” if the students can’t decide.9. What about cuttings, potatoes, or beet tops? These can all grow into whole plants, but dothe students know that or consider them plants now?10. Place show & tell plants in groups: living plants, dead ones, living or dead plant parts,fake plants, not sure. Tell the students that they have created a way to “classify” theobjects: an important job of a plant scientist.11. Discuss ways to make sure the items in each category are correctly classified. How canwe decide which category the “not sure” items should be in? How can we find out if aseed is alive?12. List ideas for experiments on Chart 2 (“Plant the seeds and wait to see if they grow”),Sample Chart 2: ExperimentsHow can we find out if a seed is alive?if a carrot is a plant?What parts a plant needs?Plant it and wait for it to growCut it open and see what's insideMake a list of all the parts a plant needs,and see if it has them.Try to grow it into a plantLook it up on the internetLook it up on the internetTry to grow it without leaves or rootsWhat is a Plant?4
Partnerships for Reform through Investigative Science and Math13. Predict what the outcome(s) might be. Write their predictions on Chart 3 [“they willgrow” or “they won’t grow” or “some will grow” ].Sample Chart 3: PredictionsI predict that if we plant the seeds They will growThey won't growSome will grow, but not allIt will dieIt will grow back new leavesIt will dieIf we take the leaves off the marigoldIf we take the roots off the marigold14. State conclusions that can be drawn, if predictions come true. Record on Chart 4. This isa really key step, since it’s often hard for students to remember to go back to theiroriginal question and think about whether they’ve got the answer. [“We will know thatthe seeds were alive after all” or “we will know that the seeds were dead”]. Make somesilly, irrelevant conclusions here [If the seed grows, then we know Professor Sprout cameinto the room and cast a magic spell], to show what a realistic conclusion is.Sample Chart 4: ConclusionsIf if the seeds grow into plants, then If the marigold dies without leaves, then If the marigold dies w/o roots, then If the carrot grows, without leaves or roots then we know that they were alivethey were plants.plants need leaves to liveplants need roots to liveMaybe some plants don't need roots or leavesMaybe plants can live for a little whilewithout roots or leavesMaybe carrots have magical powers15. Make up more questions! Drawing a conclusion is not the last step in the ScientificMethod! It’s a cycle, so try to bring the students’ thought process back to the“beginning” again, with more questions. Follow up questions could include: if seedsdon’t grow, we decided they were dead Does that mean they aren’t plants? Are seedsplants? How could we answer that question? [we could get more seeds of the same kind,and if some of them grow, maybe they are plants, even though our first ones were dead].16. Summarize the student’s “evidence” for life, and for being a plant, on a Chart 5—use allthe criteria the students decide to keep: they can decide through experiments during theunit what they will keep on or cross off the list. “We know something is a plant if ” and“We know a plant is alive if ”What is a Plant?5
Partnerships for Reform through Investigative Science and MathChart 5: Summary “How we know”We know something is a plant if It has leavesIt has sapIt has rootsIt has flowersIt grows in the ground It is part of a plant that can grow biggerIt came from a plantWe know a plant is alive if We plant it and it growsIf we break it and sap comes outIt is growingIt looks green and healthyIts flowers are bright and not dried upIt’s not dried up 17. Keep the Summary (Chart 5) around for the whole unit, looking for opportunities to addto or challenge the items on the list. Hang the other charts in a circle on the wall, so theyare arranged as a cycle, not a line 1-4. Add arrows showing how the cycle keeps goingaround.18. Homework sheet: At home, the students find 3 items around the house or yard that mightbe plants. Students write down what they found, how they know what it is, and whetherthey think it is alive. Encourage students to bring in items they find that might be tricky.(Be sure to mention plant safety concerns such poisonous or prickly plants, not collectingin someone else’s yard, etc).AssessmentsLesson Assessment: Students should be able to fill out the alive/not alive homework sheet ontheir own, based on items provided by the teacher, or found in the school/home yard.ResourcesWhat plants to choose? Here are some suggestions by theme Native plant theme: Ohia (extremely tiny seeds) Koa Naupaka Native hibiscus Kupukupu or hapuu (ferns) Uki uki, pili, or other native sedge/grass HalaCanoe Plant theme: Coconut (world’s largest seed) taro sweet potato breadfruit sugar cane mountain appleWhat is a Plant?6
