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NEW ZEALAND WINEGROWERSInternational Winemaking Practices Guide9th Edition October 2015

NEW ZEALAND WINEGROWERSInternational Winemaking Practices Guide9th Edition October 2015

TABLE OF CONTENTS1. WINEMAKING PRACTICES IN NEW ZEALAND1.1 Definition of Wine331. 2 Food Additives31.3 Processing Aids41.4 Contaminants and Natural Toxicants41.5 Agricultural Chemical Residues41.6 Food Safety and Winery Hygiene51.7 Standards of Fill52. EXPORTS62.1 Making wine for multiple markets62.2 Australia62.3 Argentina, Canada, Chile, USA, Georgia, South Africa62.4 European Union72.5 Brazil72.6 Asia7APPENDIX 1 - WINEMAKING PRACTICES FORSTANDARD WINE IN THE MAJOR MARKETSDefinitions/Analytical ichment13Sweetening/Acid Adjustment14Stabilisation14Other Cellar Treatments15Contaminants and Toxicants17APPENDIX 2 - RULES FOR SPARKLING WINE EXPORTEDTO THE EUAPPENDIX 3 - RULES FOR LIQUEUR WINE EXPORTEDTO THE EU1821iCover image courtesy of Pegasus BayNew Zealand International Winemaking Guide 9th Edition I September 20151

DISCLAIMERINTRODUCTIONInformation in this document is prepared by New ZealandWinegrowers for use by members of the New Zealand GrapeGrowers Council and the Wine Institute of New Zealand only.Material may not be published or reproduced without thepermission of New Zealand Winegrowers.All due care and attention has been exercised in the preparationof the information contained in this document. However,regulations will change over time, and interpretations maydiffer between regulators. We will endeavour to provide regularupdates as they come to hand. Nevertheless, this documentis not intended to be the definitive source on winemakingregulations, as this will always be in the hands of the regulatorswho administer them. Nor is it intended to be a substitute fordetailed legal advice in specific cases.This information is provided strictly on the basis that NewZealand Winegrowers, the Wine Institute of New Zealand Inc,the New Zealand Grape Growers Council Inc and their officers,employees or agents disclaim any liability of any kind for anyinaccuracy, error, omission or other flaw in the informationcontained in this document, and for any loss and/or damage thatmay arise from reliance on the information presented.Winemaking practices in New Zealand are governed by a numberof different laws and regulations, including both domestic rulesand rules imposed by the Governments of overseas markets. ThisGuide is intended to provide an easy reference to the rules of ourmost important markets.If any aspect of the information contained in this guide isunclear, or you have additional questions, members can contactthe New Zealand Winegrowers Advocacy team Jeffrey Clarkeon jeffrey@nzwine.com or Silua Ettles on Silua.ettles@nzwine.com for further assistance.Under the Wine Act 2003, every winemaker must operate undereither a wine standards management plan (WSMP) registeredwith the NZFSA or an exemption. The WSMP provides aframework for compliance with the wine and food standardsabove. A template for the WSMP is available to members inthe form of the New Zealand Winegrowers Wine StandardsManagement Plan Code of Practice Version 2 which is availableon our website www.nzwine.com.CHANGES IN THIS 9TH EDITIONWhere substantive changes have been made since the lastedition of the International Winemaking Practices Guide, thetext is shaded in yellow.In New Zealand, the following laws and regulations apply towinemaking practices: Food Act 2014 Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code (the “FoodStandards Code”) New Zealand (Maximum Residue Limits of AgriculturalChemicals) Food Standards 2002 & 2007 Wine Act 2003 Wine Regulations 2006 Wine (Specifications) Notice 2006 Weights and Measures Regulations 1999The Ministry of Primary Industries is the government agencyresponsible for regulating all winemaking practices – with theexception of standards of fill which are governed by the Ministryof Consumer Affairs.The WSMP covers food safety and hygiene as well aswinemaking practices and some aspects of labelling. Anyinformation in this Guide must be read in subject to the WSMPunder which a winemaker is operating.Wine that is intended for export may be subject to additionalrules that are covered in Chapter 3 and Appendices 1-4.2 New Zealand Winegrowes I newzealandwine.com

