Species Settings Questions & Answers - Cloudinary

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Species SettingsQuestions & AnswersFor Wagner Meters Orion Models

Table of Contents1Questions and Answers Gradients and Wet Pockets Surface Moisture4Species Setting Table23 Other Materials24 Specific Setting Data Sources27 Commentary of Species Adjustment31 Determining Specific Gravity34 Checking the Moisture Contentin VeneerQuestion andAnswers#1 Gradients and Wet PocketsQ: What about gradients and wet pockets?A: Although the various drying processesfor green lumber can leave wet coresand pockets, moisture continues to passfrom fiber to fiber within the wood untilit has equalized throughout the wholeboard, and then to surrounding humiditylevels. Determining if a board or loadof lumber will equalize within tolerancelevels can be challenging, but moisturemeters from Wagner Meters provide thisinformation automatically. Penetratingdeep into the wood, they mathematicallydetermine equalized moisture content andare capable of checking truckloads ofboard feet for specified moisture contentin minutes. For even more convenience,many companies use their hand-heldmeters from Wagner Meters to read rightthrough the plastic wrapping around thewood on new deliveries before they allowunloading!1

#2 Surface MoistureQ: Is my moisture meter from WagnerMeters affected by surface moisture?A: Most moisture meters can be affectedby standing water or visible water onthe board. You should always wipe offas much excess water as possible. Oncethe standing water is removed, yourmoisture meter from Wagner Meters willread slightly higher than normal, whereasother types of meters can show greatlyexaggerated readings.*Active in 3/4” mode onlyNOTE: If water is allowed to soak intothe wood, it will naturally show highermoisture content. If a piece of wood isvery rough, it will soak up the water quitereadily, affecting readings for all meters.The Orion 910, 930, 940, and 950moisture meters feature Wagner’sIntelliSense technology*,goingbeyond the surface conditions for accuratemeasurements of moisture conditionsinside the wood. Our hand-held moisturemeters with lntelliSense technologymeasure moisture IN the wood, not ONthe wood, giving fast, highly accuratemoisture measurement for woodworkingor wood flooring projects. In addition,it works without damage to the woodsurface.23

SpeciesSetting TableSpeciesSettingAsh, White0.60Aspen, Bigtooth0.39Aspen, rmosia0.65Alder, Red0.41American Red Oak0.63Andiroba0.57Ash, Black0.49Balsamo (Myroxylonbalsamum)0.83Ash, Blue0.58Balsamo (Protium spp.)0.55Ash, Green0.56Banak (Virola spp.)0.45Ash, Oregon0.55Basswood, American0.37Ash, Red0.55Beech, American0.6445

Beech, Euro0.67Butternut0.38Benge (Guibourtiaarnoldiana)0.70Cativo0.42Cedar of Lebanon0.53Birch, Paper0.55Cedar, Alaska0.44Birch, Sweet0.65Cedar, Atlantic White0.32Birch, White0.53Cedar, Eastern Red0.47Birch, Yellow0.62Cedar, Incense0.37Box0.83Cedar, Northern White0.31Brazilian Cherry0.83Cedar, Port Orford0.43Brazilian Mahogany0.47Cedar, Western Red0.32British Elm0.53Cedar, Yellow0.44Bubinga (Guibourtia spp.)0.75Cedrella0.3967

Cherry, Black0.50Elliotis Pine0.59Chestnut, American0.43Elm, American0.50Cocobolo0.85Elm, Rock0.63Cottonwood,Balsam PoplarElm, Slippery0.530.34English Cherry0.58Cottonwood, Black0.35English Oak0.57Cottonwood, Eastern0.40European Ash0.58Degame0.72European Walnut0.56Determa0.55Fir, Balsam0.35Dogwood, Flowering0.72Fir, California Red0.38Douglas Fir0.48Fir, Grand0.37Ebony0.94Fir, Noble0.3989

