ITEM 1 Complete Rocket And UAV Systems

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usually made of metallic or composite materials with heat-absorbing materials or protective coatings. Depending on their intended use,some surfaces may be unfinished.Figure 1-2: A solid propellant, submarine launched ballistic missile.1-2ITEM 1

Ball Lock AttachmentSpinMechanismsItem 2 (b)-3ElectronicsAntennasWarheadCavityItem 2 (f) SAFFItem 2 (c)Solid RocketMotorItem 4 (c) CompositeSolid PropellantItem 2 (a) IndividualRocket Stage(Stage 1)Item 3 (d) InterstageItem 2 (c)Liquid RocketEngineAnti Slosh BafflesItem 2 (a) IndividualRocket Stage(Stage 2)Figure 1-3: Exploded view of MTCR Annex items used in a ballistic missile.Item 14 A-D Converter Circut BoardsItem 13 Digital ComputerItem 9 (c) AccelerometersItem 9 (d) GyrosItem 4Liquid Propellants(b) Fuels(c) OxidizersItem 2 (d)Guidance SetItem 11 (c)Satellite NavigationReceiverConventionalHE Warhead(Not Controlled)Item 2(f) SAFFItem 2 (e)TVC ActuatorsandMovable NozzleItem 3 (c)Rocket Motor Case,Lining,Insulation,and NozzleItem 3 (d)SeparationMechanisms(Explosive Bolts)

Photo Credit: AlliedSignal AerospaceFigure 1-4: A short range liquid fueled ballistic missile.Figure 1-5: A space launch vehicle.Appearance (as packaged): Because rocket systems controlled under theMTCR are large, a complete rocket system is seldom packaged as a fully assembled unit for shipment from the manufacturer to its point of use or storage. Instead, the major subsystems are shipped in crates or sealed metal containers to an assembly facility near the launch location, where they areassembled, tested for their operational state, and erected for vertical launch.Exceptions include mobile ballistic missiles, which are fully assembled andstored in a horizontal position in a mobile transporter-erector-launcher andmoved to the launch point when needed. These packaging and shippingmethods are described more fully in later sections of this handbook.Unmanned Air Vehicles, including Cruise Missiles, Target Drones, andReconnaissance DronesNature and Purpose: Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are typically airbreathing vehicles which use aerodynamic lift to fly and thereby performITEM 1Produced bycompanies in Australia China Israel Russia United States1-5

their entire mission within the earth’s atmosphere. The most common mission for UAVs is reconnaissance. They are usually powered by small turbineor piston engines that drive either free or ducted propellers. UAVs tend tofly at relatively slow speeds of 360 to 540 km/hr, usually for several hours.Cruise missiles are distinguished from other UAVs by their use in weaponsdelivery and by flight trajectories that often minimize their vulnerability todefenses. Cruise missiles can fly at almost any speed, but they are usuallypowered by small jet engines, which typically operate at high subsonic speeds(less than 900 km/hr). UAVs, including cruise missiles, can fly at altitudesranging from very low, nap-of-the-earth trajectories to very high altitudes.Method of Operation: UAVs are launched from many platforms, typicallytrucks, aircraft, and ships. They may fly autonomous preplanned routesand/or routes controlled by a human operator. After their mission is completed, they usually return to base to be used again. Cruise missiles are frequently carried and launched by aircraft as well as trucks, ships, or submarines. Land- and sea-based cruise missiles usually use a small rocketbooster to accelerate them to flying speed. Cruise missiles usually fly preplanned missions specifically designed to defeat defenses by means of terrainmasking or defense avoidance, and increasingly by use of stealth technology.Most cruise missiles contain a sensor system that guides them towards theirtargets by using terrain features or target signatures. Cruise missiles increasingly use inertial navigation systems, updated by satellite navigation receivers in addition to, or instead of, terrain-aided navigation systems toguide them to the vicinity of the target. Once there a terminal sensor is activated to home in on the target. Various types of sensors are used to detectdistinctive target signatures or to match preprogrammed scenes of the target area. Once at the target, the cruise missile either detonates the warheador, if so equipped, dispenses submunitions.Typical Missile-Related Uses: UAVs are most typically used as reconnaissance platforms and thus carry electronic, video, or photographic payloads togather or monitor data over unfriendly territory. They are designed to optimize time on station, which, for some systems, can be more than 24 hours.Because of their long range, flexible payload, ease of acquisition, and reasonable cost, UAVs are potential delivery vehicles for weapons. UAVs are alsoused as target drones, platforms for agricultural monitoring and spraying, scientific data gathering, relaying communications, or electronic warfare. UAVsare becoming more popular for monitoring borders and natural or manmadedisasters. Cruise missiles typically deliver weapons payloads weighing 200 to500 kg to a distance of between 300 and 5,000 km.Other Uses: N/A.Appearance (as manufactured): UAVs, including target and reconnaissancedrones, often look like airplanes without cockpits for pilots. They vary in appearance because their role-specific designs differ, but many have prominentwings and complex antennae, windows, or domes on the body. Although1-6ITEM 1