1WINEMAKING PRACTICES IN NEW ZEALAND1.1 DEFINITION OF WINEStandard 2.7.4 of the Food Standards Code sets generaldefinitions for wine and wine product and provides permissionsfor the addition of certain foods during the production of wine.Definition of wineWine is defined as “the product of the complete or partialfermentation of fresh grapes, or a mixture of that product andproducts derived solely from grapes.” This definition includessparkling and fortified wine. There are no separate definitions forthese products.The following extract from Schedule 5 to Standard 1.3.1 FoodAdditives outlines the key technological functions that may beperformed by food additives used in wine production.FUNCTIONAL CLASSSub-ClassesDEFINITIONAcidity regulatoracid, alkali, base, buffer, bufferingalters or controls the acidity oragent, pH adjusting agentalkalinity of a foodAntioxidantantioxidant, antioxidant synergistretards or prevents theoxidative deterioration of a foodThe following may be added to wine during production – grape juice and grape juice products; andColour fixativecolour fixative, colour stabiliser sugars (the list of permitted sugars is in Standard 2.8.1); andstabilises, retains or intensifiesan existing colour of a food brandy or other spirit; and added water, where the water is necessary to incorporateany permitted food additive or processing aid.Definition of wine productWine product is defined as “a food containing no less than700 mL/L of wine as defined in this Standard, which has beenformulated, processed, modified or mixed with other foods suchthat is not wine.”Colouringadds or restores colour to foodsPreservativeanti-microbial preservative,retards or prevents theanti-mycotic agent, bacteriophagedeterioration of a food by microcontrol agent, chemosterilant,organismsdisinfection agentSequestrant1. 2 FOOD ADDITIVESforms chemical complexes withmetallic ionsWhat is a food additive?StabiliserStandard 1.3.1 of the Food Standards Code controls the additivesthat may be used in winemaking. A food additive can only beadded to wine where expressly permitted in this standard.binder, firming agent, watermaintains the homogeneousbinding agent, foam stabiliserdispersion of two or moreA food additive is any substance not normally consumed as afood in itself and not normally used as an ingredient of food, butwhich is intentionally added to a food to achieve one or morespecified technological functions. It or its by-products mayremain in the food. Food additives must meet the identity andpurity standards set out in Standard 1.3.4.How can food additives be used?Food additives can only be used: to perform one or more technological functions; at a level that does not exceed the maximum level necessaryto achieve one or more technological functions underconditions of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP); in compliance with any conditions, restrictions or maximumpermitted levels specified in the standard.immiscible substances in a foodAdditives may be carried over from other ingredients used inthe production of a wine, as well as being added directly. In anycase, the level of additive must not exceed the level permittedfor the final product.Two or more additives may be used in combination to achievethe same technological function. In this case, the sum of thequantities obtained by dividing the amount of each foodadditive used by the maximum permitted level for that foodadditive must not exceed 1.Permitted additivesThe Appendices to this document sets out the food additivespermitted for use in wine production, and the conditions,restriction and maximum levels for their use. Where a maximumlevel is specified, the level refers to the maximum amount whichmay be present in the wine as sold.The maximum level for many food additives is specified as“good manufacturing practice” (GMP). GMP is a limit and it doesnot permit excessive usage or poor winemaking practices. TheCodex Alimentarius Commission Procedural Manual sets out theNew Zealand International Winemaking Guide 9th Edition I September 20153