Fir, Pacific Silver0.43Hickory (Pecan), Bitternut0.66Fir, Subalpine0.32Hickory (Pecan), Nutmeg0.60Fir, White0.39Hickory (Pecan), Water0.62Gombeira1.00Hickory (True), Mockernut0.72Guatambu (Argentinean)0.70Hickory (True), Pignut0.75Guatambu (Brazil)0.79Hickory (True), Shagbark0.72Gum, Black0.50Hickory (True), Shellbark0.69Gum, Red0.52Hickory, Pecan0.66Hackberry0.53Holly, American0.55Hemlock, Eastern0.40Hophornbeam, Eastern0.70Hemlock, Mountain0.45Hura0.40Hemlock, Western0.45Indian laurel0.791011

Ipe0.99Larch, Western0.52Iroko0.57Laurel, California0.55Jacaranda0.34Lignum Vitae1.13Jarrah0.75Limba0.40Jelutong0.38Locust, Black0.69Kapur0.70Macassar Ebony0.90Karri0.79Madrone, Pacific0.64Magnolia, Southern0.50Mahogany, African0.44Keruing (Dipterocarpusspp.)0.76Kingwood1.16Mahogany, True0.47KOA (Acacia Koa)0.63Manni0.63Larch, Euro0.48Maple, Bigleaf0.481213

Maple, Black0.57Muninga0.59Maple, Hard0.60Myrtle, Oregon0.55Maple, Red0.54Myrtle, Tasmanian0.64Maple, Silver0.47Oak (Red), Black0.61Maple, Soft0.49Oak (Red), Cherrybark0.68Maple, Sugar0.63Oak (Red), Laurel0.63Merbau0.67Oak (Red), Northern0.63Mersawa0.54Oak (Red), Pin0.63Mesquite0.86Oak (Red), Scarlet0.67Monkeypod0.50Oak (Red), Southern0.59Mountain Ash (Eucalyptusspp.)0.62Oak (Red), Water0.63Oak (Red), Willow0.691415

Oak (White), Bur0.64Oak (White), Chestnut0.66Oak (White), Overcup0.63Oak (White), Post0.67Oak (White), SwampChestnut0.67Opepe0.68Padauk (Pterocarpusindicus)0.57Padauk (Pterocarpusmacrocarpus)0.79Padauk (Pterocarpusmacrocarpus)0.71Oak (White), Swamp0.72Oak, California Black0.53Parana Pine0.49Oak, White0.68Pecan0.60Obeche0.32Peroba de Campos0.66Okoume0.35Peroba Rosa0.71Olive0.81Persimmon, Common0.711617

Pine, Hoop0.44Pine, Slash0.59Pine, Eastern White0.35Pine, Spruce0.44Pine, Jack0.43Pine, Sugar0.36Pine, Loblolly0.51Pine, Virginia0.48Pine, Lodgepole0.41Pine, Western White0.35Pine, Longleaf0.59Poplar, Yellow0.42Pine, Pitch0.52Plane (Lacewood)0.49Pine, Pond0.56Primavera0.42Pine, Ponderosa0.40Purpleheart0.71Pine, Red0.46Radiata Pine0.45Pine, Sand0.48Ramin0.56Pine, Shortleaf0.51Redwood, Old-Growth0.401819

Redwood, Young-Growth0.35Spruce, Engelmann0.35Roble (Tabebuia spp.)0.55Spruce, Red0.40Rosewood, Brazilian(Dalbergia nigra)Spruce, Sitka0.400.84Spruce, White0.36Rosewood, Indian0.79Sweet camore, American0.49Sassafras0.46Scots Pine0.45SYP (Southern YellowPine)0.56Spanish Cedar0.44Tamarack0.53Spruce, Northern0.36Tanoak0.64Spruce, Black0.42Tatajuba0.722021