Partnerships for Reform through Investigative Science and Math“First Hawaiian Lu au” (a collection of edible plants that the first Polynesian settlers found whenthey arrived in Hawai i) aweoweo ho io or watabi (fern shoots) hapu u (the starchy corm—hard to show and tell) limu ohelo and akala berriesPeculiar Plants: Venus fly trap (carnivorous, and it moves) Sleeping grass (aka sensitive grass/mimosa—also moves) Pitcher plant (carnivorous) Jade plant (can grow from just a leaf) Miconia or macaranga (enormous leaves, extremely invasive) Corn. (Corn?! What’s so weird about corn? It’s one of the only plants whose seedscome out of a very different part of the plant then the flowers. Peanuts (how does a bee-pollinated seed grow under the ground?) Limu Algae (this is what the jar of water is for) Cactus MossBackground Information taken from the FOSS New Plants Kit and Cuddihy and Stone.Extension ActivitiesDo the experiments: Students will want to try the experiments they proposed, so be prepared! Asmall tray of potting soil or vermiculite, and a glass jar of water should suffice to test seeds andcuttings by planting them.Field Trip: One exciting way to kick off a plant unit is to visit a place where plants have gonethrough a major disturbance. If you are able to get to a lava flow area where there are few or noplants yet growing, or a fire burn scar, or even a recently flood-scoured stream bed, what a greatway to stimulate ideas about the need for plants to reproduce! Students can search for seedsalong the surface of the scar, and begin to think about how they got there, whether they can growin the spot they landed, and if the place is close enough to school, consider marking andmonitoring their development month by month.Art ConnectionAsk students to draw a plant from memory then have them observe a plant closely and draw it.Discuss in small groups what they noticed the second time. Label parts on their plants. Did theyhave more things to label in the second? That’s the beauty of making and recording carefulobservations!What is a Plant?7
Partnerships for Reform through Investigative Science and MathMath ConnectionPattern recognition, measurement, and comparing numbers will be easy to integrate with mostlessons. Start looking for opportunities to fit your lessons into the science period. Since thisunit is pretty time consuming, double-dipping will help you keep on top of all standard contentareas.Lay out the leaves you collected for the show and tell discussion or on a student walk. Also layout geometrical shapes (blocks, cut-outs, whatever you have on hand). As a group, search forgeometric shapes in the leaves. Find lines of symmetry in the leaves. Classify them by shapeand symmetry. How many groups? How many in each group? Check out the book “EatingFractions!” by Bruce McMillan, then try making leaf and seed fractions.Literature ConnectionLiterature: Any book that reflects the excitement and wonder of growing plants is a greatsupplement at this point.Some suggestions:Pumpkin Day, by Nancy Elizabeth WallaceThe Carrot Seed, by Ruth Krauss, illustrated by Crockett JohnsonWhat is a Plant?8
Partnerships for Reform through Investigative Science and MathName:Date:Homework: What is a Plant?Go outside and look for something that you think could be a plant, or part of a plant. Lookaround. Try to figure out what it is and where it came from. Is it a seed from a tree nearby? Is itan unusual tree, or one of many small bushes? Then fill in the worksheet. If you can findsomething really tricky, bring it to class to share with us!1. I found a: .I can tell that’s what it is because:.I noticed:.I think it is alive or not alive because:.2. I found a: .I can tell that’s what it is because:.I noticed:.I think it is alive or not alive because:.3. I found a: .I can tell that’s what it is because:.I noticed:.I think it is alive or not alive because:.What is a Plant?9
This discussion and activity serves as an introduction for the unit. Students will be introduced to some organisms that they may or may not be able to identify as plants. The discussion centers on what defines a plant, whether plants and parts of plants are alive, and how we know. This leads into the question of how we can get new plants
4 Step Phonics Quiz Scores Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Lesson 10 Lesson 11 Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14 Lesson 15 . Zoo zoo Zoo zoo Yoyo yoyo Yoyo yoyo You you You you
Participant's Workbook Financial Management for Managers Institute of Child Nutrition iii Table of Contents Introduction Intro—1 Lesson 1: Financial Management Lesson 1—1 Lesson 2: Production Records Lesson 2—1 Lesson 3: Forecasting Lesson 3—1 Lesson 4: Menu Item Costs Lesson 4—1 Lesson 5: Product Screening Lesson 5—1 Lesson 6: Inventory Control Lesson 6—1
iii UNIT 1 Lesson 1 I’m studying in California. 1 Lesson 2 Do you have anything to declare? 5 Lesson 3 From One Culture to Another 8 UNIT 2 Lesson 1 You changed, didn’t you? 13 Lesson 2 Do you remember . . . ? 17 Lesson 3 Women’s Work 20 UNIT 3 Lesson 1 We could have an international fall festival! 25 Lesson 2 You are cordially invited. 29 Lesson 3 Fall Foods 32 UNIT 4 Lesson 1 Excuses .