following relevant criteria for use in assessing compliance withGood Manufacturing Practice: the quantity of additive added to food shall be limited tothe lowest possible level necessary to accomplish its desiredeffect; the quantity of the additive that becomes a component offood as a result of its use in the manufacture, processing orpackaging of a food and which is not intended to accomplishany physical, or other technical effect in the finished fooditself, is reduced to the extent reasonably possible; and the additive is prepared and handled in the same way as afood ingredient.The manner in which a food is intended to be presented(e.g. by the use of such quality descriptors as natural,pure, traditional etc) may affect the type and level of foodadditives that could be used in accordance with GMP.Similarly, the type and level of food additives used may affectthe way in which a food may be presented (e.g. the use ofsulphites above 10ppm requires labelling).1.3 PROCESSING AIDSWhat is a processing aid?Standard 1.3.3 of the Food Standards Code regulates the use ofprocessing aids in food manufacture. A processing aid can onlybe used for wine production where expressly permitted in thisStandard.Processing aids are substances that are used in the processingof raw materials, foods or ingredients to fulfil a technologicalpurpose relating to treatment or processing, but do not performa technological function (i.e. as set out under “Food Additives”above) in the final food.Processing aids must meet the identity and purity standards setout in Standard 1.3.4.How can processing aids be used?Processing aids can only be used: to fulfil a technical purpose related to treatment orprocessing of wine; in compliance with any conditions, restrictions or maximumpermitted levels specified in the standard; and at the lowest level necessary to achieve the relevant technicalfunction, irrespective of any maximum permitted levelspecified.1.4 CONTAMINANTS AND NATURAL TOXICANTSStandard 1.4.1 establishes the general principle that levels ofcontaminants and natural toxicants in all foods should be keptAs Low As Reasonably Achievable (the ALARA principle) andsets out the maximum levels of specified metal and non-metalcontaminants and natural toxicants that may be present incertain foods.Maximum levels for contaminants and natural toxicants in majormarkets are set out in Appendix 1.Maximum levels for wineThere is only one maximum level that applies to wine. Red, whiteand fortified wines must not exceed 3 g of methanol per litre ofethanol.Other contaminantsOther contaminants (including metals such as arsenic, cadmium,copper, lead, mercury and tin) do not have maximum levels setin respect of wine. However, levels of these contaminants in winemust be as low as reasonably achievable.1.5 AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL RESIDUESWho is responsible for residues?Maximum residue levels (MRLs) for agricultural chemicalsapplying to wine sold in New Zealand are governed by the NewZealand (Maximum Residue Limits of Agricultural Chemicals)Standard.Growers must: ensure that agricultural chemicals are applied in accordancewith label requirements, including withholding periods (preharvest intervals); and maintain a record of applications of agricultural chemicals(spray diary).Winemakers must: ensure that wine released for sale in New Zealand complieswith the maximum residue limits specified in the Standard(NB: MRLs in New Zealand are established for grapes ratherthan wine. However, the MRLs for grapes are in practiceapplied to finished wine as well. With a few exceptions, this isthe case in most parts of the world); ensure that export wine complies with the maximum residuelimits applying in the destination market.Permitted processing aidsA wide range of processing aids are permitted for winemaking.Appendix 1 summarises the main processing aids used in wineproduction. For a complete list, consult Standard 1.3.3.The maximum level for many processing aids is specified as“good manufacturing practice” (GMP). GMP is a limit and it doesnot permit excessive usage or poor winemaking practices. Forguidance on GMP, see the section on “Food Additives”.4 New Zealand Winegrowes I newzealandwine.comWe strongly recommend that winemakers monitor the timingand levels of agricultural chemical applications through spraydiaries to ensure that wines released for sale comply with MRLs.(NB: levels of many agricultural chemicals will reduce throughthe winemaking process, and it is permissible to blend wines toachieve residue levels in finished wine that are within MRLs.)

We also strongly recommend that winemakers work withgrowers to ensure that the levels of residue in their wines arekept to the lowest level possible.Where do I find information on MRLs?New Zealand Winegrowers publishes an annual Export WineGrape Spray Schedule and an Agrichemical Spray Diary to assistgrowers and wineries to comply with MRLs in all markets. This isavailable free of charge to all members.1.6 FOOD SAFETY AND WINERY HYGIENEFood safety and winery hygiene are regulated under the WineAct 2003, the Wine Regulations 2006, the Wine (Specifications)Notice 2006 and through the registration of Wine StandardsManagement Plans. For more information go wine/makingwine/index.htm1.7 STANDARDS OF FILLStandards of fill are regulated by the Ministry of ConsumerAffairs under the Weights and Measures Regulations 1999.The adequacy of fill levels for wine are measured on the basis ofthe average volume of bottles in a particular lot. There are threebasic rules: First, the actual contents of the packages in a lot must notbe less, on average, than the stated quantity. They can,however, be more on average than the stated quantity. Second, no more than 2.5% of the packages in a lot may benon-standard. A package is non-standard if the quantityis less than the stated quantity on the package by morethan a tolerable deficiency. For a 750ml bottle, the tolerabledeficiency is 15ml. Third, there must be no inadequate packages. A package isinadequate if the quantity of goods is less than the statedquantity on the package by more than twice the tolerabledeficiency. For a 750ml bottle, a deficiency of 30ml willmake it an inadequate package.These averages can be determined on the basis of samples.Sample ranges are specified in the legislation depending onthe size of the lot. For further information, see the Ministry ofConsumer Affairs Fact Sheet sinfo/avquantsystem.html.New Zealand International Winemaking Guide 9th Edition I September 20155