Tauari (Couratari spp.)0.53Tawa (Beilschmiedia tawa)0.62Tawa (Pometia spp.)0.58Plywood, OSB, and MDFTeak0.57Plywood0.57Tupelo, Black0.50OSB0.62Tupelo, Water0.50Permacore MDF0.70Virola (Virola spp.)0.45HDF core0.85Walnut, Black0.55Advantech 0.70Wenge (Millettia spp.)0.82Willow, ingSpecies Setting Table23

Species SettingData SourcesThese settings are based on the best,most current world data and are used todetermine the species correction factorwithin the meter. The values provideaverage density values for the species. Acoefficient of variation (COV) of about10% describes the variability inherent inmany common domestic (US) species.If your lumber is not listed in the SpeciesSettings Tables provided, or you aredealing with an unknown species, thevalue may be determined by referringto the “Determining Specific Gravity”section on page 31. Additional resourcesare: Wagner Meters online SpeciesSettings: www.wagnerspecies.com Woodworker’sSource(WoodLibrary): www.woodworkerssource.com/wood library.php24 The Wood Handbook: 113.htm The Forest Products Lab: www.fpl.fs.fed.us/The Orion series meters can be used tomeasure non-wood materials if the densityis similar to wood products. Non-woodspecies can be measured by using the meterreading as a relative value such as in “go/no-go” applications, or when determiningif one measurement area contains moremoisture than another, i.e., measurementsthat do not require a high absoluteaccuracy. Specific gravity formulas can’tbe applied to non-solid wood speciesdue to the presence of glues and resins,which cause a non-linear moisture contentcurve. If greater accuracy is required, theASTM oven-dry procedure can be usedto determine a meter correction value fornon-solid woods.25

Please contact Wagner Meters at (877)958-3331, a worldwide toll-free number,for additional information on speciescorrections if needed.Commentary onSpecies AdjustmentIn 1992, a study was conducted at theForest Research Laboratory of OregonState University (OSU) on speciescorrection for the hand-held moisturemeters from Wagner Meters. The speciestested were Douglas Fir, Lodgepole Pine,Western Red Cedar, Western Hemlock,White Fir, Western Larch, EngelmannSpruce, and White Oak. Three to four40-piece samples of each species weretested. Specific gravity was found to bethe primary factor in species adjustment.A species equation as a function of specificgravity and the meter reading was obtainedusing the multiple-regression technique(R-square 0.95) as follows:AF 8.77 (0.25 * MM) - (15.86 * SG)- (0.62 * SG * MM)Footnote:1 Species Setting Value SourcesThe species setting values were developed by Wagner Meters. These valuesare based on our research and have been developed to give users a generalcorrection factor for plywood and OSB. Please keep in mind that plywoodand OSB manufacturing processes can differ slightly and some plywoodand OSB of the same species may vary slightly.26In which:AF Species Adjustment27

MM Meter ReadingSG Specific Gravity in oven dry weightand 12% moisture content volume basis.The species adjustments provide the adjustedmoisture measurements that are based on thespecies adjustment determined using thespecies adjustment equation, with roundingto the nearest 0.5.Wood is not a uniform material. The specificgravity of solid-sawn lumber varies withinthe piece and among pieces. In the OSUstudy, the average specific gravity for eachspecies differed from the individual sampleby plus or minus 1% to plus or minus 8%.For general applications, average specificgravity values can be found in the WoodHandbook (USDA Agriculture HandbookNo. 72, 1999). Except for one species,for which the experimental value is 7%higher, the species’ overall average specificgravity values obtained in the OSU studyare comparable with those in the WoodHandbook. The exception may be causedby unknown biases in the sampling scheme.28The Wood Handbook values are used inthe tables, except for the imported species,unless otherwise noted.Species adjustment can be determinedfor lumber sorted, or otherwise known,to have specific gravity different from thespecies’ average. One example is lumbergraded under the Dense rules. If the specificgravity of a lumber sample is known, speciesadjustment can be determined by the speciesadjustment equation.The species adjustment equation providesa way to expand the use of your handheld moisture meter from Wagner Metersfor lumber of any species groups havingsimilar species-specific gravity values.One example is Hem-Fir. For a speciesgroup, one way to determine the speciesadjustment is by the use of a weightedaverage of the individual species’ averagespecific gravity values. The weighingprocedure used in the ASTM D2555 bystanding timber volume can be used.Species adjustment is not recommendedfor any species group having a broad range29

