CDC Global Maternal andChild Health Strategy2013-2016U.S. Department of Health and Human ServicesCenters for Disease Control and Prevention
CDC Global Maternal and Child(MCH) Health Strategy2013-2016
4CDC GLOBAL HEALTH STRATEGY 2013-2016
ACRONYMSANCAntenatal CareCDCCenters for Disease Control and PreventionCDC-HQCenters for Disease Control and Prevention HeadquartersCIOCenter Institute OfficeDGHADivision of Global HIV and AIDSFELTPField Epidemiology and Laboratory Training ProgramGDDGlobal Disease DetectionGHIGlobal Health InitiativeHBBHelping Babies BreatheHHSDepartment of Health and Human ServicesHIV/AIDSHuman Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency SyndromeIMCIIntegrated Management of Childhood IllnessM&EMonitoring and EvaluationMCHMaternal Child HealthMDGMillennium Developmental GoalMDSRMaternal Death Surveillance and ResponseMOHMinistry of HealthPEPFARPresident’s Emergency Plan for AIDS ReliefPMTCTPrevention of Maternal to Child Transmission of HIVSMGLSaving Mothers Giving LifeSTDSexually Transmitted DiseasesTBTuberculosisUNUnited NationsUNICEFUnited Nations International Children’s Emergency FundUSUnited StatesUSAIDUnited States Agency for International DevelopmentUSGUnited States GovernmentVPDVaccine-preventable diseasesVRVital RegistrationWHOWorld Health OrganizationWHO-AFROWorld Health Organization-Regional Office for AfricaCDC GLOBAL HEALTH STRATEGY 2013-20165
6CDC GLOBAL HEALTH STRATEGY 2013-2016
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis CDC Global Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Strategy provides a comprehensive framework forglobal MCH efforts at CDC. It promotes an integrated approach to the implementation of interventions thatsupport MOH programs in countries and advance achievement of global MCH goals. It emphasizes strengthening public health related components of the health system that are important to achieving MCH goals. Thestrategy aims to ensure that CDC’s technical and programmatic expertise is leveraged for maximum impactto reduce maternal and child morbidity and mortality. It focuses on women’s health from preconceptionthrough postpartum, and children’s health from the perinatal period through the fourth year.The strategy builds upon existing MCH activities implemented by Centers/Institutes/Offices and by CDC’scountry offices in collaboration with Ministries of Health and partners. CDC has a breadth and depth ofexpertise in MCH from both domestic and global MCH work that can contribute to the final “big push” toreach the Millennium Development Goals launched during the 2012 United Nationals General Assemblymeeting.CDC’s Global MCH Strategy has two primary goals consistent with United States government and globalMCH targets: the reduction of morbidity and mortality among children under five years (under-5) andthe reduction of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. To support achievement of these goalsand ensure sustainability, a third goal is to strengthen health systems necessary for MCH. The fourth goal,strengthened partnerships, supports achievement of the first three goals. The objectives for each of these goalsare shown in Table 1 below.Table 1. CDC Global MCH Strategy Goals and ObjectivesGoalObjectives1. Reduce Under-5Morbidity and Mortality Strengthen activities during facility-based well-child visits toprevent morbidity and mortality among infants and children Improve care of sick infants and children Improve population and community-based disease preventionand control2. Reduce Perinatal andMaternal Morbidity andMortality Strengthen antenatal care to improve perinatal and maternaloutcomes Improve emergency obstetric care coverage and quality to reducematernal mortality and morbidity and improve perinatal outcomes Improve access to family planning and preconception health3.Strengthen PublicHealth Systems for MCH Strengthen surveillance and other information systems for MCHand improve use for decision-making Strengthen MCH workforce capacity Strengthen MCH-related public health laboratory coverageand quality Improve the quality and utilization of routine health informationsystems for planning and monitoring and evaluation, with a focuson the district level Improve global MCH research at CDC Strengthen MCH capacity within National Public Health Institutes4. StrengthenPartnerships Strengthen existing partnerships Identify new resources and partnership to leverage CDC’s expertiseCDC GLOBAL HEALTH STRATEGY 2013-20167
8CDC GLOBAL HEALTH STRATEGY 2013-2016
CDC GLOBAL MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH (MCH) STRATEGYI. PURPOSEThe Global MCH Strategy will guide implementation of MCH activities by CDC country offices withsupport from CDC Centers/Institutes/Offices (CIOs). It will also serve as a framework for discussions withCDC’s partners. The anticipated timeframe for implementation of this strategy is 2012-2016. It aligns withthe CDC Global Health Vision and Mission below.CDC Global Health Vision:The CDC aspires to create a world where people live healthier, safer, and longer lives.CDC Global Health Mission:CDC’s global health mission is to protect and improve health globally through science, policy, partnership,and evidence-based public health action.II. BACKGROUNDCDC has a decades-long history of engaging in activities to improve MCH globally, building on its domesticexpertise, and making important contributions to reducing child mortality and morbidity around