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G5 U5 OVRGRADe 5 UnIT 5 oVeRVIeWLiving Resources of the oceanIntroductionLiving marine resources are vital components of human life. In fact, most living organisms caught in oceansare harvested for human consumption, while other marine materials are used to make products ranging fromsponges to cosmetics. It is important to manage how we take and use the living resources of the ocean to ensurepopulations of these vital stocks remain at harvestable levels. Although estimated seafood consumption numbersare low in comparison to other foods consumed worldwide, their nutritional value is substantially higher. Mostmajor fisheries occur in shallow, near shore waters, while larger or migratory species are more commonly foundin open-ocean fisheries. Marine food chains and webs are complex and fragile. Over-fishing and water pollutioncan cause disruptions in these food chains resulting in reductions in ocean fish stocks.In this unit, students are initially introduced to seafood sold in Hawai‘i. They consult newspaper seafoodadvertisements to define and identify the different types of seafood consumed by islanders.Students review the role of decomposers in marine ecosystems, and construct diagrams linking decomposersto producers and consumers in food chains and webs, noting that decomposers help recycle the energy thatis available in ecosystems. Students investigate what happens to the cycle of matter and flow of energy whenhumans are introduced into the food chain. They also consult United States Department of Agriculture’s(USDA) dietary guidelines to investigate the benefits and potential hazards of eating seafood.The unit wraps up with a student introduction to fisheries. They will learn that the National Oceanic andAtmospheric Administration (NOAA) is the organization that determines and manages fisheries. One of theways NOAA manages fisheries is by putting rules, laws or methods in place. The students will participate ina hands-on activity that shows them how the “capture and recapture” method works.1

G5 U5 OVRAt A GlanceLESSON, Brief Summary, DurationThree 45-minute periodsScience Strand 2: The Scientific Process:Lesson 1: Marine Food Chains and WebsSC.5.2.1 Use models and/or simulations toThe students get a brief review of food chainrepresent and investigate features of objects, and food webs of living marine organisms. Theyevents, and processes in the real world.develop vocabulary and assemble a list of themarine organisms that are used as food and areScience Strand 3: Life and Environmentalsold in stores in Hawaii using advertisements fromSciences:local newspapers. Then, students fill in the MarineSC. 5.3.1 Describe the flow of energy among Organism Identification Worksheet by looking upproducers, consumers and decomposers.the definitions of and classifying their seafood listsas finfish, shellfish (mollusk or crustacean), andSC.5.3.2 Describe the interdependentother vertebrates, invertebrates. They developrelationships among producers, consumersan understanding of the different categories ofand decomposers in an ecosystem in termsmarine organisms and which marine organisms areof cycles of matter.harvested as a food source by us. They discussthe criteria of a marine food web and constructa seafood web using the marine organism liststhat they have collected. They discuss and collectinformation on marine organisms to complete acomplex marine food web.HCPS III BENCHMARKSEach Lesson addresses HCPS III Benchmarks. The Lessons provide an opportunity for students to movetoward mastery of the indicated benchmarks.ESSENTIAL QUESTIONSWhat are the roles of theproducers, consumers, anddecomposers in a marineecosystem?How does energy flow andmatter cycle in a marineenvironment?What kinds of marineorganisms do humansconsume?How does humanconsumption impact thepopulation of marineorganisms in food webs andfood chains?Language Arts Strand 1: Reading Conventionsand Skills:LA.5.1.1 Use new grade-appropriatevocabulary learned through reading print andonline resources and word study, includingmeanings of roots, affixes, word origins.2

G5 U5 OVRESSENTIAL QUESTIONSHow does an energy pyramidhelp us understand the flowof energy in food chains andwebs?How do we calculate theenergy flow through themarine food web?HCPS III BENCHMARKSLESSON, Brief Summary, DurationTwo 45-minute periodsScience Strand 2: The Scientific Process:Lesson 2: An Ocean of EnergySC.5.2.1Use models and/or simulations toStudents are introduced to an energy pyramidrepresent and investigate features of objects, as a different graphic model to show the energyevents, and processes in the real world.relationships among producers, consumers, anddecomposers. Students construct an energypyramid using information presented in thePowerPoint An Ocean of Food Chains and FoodWebs and their marine seafood web.Science Strand 3: Life and EnvironmentalSciences:SC. 5.3.1 Describe the flow of energy amongproducers, consumers and decomposers.SC.5.3.2 Describe the interdependentrelationships among producers, consumersand decomposers in an ecosystem in termsof cycles of matter.Math Strand 1: Numbers and Operations:MA 5.1.1 – Represent percent and ratiousing pictures and objects.3