For Children 4-7 Years Old Series 6 Old Testament: Genesis From Creation to the Patriarchs Lesson 1 Creation Lesson 2 Adam and Eve Lesson 3 Cain and Abel Lesson 4 Noah and the Ark Lesson 5 Abraham’s Call Lesson 6 Isaac – The Son of Promise Lesson 7 Isaac and Rebekah Lesson 8 Jacob and Esau Lesson 9 Jacob Marries Rachel Lesson 10 Jacob is .
Lesson Plan). The lesson plan (sometimes also called lesson note) is included both Type A and Type B. The format of the lesson plan is the same as the standard lesson plan that Ghana Education Service (GES) provides. The sample lesson plans of Type A also contain “lesson plan with teaching hints” on the next page of the standard lesson plan.
Lesson 3.3 –Comparing and Ordering Rational Numbers Lesson 3.1 – Khan Academy Lesson 3.2 –Khan Academy Lesson 3.3 – Khan Academy 4 8/27 – 8/31 Module 1 and 3 Test Lesson 9.1 –Exponents Lesson 9.3 – Order of Operations Lesson 17.1 and 17.2—Adding Integers Lesson 9.1 – Khan Academy Lesson 9.3 – Khan Academy
Lesson 5-1 Writing Fractions as Decimals Lesson 5-2 Rational Numbers Lesson 5-3 Multiplying Rational Numbers Lesson 5-4 Dividing Rational Numbers Lesson 5-5 Adding and Subtracting Like Fractions Lesson 5-6 Least Common Multiple Lesson 5-7 Adding and Subtracting Unlike Fractions Lesson 5-8 Solving Equations with Rational Numbers
Lesson 13 Day 2 – Linking Verbs Lesson 13 Day 3 – Action Verbs and Linking Verbs LESSON 14: HELPING VERBS Lesson 14 Day 1 – Helping Verbs Lesson 14 Day 2 – Helping Verbs *Assessment 5 (Lesson 12-14) LESSON 15: ADVERBS THAT MODIFY VERBS Lesson 15 Day 1 – Adverbs That Modify Verbs Lesson 15
7 NRP Provider Course Overview Lesson 1: Foundation of Neonatal Lesson 2: Preparing for Resuscitation Lesson 3: Initial Steps of Newborn Care Lesson 4: Positive Pressure Ventilation Lesson 5: Alternative Airways: Endotracheal tubes and Laryngeal Masks Lesson 6: Chest Compressions Lesson 7: Medications Lesson 8: Post Resuscitation Care Lesson 9: Resuscitation Stabilization of Babies Born
Lesson 1–2. Lesson 3–6. Lesson 3-6 Lesson 3-6. Lesson 7-8. Lesson Lesson 7-8 Lesson . 7-10 Lesson . 7-10 . statistical enquiry cycle: posing and answering questions gatheri
Lesson 2 - Ephesians 1:1-14 9 Lesson 8 - Ephesians 5:1-14 49 Lesson 3 - Ephesians 1:15-23 & 3:14-21 15 Lesson 9 - Ephesians 5:15-6:9 55 Lesson 4 - Ephesians 2:1-10 23 Lesson 10 - Ephesians 6:10-24 63 Lesson 5 - Ephesians 2:11-3:13 29 Lesson 11 - Ephesians Synthesis 69 Lesson 6 - Ephesians 4:1-16 37 Appendix - Bible Study Skills 75 Table of .
