Non-traditional Machining Processes

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Non-traditional Machining Processes(Chap 9 in Textbook)

Outline Grinding Ultrasonic machining Chemical machining Electro-chemical machining Electrical-discharge machining High-energy-beam machining Water-jet and Abrasive jet machining

When do we need non-traditionalprocesses Very high hardness and the strength of the material.The workpiece is difficult to clamp or flexible.Complexity of the workpiece shape.Strict surface finish requirement.Tight dimensional tolerances.Undesirable rise in temperature could damage theworkpiece.

Grinding

Abrasives for Grinding Common abrasives Aluminum oxideSilicon carbideSuper abrasives Cubic boron nitrideDiamondTABLE 9.1Knoop hardness range forvarious materials and abrasives. Characteristics of abrasives Friability - self-sharpeningShape – sharp edgeSize – grit number

Grinding WheelFIGURE 9.1 Schematic illustration of a physical model of a grinding wheel,showing its structure and grain wear and fracture patterns.

Abrasive GrainsFIGURE 9.7 (a) Grinding chip being produced by a single abrasivegrain. Note the large negative rake angle of the grain. Source: AfterM.E. Merchant. (b) Schematic illustration of chip formation by anabrasive grain. Note the negative rake angle, the small shear angle,and the wear flat on the grain.

Grinding Wheel Wear Attritious wear Grain fracture Selection guide for grinding wheel Aluminium oxide – steel, ferrous alloys and alloy steelsSilicon carbide – non ferrous, hard and brittle materialsDiamond – ceramics, hardended steelsCubic boron nitride – steels and cast irons of 50 HRC or above, hightemperature alloys Bond fracture

Grinding Fluid Function Prevent excessive temperature rise in workpieceImprove part’s surface finish and dimensional accuracyImprove grinding efficiency

Chemical-Mechanical PlanerizationFIGURE 9.22 Schematic illustration of the chemical-mechanicalpolishing process. This process is widely used in the manufactureof silicon wafers and integrated circuits, where it is known aschemical-mechanical planarization. Additional carriers and moredisks per carrier also are possible.

Ultrasonic MachiningFIGURE 9.24 (a) Schematic illustration of the ultrasonic-machining process; material is removedthrough microchipping and erosion with abrasive particles. Typicalvibration amplitude of sonotrode – 0.05-0.125 mm, freq 20 kHz Best for hard and brittle materials – ceramics, carbides, glass, precious stones,hardened steels

Chemical MachiningFIGURE 9.26 (a) Schematic illustration of the chemicalmachining process. Note that no forces are involved in thisprocess. (b) Stages in producing a profiled cavity bychemical machining.

Chemical MillingFIGURE 9.25 (a) Missile skin-panel section contoured by chemical milling to improve the stiffness-toweight ratio of the part. (b) Weight reduction of space launch vehicles by chemical milling of aluminumalloy plates. These panels are chemically milled after the plates have first been formed into shape, suchas by roll forming or stretch forming. Source: ASM International.

Electrochemical Machining Works on the principle ofelectrolysis Die is progressively lowered intoworkpiece as workpiece isdissociated into ions byelectrolysis Electrolytic fluid flows aroundworkpiece to remove ions andmaintain electrical current pathFIGURE 9.29Schematic illustrationelectrochemical-machining process.ofthe

Electrical Discharge MachiningFIGURE 9.32 Schematic illustration of the electrical-discharge-machining process.

Wire EDMFIGURE 9.35 Schematic illustration of the wire EDM process. As much as 50 hours of machining can beperformed with one reel of wire, which is then recycled.

Laser Machining Lasers are high intensity focusedlight sources Limited in depth of cut (focus oflight) Would limit workpiece to less than1 inch ( ½” typically)

Electron-Beam MachiningFIGURE 9.37 Schematic illustration of the electron-beam machining process. Unlike LBM, thisprocess requires a vacuum, and hence workpiece size is limited by the chamber size. High velocity electrons strike the work surface togenerate heat Used for accurate cutting Need vacuum chamber Interaction of electron with work piece generates X-rays

Water-Jet MachiningFIGURE 9.38(a) Schematicillustration of water-jet machining. (b)A computer-controlled water-jetcutting machine. (c) Examples ofvariousnonmetallicpartsmachined by the water-jet cuttingprocess. Source: Courtesy of OMAXCorporation.

Abrasive-Jet Machining High pressure water(20,000-60,000 psi) Educt abrasive into stream Can cut extremely thick parts(5-10 inches possible)– Thickness achievable is a function ofspeed– Twice as thick will take more thantwice as long Tight tolerances achievable– Current machines 0.002” (oldermachines much less capable 0.010” Jet will lag machine position, socontrols must plan for it

Summary Grinding Ultrasonic machining Chemical machining Electro-chemical machining Electrical-discharge machining High-energy-beam machining Water-jet and Abrasive jet machiningPrinciples, applications, process parameters

Abrasive-Jet Machining High pressure water (20,000-60,000 psi) Educt abrasive into stream Can cut extremely thick parts (5-10 inches possible) – Thickness achievable is a function of speed – Twice as thick will take more than twice as long Tight tolerances achievable – Current machines 0.002” (older machines much less capable 0.010” Jet will lag machine position .

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