G5 U5 OVRIs the consumption of seafoodalways a healthy choice?How does the humanconsumption of seafoodimpact the marine food chain?ESSENTIAL QUESTIONSScience Standard 1:The Scientific Process:SC.5.1.2 Formulate and defend conclusionsbased on evidence.HCPS III BENCHMARKSLESSON, Brief Summary, DurationTwo 45-minute periodsScience Strand 3: Life and EnvironmentalSciences:SC.5.3.2 - Describe the interdependentrelationships among producers, consumers,and decomposers in an ecosystem in termsof the cycles of matter.Math Standard 10: Patterns, Functions andAlgebra: MathMA 5.10.2 Model problem situationswith objects or manipulatives and userepresentations (e.g., graphs, tables,equations) to draw conclusions.Two 45-minute periodsScience Standard 2: The Scientific Process:Lesson 4: Sustaining Our Ocean ResourcesSC.5.2.1 Use models and/or simulations toThis lesson gives students a basic introduction torepresent and investigate features of objects, fisheries, why they are important, and the variousevents, and processes in the real world.methods used to maintain sustainable levels ofvarious marine organisms. Students then have anopportunity to use the capture-recapture modelto investigate how scientists monitor the size andnumber of a marine population and monitor whetherfish populations are decreasing.Health Strand 1: Core Concepts:HE. 3-5.1.3 Explain the importance of ahealthy diet as part of a healthy lifestyle.Lesson 3: Seafood and Human HealthIn this lesson, students are first asked whetherhumans are part of food chains, then they modify afood chain/web and work on an energy pyramid todescribe the cycle of matter and the flow of energythrough a graphic model to show where humansfit into these models. Students then learn from aPowerPoint slide about the USDA dietary guidelinesthat fish and shellfish are healthy foods, but thatsome seafood should be avoided because ofmercury content. Images in the slide show illustratethe process of bioaccumulation.What are the current methodsfor gathering food from thesea?How can humans managemarine resources and assuretheir sustainability forthe future?How has technology improvedour ability to harvest food fromthe sea?*“Hawaii Content & Performance Standards III Database.” Hawaii Department of Education. June 2007. Department of Education. 17 Dec. 2007.4

G5 U5 OVRBenchmark RubricI. HCPS III Benchmarks*Below is a general Benchmark Rubric. Within each lesson, there are other assessment tools and additional rubricsspecific to the performance tasks within each lesson.TopicScientific InquiryBenchmark SC.5.1.2Formulate and defend conclusions based on evidenceRubricAdvancedProficientPartially ProficientNoviceFormulate and defendconclusions that aresupported by detailedevidence and makeconnections to thereal worldFormulate and defendconclusions that aresupported by evidenceMake conclusions thatare partially supportedby evidenceMake conclusionswithout evidenceTopicUnifying Concepts and ThemesBenchmark SC.5.2.1Use models and/or simulations to represent and investigatefeatures of objects, events, and processes in the real worldRubricAdvancedProficientPartially ProficientNoviceConsistently selectand use modelsand simulations toeffectively representand investigatefeatures of objects,events, and processesin the real worldUse models and/orsimulations to representand investigate featuresof objects, events,and processes in thereal worldWith assistance, use modelsor simulations to representfeatures of objects, events,or processes in thereal worldRecognize examples of modelsor simulations that can be usedto represent features of objects,events, or processesTopicCycles of Matter and EnergyBenchmark SC.5.3.1Describe the cycle of energy among producers, consumers,and decomposersRubricAdvancedProficientPartially ProficientNoviceExplain and give detailedexamples of the cycle ofenergy among producers,consumers, anddecomposersDescribe the cycle ofenergy among producers,consumers, anddecomposersDescribe a part of theenergy cycle with anexample (e.g., describeone or two parts of afood chain)Recognize an example of partof an energy cycle5