some UAVs are large enough to have human pilots, most are somewhatsmaller. Cruise missiles are UAVs designed or modified for use as weapon delivery systems. Reconnaissance drones usually have long slender wings suitedfor extended missions at medium-to-high altitude, or they can look more likemissiles. An example of the former type is shown in Figure 1-6; notice thatit is as large as a manned fighter. Figure 1-7 depicts a jet powered UAV usedfor reconnaissance missions, sitting on its launcher.Cruise missiles usually have a cylindrical or box-like cross-section and a finenessratio (ratio of length to diameter) between 8 to 1 and 10 to 1. They all have alifting surface, or wings, and most use control fins at the tail (some haveailerons on the wings and/or canards), although the shape and size of thesesurfaces depends greatly on the intended flight regime and payload. Most ofthese features of a typical cruise missile are shown in Figure 1-8. Most cruisemissiles have a dull finish or coating to make them harder to detect, and adPhoto Credit: Teledyne Ryan AeronauticalFigure 1-6: A large Category I UAV.Figure 1-7: A jet powered reconnaissance UAV sitting on its launcher.ITEM 11-7

Figure 1-8:A land attack cruisemissile in flight showingits entire controlsurfaces and engineinlet.vanced designs have unique geometric surfaces to reduce radar reflections.These features are shown in Figure 1-9. See Figure 1-10 pullout diagram foran exploded view of a UAV.Appearance (as packaged): UAVs, including cruise missiles, typically aremanufactured in components or sections at different locations and assembled at a military site or acivilian production facility.These sections may vary insize from less than 10 kg and0.03 cubic meters to 150 kgand 0.1 to 1 m3. The smallersections can be shipped inheavy cardboard containers;medium-size sections require heavy wooden crates.However, most moderncruise missiles are shippedfully assembled in environmentally sealed metal canisters, which can also serve aslaunching tubes. Their wingsare folded either within oron top of the missile body,and the tail fins are oftenfolded on longitudinalhinges in order to fit withinthe launch canister and openafter launch to control themissile. The wings of largeUAVs are detached from thefuselage, and each section is crated separately for shipping by truck, rail, orcargo aircraft.Figure 1-9:An operational cruisemissile on itscheckout standshowing its nose conemodified to lowerradar returns andenhance aerodynamicperformance.Additional Information: A Category I UAV can be as large as an airp d rocket motorassembly jig for anICBM.Photo Credit: Sciaky, Inc.Figure 1-12:On the left, a veryprecise hydraulicallyadjustable weldingfixture for a liquidpropellant tank enddome; its seven-axisgantry robot welder ison the right.1-12Additional Information: Assembly jigs and fixtures built to receive andassemble missile components in a horizontal attitude require contoured surface pads or rollers to support the cylindrical body parts with minimal deformation. Rocket assembly systems, which build the rocket in a vertical attitude, require fewer body support fixtures but must allow a high overheadclearance within the building to stack the components and move a fullyassembled missile. The primary components of assembly jigs and fixtures arestandard structural steel members. Their size and strength are dictated by therequirement to support and maintain alignment of the large and heavy missile components during missile assembly.ITEM 1

Jigs and fixtures are usuallyassembled by welding orbolting large steel platesand I-beams or tubularmembers together on thefloor of the missile assemblybuilding. In some cases,these fixtures are built onfloating pads, not bolted tothe floor; such pads isolatethe structure from vibration, which might otherwise cause misalignment oftheir precision referencepoints. Precision survey devices are used to ensure correct alignment.Figure 1-13: Modular jig supporting a cruise missile in final assembly.ITEM 11-13

Item 4 Liquid Propellants (b) Fuels (c) Oxidizers Item 9 (c) Accelerometers Item 13 Digital Computer Item 14 A-D Converter Circut Boards Item 2 (c) Solid Rocket Motor Item 2 (c) Liquid Rocket Engine Item 2(f) SAFF Conventional HE Warhead (Not Controlled) Item 11 (c) Satellite Navigation Receiver Item 2 (d) Guidance Set Item 2 (a) Individual .

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