EXPORTS2In principle, wines exported from New Zealand must complywith the winemaking rules applicable in New Zealand and inthe destination market. However, there are exceptions to thisprinciple where the New Zealand Government has entered intoagreements with foreign Governments to mutually accept eachother’s winemaking practices.All exporters to all markets need to comply with the exporteligibility requirements set out in the New Zealand Grape WineExport Code: e/exporting/grape/2.1 MAKING WINE FOR MULTIPLE MARKETSA large proportion of the wine produced in New Zealand isintended for export. However, New Zealand winemaking rules aremore flexible than those applying in many other markets, andwinemaking practices may need to be adjusted to meet the rulesin destination markets. It is often difficult to know in advanceall of the markets which a wine will eventually be sold in, but itis helpful to keep in mind some of the major variables acrossdifferent markets. The specific limits that apply to key marketsare set out in Appendix 1. If you are interested in rules for othermarkets, please contact us.Minimum alcoholSome markets set minimum levels of alcohol for wine, which canrestrict the styles of wine that are sold there. In EU markets, thisis 8.5%. In the USA and China it is 7%. In Canada, Chile, SouthAfrica and Argentina, 7% is the minimum for exporters wantingto take advantage of the Mutual Acceptance Agreement onOenological Practices.In some markets, a minimum alcohol level is also linked tospecific categories of wine, for example fortified wine or the EUcategories of “wine of overripe grapes” and “wine of raisinedgrapes”.Reduction of alcohol by technical means such as reverse osmosisor spinning cone is also controlled in the EU.Maximum alcohol/sugarSome markets set maximum levels and category thresholds foralcohol and sugar content (or a combination of the two). ForUSA, Canada, Chile, South Africa and Argentina the maximumactual alcohol for exporters wanting to take advantage of theMutual Acceptance Agreement on Oenological Practices is 24%.For EU markets, the maximum is 20% total alcohol - i.e. actualalcohol plus potential alcohol of the unfermented sugars. Specificthresholds apply for product sub-categories such as fortifiedwine and some types of sweet wine. In China, there is a hierarchyof product categories absed on sugar levels.Adjusting alcohol/sugar levelsTechniques for adjusting alcohol (or potential alcohol) and sugarlevels are closely regulated in the EU market in particular. Aspecial guide to adjusting alcohol and sugar levels for the EUmarket is provided at Appendix 4.6 New Zealand Winegrowes I newzealandwine.comVolatile acidityNew Zealand does not directly regulate volatile acidity levels,although excess VA can be a factor that causes a wine tobecome ineligible for export. In EU markets, there are specificlimits for VA that apply to specific types of wine. China has ageneral limit of 1.2 g/l.Sulphur dioxideEvery country has limits on sulphur dioxide. Generally theseare based on total rather than free sulphur dioxide levels andin many markets these will be graduated based on the sugarcontent of the wine. Some countries, notably Taiwan and Japan,do not appear to accommodate very sweet wines in their sulphurdioxide requirements, which can prevent such wines fromentering the market.Addition of tartaric acidThere are a number of forms of tartaric acid, however notall forms of tartaric acid are permitted for winemaking in allmarkets. The relevant forms are: L ( ) tartaric acid - This is the naturally occurring form oftartaric acid. It is occasionally known as dextrotartaric acid ordTartaric acid but should not be confused with D(-) tartaricacid. D (-) tartaric acid - This is the mirror image form. It is alsosometimes known as levotartatic acid and Tartaric acid butshould not be confused with L( ) tartaric acid. Mesotartaric acid - This is the achiral form of tartaric acid. DL tartaric acid - This is a 1:1 mixture of the L( ) and D(-)forms, also known as racemic acid.L( ) tartaric acid is the only form of tartaric acid permitted for allmarkets, including NZ, Australia, Canada, USA and the EU. Somemarkets may permit D(-) tartaric acid, however we recommendthat L( ) tartaric acid should be used in the production of amulti-market wine.DL tartaric acid is also permitted in some markets forstabilisation purposes. Mesotartaric acid is not permitted in anymarket as far as we are aware.Metatartaric acid is a product derived from the heating oftartaric acid, but it is not the same as tartaric acid for thepurpose of winemaking rules. It is permitted in most markets forstabilisation purposes.CopperThe New Zealand limit for copper in wine is good manufacturingpractice, which means the lowest amount necessary to achievea technical function. There are al

2 New Zealand Winegrowes I newzealandwine.com DISCLAIMER Information in this document is prepared by New Zealand Winegrowers for use by members of the New Zealand Grape Growers Council and the Wine Institute of New Zealand only. Material may not be published or reproduced without the permission of New Zealand Winegrowers.

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