G5 U5 OVRTopicInterdependenceBenchmark SC.5.3.2Describe the interdependent relationships among producers,consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem in terms of thecycles of matterRubricAdvancedProficientPartially ProficientNoviceExplain and giveexamples of howspecific relationshipsamong producers,consumers, anddecomposers in anecosystem affect thecycling of matterDescribe theinterdependentrelationships amongproducers, consumers,and decomposers in anecosystem in terms ofthe cycling of matterIdentify a fewrelationships betweenproducers, consumers,or decomposers in anecosystem in terms ofthe cycling of matterRecall, with assistance, thatmatter cycles in an ecosystemamong producers, consumers,and decomposersTopicVocabulary and Concept DevelopmentBenchmark LA.5.1.1Use new grade-appropriate vocabulary learned through readingprint and online resources and word study, including meaningsof roots, affixes, word originsRubricAdvancedProficientPartially ProficientNoviceUse new gradeappropriate vocabulary,with fluency, precision,and accuracyUse new gradeappropriate vocabulary,with minimal difficulty andno significant errorsUse new grade-appropriatevocabulary, with difficulty anda few significant and/or manyminor errorsUse new grade-appropriatevocabulary, with greatdifficulty and many significanterrors or rarely use newvocabularyTopicHealthy Eating and Physical ActivityBenchmark HE.3-5.1.3Explain the importance of a healthy diet as part of ahealthy lifestyleRubric6AdvancedProficientPartially ProficientNoviceExplain, in great detail,the importance of ahealthy diet as part of ahealthy lifestyleExplain, in detail, theimportance of a healthydiet as part of a healthylifestyleExplain, in some detail, theimportance of a healthy dietas part of a healthy lifestyleExplain, in minimal detail, theimportance of a healthy diet as partof a healthy lifestyle

G5 U5 OVRTopicNumbers and Number SystemsBenchmark MA.5.1.1Represent percent and ratio using pictures or objectsRubricAdvancedProficientPartially ProficientNoviceRepresent percent andratio using pictures orobjects, with accuracyRepresent percent andratio using picturesor objects, with nosignificant errorsRepresent percent and ratiousing pictures or objects, witha few significant errorsRepresent percent and ratiousing pictures or objects, withmany significant errorsTopicNumeric and Algebraic RepresentationsBenchmark MA.5.10.2Model problem situations with objects or manipulativesand use representations (e.g., graphs, tables, equations)to draw conclusionsRubricAdvancedProficientPartially ProficientNoviceModel problemsituations with objectsor manipulatives anduse representationsto draw conclusions,with accuracyModel problemsituations with objectsor manipulatives anduse representations todraw conclusions, withno significant errorsModel problem situationswith objects or manipulativesand use representations todraw conclusions, with a fewsignificant errorsModel problem situations withobjects or manipulatives anduse representations to drawconclusions, with manysignificant errorsII. General Learner Outcomes*A list of the Hawai‘i Department of Education’s General Learner Outcomes (GLOs) follows. Each Unit of theLessons from the Sea Curriculum addresses the GLOs. Within some lessons, there is more specific mentionof individual GLOs with specific pertinence.I.II.III.IV.V.VI.Self-directed Learner (The ability to be responsible for one’s own learning.).Community Contributor (The understanding that it is essential for human beings to work together.).Complex Thinker (The ability to demonstrate critical thinking and problem solving.).Quality Producer (The ability to recognize and produce quality performance and quality products.).Effective Communicator (The ability to communicate effectively.).Effective and Ethical User of Technology (The ability to use a variety of technologies effectivelyand ethically.).* “Hawaii Content & Performance Standards III Database.” Hawaii Department of Education. June 2007.Department of Education. 17 Dec. 2007.7