CONTENTS iii PAGE L ESSONS 1 LESSON ONE: Ezekiel 1–3 11 LESSON TWO: Ezekiel 4–7 21 LESSON THREE: Ezekiel 8–11 39 LESSON FOUR: Ezekiel 12–14 51 LESSON FIVE: Ezekiel 15–16 63 LESSON SIX: Ezekiel 17–19 69 LESSON SEVEN: Ezekiel 20–21 77 LESSON EIGHT: Ezekiel 22–24 87 LESSON NINE: Ezekiel
Lesson 5 Giving, Prayer 6:1-15 Lesson 6 Fasting & Treasures in Heaven 6:16-24 Lesson 7 Do Not Worry 6:25-34 Lesson 8 Judging Others 7:1-6 Lesson 9 Ask, Seek, Knock 7:7-12 Lesson 10 The Gates & A Tree and Its Fruit 7:13-23 Lesson 11 Wise & Foolish Builders 7:24-29 Lesson 12 Wrap-up/Review
Unit 1 Lesson 1: A Package for Mrs. Jewls 1 Lesson 2: A Royal Mystery 13 Lesson 3: Off and Running 25 Lesson 4: Double Dutch: A Celebration of Jump Rope, Rhyme, and Sisterhood 37 Lesson 5: Elisa’s Diary 49 Unit 2 Lesson 6: Quest for the Tree Kangaroo 61 Lesson 7: Old Yeller 73 Lesson 8: Everglades Forever:
Welcome to the Geometry Dash Editor Guide! This guide will take you through the editor and its features so you can create your own levels! 1 Table of Contents Lesson 1: Basic Building Techniques 2 Lesson 2: Editing 8 Lesson 3: Deletion 12 Lesson 4: Testing and More 13 Lesson 5: Portals and Other Gameplay Objects 14 Lesson 6: Advanced Building Techniques 19 Lesson 7: Editor Buttons 23 Lesson 8 .
Lesson 1 Managing Anger 126 Lesson 2 Conflict Resolution and Diversity 133 Lesson 3 Finding Solutions: Mediation 139 Lesson 4 Violence Prevention 144 Chapter 9 Career Planning 149 Lesson 1 Career Exploration Strategy 150 Lesson 2 Career Development Portfolio 169 Lesson 3 Military Career Opportunities 193 Lesson 4 College Preparation 204
Lesson 19: The English alphabet Lesson 20: Parts of the body Lesson 21: Expressing simple needs Lesson 16: Naming selected countries Lesson 17: Telling where you come from Lesson 18: Giving commands Lesson 13: Seeking and giving information Lesson 14: Expressing likes and dislikes
o Lesson 5: Film and Television Analysis o Lesson 6: Art Analysis o Lesson 7: Annotated Bibliographies o Lesson 8: Literature Reviews o Lesson 9: Reflections o Lesson 10: Scientific or Technical Reports o Lesson 11: Proposals o Lesson 12: Abstracts Section 3: Business Writi
Lesson 1 Conversion of common and decimals fractions 1 Lesson 2 Multiplication and Division by 10, 100, 1 000 7 Lesson 3 Reading Scaled Measurements 9 Lesson 4 Rounding Off 14 Lesson 5 Terminating, Non-terminating and Recurring decimals 16 Lesson 6 Mixed Operations using decimal fractions 18 Lesson 7 Mixed Examples 19 Lesson 8 Costing 26
Table of Contents Lesson 49: Sequences 3 Lesson 50: Arithmetic Progressions 6 Lesson 51: Geometric Progressions 8 Lesson 52: th Term of an Arithmetic Sequence 11 Lesson 53: th Term of a Geometric Sequence 14 Lesson 54: Series 17 Lesson 55: The Sum of an Arithmetic Series 19 Lesson 56: Numerical and Real