of species-specific gravity values. Thereare no recognized limits on species groupspecies adjustment. Species adjustmentfor species groups should be used withknowledge on the variability on speciesinvolved and the effect of it on speciesadjustment. If the species mix in the lumberproduction of a species group is controlledor known to have specific gravity differentfrom that used for the species group, abetter estimation of species adjustment canbe determined using the known specificgravity in the above species correctionequation.DeterminingSpecific GravityDetermining the species setting for anunknown species.The Species Setting Tables, based onspecific gravity of solid wood, areprovided in this manual. If you don’t knowthe species of the wood you are using,or the specific gravity differs from thehandbook because of a different growingregion, use the following procedure.Determining the Specific Gravity301.Select a sample of wood that isapproximately12%moisturecontent, with all edges being true.Carefully measure the dimensionsof the sample using a caliper. Youwill need the length, width, andthickness.2.Convert these measurements to feet.31

3.Carefully measure the weight of thesample4.Convert the weight to pounds.5.Calculate specific gravity.Example:Length 10 in.10 in. / 12 in. 0.833 ft.Width 7 1/2 in.7 1/2 in. / 12 in. 0.625 ft.Specific Gravity:(Weight / Volume) / Specific Gravity ofwater (1.25 lb. / 0.065 cu. ft.) / 62.34 lb./ cu. ft. 0.31In order to ensure that the value obtainedfor the specific gravity is statisticallysignificant, a number of pieces must bemeasured and the average determined.Use this value of specific gravity for thespecies setting in the meter.Thickness 1 1/2 in.1 1/2 in. / 12 in. 0.125 ft.Volume L x W x T0.833 x 0.625 x 0.125 0.065 cu. ft.Weight 20 oz.20 oz. / 16 oz. 1.25 lb.3233

Checking theMoisture Contentin VeneerYou can check the moisture content inveneer with your hand-held moisturemeter from Wagner Meters as follows:1.2.Put veneer into a tight stack of at least3/4 of an inch and separate the stackby at least 3 inches to 4 inches fromthe rest of the stack. Measuring astack less than the scan depth of themeter will give you a reading that islower than the true moisture reading.Refer to the species adjustment tablefor the wood you are using.Avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD)at all times. Wagner Meters’ warrantydoes not cover ESD damage. Theinstruments are tested to withstanda 15 KV static charge but not thetypical 150 - 250 KV found in aveneer charge.34The veneer table should be earth groundedwith a metal wand attached by wire tothe table. The wand must then be runup and down the edge of a veneer stackto discharge static, or the person usingthe moisture meter must have a Velcro wristband with a tethered strap which isgrounded.These same static precautions apply tolumber moving from a planer; the handmeter is not an in-line measurementsystem. This unit is meant to check lumberwhile stationary.If these guidelines are adhered to, the riskof ESD damage to your moisture meter isgreatly reduced or eliminated. Please callthe factory if you have any questions orconcerns about this information.35


Wagner Meters326 Pine Grove RoadRogue River, OR 97537 USACall Worldwide Toll-Free: 877-958-3331E-mail: sales@wagnermeters.comVisit Our Moisture MeasuringInformation Center at:www.wagnermeters.com/moisture-meters 2018 Wagner MetersPart # 500-90000-003 REV NC

inside the wood. Our hand-held moisture meters with lntelliSense technology measure moisture IN the wood, not ON the wood, giving fast, highly accurate moisture measurement for woodworking or wood flooring projects. In addition, it works without damage to the wood surface. *Active in 3/4” mode only NOTE: If water is allowed to soak into .

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