G5 U5 OVRScience Background for the TeacherNote: Bolded words within this section are defined in the Science Background for the Teacher Glossary. The footnotesrefer to the references found in the Science Background for the Teacher Bibliography at the end of this section.What are living marine resources?1 (Lesson 1)The world’s oceans are composed of both physical and biological components. The physical components include all of thenon-living structures and processes, such as rocks, sand, and mud on the sea floor; salts, oxygen, and nutrients dissolvedin the water; and waves, currents, and light that affect the distribution of organisms. The biological components includeall of the living organisms in the oceans, ranging from microscopic bacteria to giant fish and mammals, such as sharksand whales. It is the biological component of our oceans that comprise our living marine resources. Living marineresources include all of the organisms that are utilized by humans, such as for harvesting or recreational uses. Mostof the organisms are harvested for human consumption, but they also provide many other products and materials. Forexample, marine chemists extract compounds from marine organisms, such as sponges and algae, for use in products,such as drugs and cosmetics. Many people use living marine resources for sport fishing, recreational diving, or for homeaquariums. The agricultural industry utilizes living marine resources to produce products, such as fertilizer and animalfeed. Living marine resources are a vital component of human life.What marine resources do we commonly use?2 (Lesson 1)The most common use of our marine resources is for food. In fact, worldwide, 76% of the living marine resourcesharvested in 2002 were for direct human consumption. A wide variety of marine organisms are harvested from the sea forhuman consumption. Examples include seaweeds, jellyfishes, sea urchins, sea turtles, seals, and even polychaete worms.However, the vast majority of the marine resources harvested are fishes, constituting approximately 84% of the total worldcatch. Shellfish, mollusks, and crustaceans are also an important component of the catch. Although the size of the catchfor shellfish is smaller than fishes, the value of the catch is generally greater than that for fishes.Living marine resources constitute only 1% of all the food eaten in the world, with the rest produced on land. However,because seafood is rich in protein, it is a very important food source for human populations. Fishes provide 16% of theanimal protein consumed by humans worldwide. Compared to the thousands of species of fishes and shellfish in the sea,relatively few species represent major fisheries. The largest catches in the world are comprised of small plankton-feedingclupeoid fishes, including herrings, anchovies, sardines, menhadens, and shads. These fishes are eaten fresh, canned,or pickled. Most of the catch for these fishes; however, is ground into fishmeal, a protein supplement used in feed forlivestock, poultry, and farmed fishes. Bottom-dwelling, cold water fishes, such as cods, pollock, haddock, hakes, andwhiting, are another important component of the world catch. The walleye pollock is the largest fishery in U.S. waters.Canned mackerel from areas, such as Japan, South America, and other parts of the world, have become an importantsource of inexpensive protein in some areas. Salmon species are a very valuable catch. Although the numbers caught havebeen in decline, the salmon fishery is still important in the North Pacific in terms of monetary value of the catch. While alarge proportion of the fisheries catch occurs over continental shelves, many important fisheries exist in the open ocean.The most economically important open-ocean fishery is for several species of tuna. Skipjack, yellowfin, albacore, bigeye,and bluefin tunas sell for high prices in world markets. For example, a single large bluefin tuna can sell for more than 100,000. These fishes are eaten either canned, or raw, as sashimi, especially in affluent countries.8

G5 U5 OVRMollusks are the second most valuable group of harvested marine resources after fishes. Cephalopods, such as octopusesand squids, comprise the largest component of the mollusk catch. They are especially prized in Asian and Mediterraneancountries. Other important harvested mollusks include clams, oysters, mussels, scallops, and abalones. Crustaceans, suchas lobster, shrimp, and crab, comprise the other group of shellfishes. These shellfishes are highly prized and consumedworldwide. There are many other groups of marine organisms that are harvested, although they do not contribute much tothe global fisheries production. For example, seaweeds are eaten in many Asian countries. Sea urchins are harvested fortheir gonads, or roe, which are eaten raw. There are traditional fisheries for marine mammals, such as seals and whales,in the Arctic, North Atlantic, West Indies, and the South Pacific. Marine mammals are now protected under the MarineMammal Protection Act and can no longer be caught. Marine mammals are important components of a healthy andbiologically diverse ecosystem. Overfishing or killing of any species can be devastating to an entire ecosystem. Green seaturtles (honu), now a protected species, historically were part of the diet of many Pacific Islanders, including the ancientHawaiians. More information on honu can be found /FINAL Green%20Sea%20Turtle.pdf .For a wide range of information on fisheries of the world, topic&fid 16063 .This website is fairly technical, but has an abundance of information pertaining to aquaculture and fisheries.Where in the marine environment are most living marine resources extracted?3 (Lesson 1)A majority of the world’s major fisheries are located in coastal waters. Coastal waters lie over the continental shelf. Dueto higher nutrient concentrations, primary production is greater over the continental shelf as compared to open-oceanwaters. The greater amount of primary production supports a larger amount of life. The waters over continental shelvesare relatively shallow, making it easier to harvest bottom-dwelling, or demersal, species. However, fisheries over thecontinental shelf also include pelagic animals, such as tunas, squids, and other organisms. Coastal fisheries are particularlysignificant where the continental shelf is wide, such as the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, the North Sea, and the BeringSea. Larger fisheries are also likely to occur along the coasts of indust

Topic Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Benchmark HE.3-5.1.3 Explain the importance of a healthy diet as part of a healthy lifestyle Rubric Advanced Profi cient Partially Profi cient Novice Explain, in great detail, the importance of a healthy diet as part of a healthy lifestyle Explain, in detail, the importance of a healthy

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