the world.Most notably, CDC has been involved in a wide range of activities to prevent and control infectious diseasesthat affect young children. During the 1980s USAID partnered with CDC on the Combatting ChildhoodCommunicable Diseases initiative, which addressed diarrheal diseases, VPDs, malaria, and later respiratorydiseases. Following the successful eradication of smallpox in 1979, CDC has continued to make major contributions to global efforts to reduce the incidence of other VPDs by supporting the Global Polio EradicationInitiative and the Global Measles and Rubella Initiative; by strengthening routine vaccination services; andby introducing and evaluating new vaccines. CDC also has a long history of working on efforts to preventand control malaria, including supporting the President’s Malaria Initiative since 2005. Since 2002, CDC hasplayed a central role, first in the implementation of the President’s Preventing Mother to Child Transmission(PMTCT) initiative (2002-2003), followed by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR,since 2003), which includes PMTCT and pediatric HIV treatment and care. Since 2007, CDC has partneredwith WHO on the global elimination of congenital syphilis and with WHO regional offices on the dualelimination of MTCT of HIV and syphilis. CDC staff are detailed to WHO headquarters to support reducing VPDs, HIV/AIDS, and STDs, and to regional and country offices to support reducing Vaccine Preventable Diseases (VPDs).CDC has also contributed to global activities related to family planning, and infant and maternal health.Since the 1980s CDC has provided support for nationally representative reproductive health surveys anduntil the late 1990s provided technical assistance on contraceptive logistics to USAID. CDC also supportsmultiple other global MCH efforts including early childhood and maternal nutrition, maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity surveillance, prevention of birth defects through food fortification with folicacid, congenital syphilis elimination, promotion of cookstoves, and prevention of unintentional injuries andviolence.This is the first CDC-wide Global MCH Strategy. It aligns with the United States government (USG) globalhealth goals, the Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS) Global Health Strategy (2011-2015),and the CDC Global Health Strategy (2012-2015), all of which support achievement of the MDGs (Table2). The HHS
CDC GLOBAL HEALTH STRATEG 2013ffi20165 ACRONYMS ANC Antenatal Care CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC-HQ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Headquarters CIO Center Institute Office DGHA Division of Global HIV and AIDS FELTP Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program GDD Global Disease Detection GHI Global Health Initiative
South Asia have the highest maternal mortality, contrib-uting up to 86% maternal mortality globally . Tanzania is among the sub-Saharan countries with the highest maternal mortality. The maternal mortality ratio in Tanzania is as high as 556 maternal death in every 100,000 live births . It has been reported that the most leading causes of
counting maternal deaths. National statistics on maternal mortality, therefore, vary consid-erably from maternal death estimates: Official government figures for 2008 showed a total of 5,670 maternal deaths in Latin America, substantially fewer than the 9,075 estimated by the United Nations Maternal Mortality
Work on maternal health services has begun with a rapid appraisal of maternal health care in each of the participating countries. Maternal health services and the improvement of maternal mortality are internationally acknowledged as priority issues for health services development. Maternal health services are also useful as a health system probe.
situation of maternal mortality is still worrying. Sixteen out of the forty-eight countries in the region have very high maternal mortality ranging between 500 to 999 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 2017 (WHO et al.2019). The current estimates on maternal mortality show that the maternal mortality ratio, an
Overview of Maternal Mortality in Kentucky and Strategies for Change 2020 KHA Quality Conference Connie Gayle White, MD, MS, FACOG. Deputy Commissioner. Maternal Mortality 2018 - CDC. 2. Maternal Mortality Rate, United States. . reduce maternal morbidity. .
Strategies for Reducing Health Disparities Selected CDC-Sponsored Interventions August 31, 2016 Karen Bouye, PhD, MPH, MS Office of Minority Health and Health Equity (CDC) . States, 2016. For more information, contact CDC 1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636) TTY: 1-888-232-6348 www.cdc.gov
1. The situation regarding maternal health 2.1 Current trends in maternal health Improving maternal health and child health services is the main priority of the National Health Plan (NHP) of Myanmar. The government has made a significant effort to promote overall reproductive health to reduce maternal mortality and improve the quality and .
7. What is the name of this sequence of events which results in the production of a protein? 8. What is Reverse Transcription? 9. When does Reverse Transcription occur? 10. How can Reverse Transcription be used in Biotechnology? DESIGNER GENES: PRACTICE –MOLECULAR-GENETIC GENETICS 2 CENTRAL DOGMA OF MOLECULAR GENETICS 1. Where is DNA housed in Eukaryotic Cells? most is stored in the nucleus .