2014 Biology Higher Finalised Marking Instructions

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2014 BiologyHigherFinalised Marking Instructions Scottish Qualifications Authority 2014The information in this publication may be reproduced to support SQA qualifications only ona non-commercial basis. If it is to be used for any other purposes written permission must beobtained from SQA’s NQ Assessment team.Where the publication includes materials from sources other than SQA (secondarycopyright), this material should only be reproduced for the purposes of examination orassessment. If it needs to be reproduced for any other purpose it is the centre’sresponsibility to obtain the necessary copyright clearance. SQA’s NQ Assessment team maybe able to direct you to the secondary sources.These Marking Instructions have been prepared by Examination Teams for use by SQAAppointed Markers when marking External Course Assessments. This publication must notbe reproduced for commercial or trade purposes.

Part One: General Marking Principles for: Biology HigherThis information is provided to help you understand the general principles you must applywhen marking candidate responses to questions in this Paper. These principles must beread in conjunction with the specific Marking Instructions for each question.(a)Marks for each candidate response must always be assigned in line with thesegeneral marking principles and the specific Marking Instructions for the relevantquestion. If a specific candidate response does not seem to be covered by either theprinciples or detailed Marking Instructions, and you are uncertain how to assess it,you must seek guidance from your Team Leader/Principal Assessor.(b)Marking should always be positive ie, marks should be awarded for what is correctand not deducted for errors or omissions.GENERAL MARKING ADVICE: Biology HigherThe marking schemes are written to assist in determining the “minimal acceptable answer”rather than listing every possible correct and incorrect answer. The following notes areoffered to support Markers in making judgements on candidates’ evidence, and apply tomarking both end of unit assessments and course assessments.1.There are no half marks. Where three answers are needed for two marks, normallyone or two correct answers gain one mark.2.In the mark scheme, if a word is underlined then it is essential; if a word is(bracketed) then it is not essential.3.In the mark scheme, words separated by / are alternatives.4.If two answers are given which contradict one another the first answer should be taken.However, there are occasions where the second answer negates the first and no marksare given. There is no hard and fast rule here, and professional judgement must beapplied. Good marking schemes should cover these eventualities.5.Where questions in data are in two parts, if the second part of the question is correct inrelation to an incorrect answer given in the first part, then the mark can often be given.The general rule is that candidates should not be penalised repeatedly.6.If a numerical answer is required and units are not given in the stem of the question orin the answer space, candidates must supply the units to gain the mark. If units arerequired on more than one occasion, candidates should not be penalised repeatedly.Page 2

7.Clear indication of understanding is what is required, so: 8.Incorrect spelling is given. Sound out the word(s), 9.if a description or explanation is asked for, a one word answer is not acceptableif the question asks for letters and the candidate gives words and they arecorrect, then give the markif the question asks for a word to be underlined and the candidate circles theword, then give the markif the result of a calculation is in the space provided and not entered into a tableand is clearly the answer, then give the markchemical formulae are acceptable eg CO2, H2Ocontractions used in the Arrangements document eg DNA, ATP are acceptablewords not required in the syllabus can still be given credit if used appropriately egmetaphase of meiosisif the correct item is recognisable then give the markif the word can easily be confused with another biological term then do not givethe mark eg ureter and urethraif the word is a mixture of other biological words then do not give the mark, egmellum, melebrum, amniosynthesisPresentation of data: if a candidate provides two graphs or bar charts (eg one in the question andanother at the end of the booklet), mark both and give the higher scoreif question asks for a line graph and a histogram or bar chart is given, then do notgive the mark(s). Credit can be given for labelling the axes correctly, plotting thepoints, joining the points either with straight lines or curves (best fit rarely used)if the x and y data are transposed, then do not give the markif the graph used less than 50% of the axes, then do not give the markif 0 is plotted when no data is given, then do not give the mark (ie candidatesshould only plot the data given)no distinction is made between bar charts and histograms for marking purposes.(For information: bar charts should be used to show discontinuous features, havedescriptions on the x axis and have separate columns; histograms should beused to show continuous features; have ranges of numbers on the x axis andhave contiguous columns)where data is read off a graph it is often good practice to allow for acceptableminor error. An answer may be given 7 3 0 110.Extended response questions: if candidates give two answers where this is a choice,mark both and give the higher score.11.Annotating scripts: 12.put a 0 in the box if no marks awarded – a mark is required in each boxindicate on the scripts why marks were given for part of a question worth 3 or 2marks. A or x near answers will doTotalling scripts: errors in totalling can be more significant than errors in marking: enter a correct and carefully checked total for each candidatedo not use running totals as these have repeatedly been shown to lead to moreerrorsPage 3

Part Two: Marking Instructions for each QuestionSection AQuestionExpected xMarkPage 4Additional Guidance

QuestionExpected AMaxMarkPage 5Additional Guidance

Section BQuestionAcceptable answer(s)MaxMark1(a)Glycolysis1(b)Pyruvic acid – 3 OR 2x3C OR(2x)3Substance Q – 4Citric acid – 611(c)(d) (i)(d) (ii)Negates2x3 aloneAdditionalother numbers123 2, 1 or 2 11UnacceptableanswerSubstance R – hydrogen/H/H2(NAD) - ignoreReversed answersCarrier – NAD/NADH/NADH2/FAD/FADH/FADH2OR reduced NAD/FADBoth 11Substance S –oxygen/O/O2/O2/O21Role – final/ultimate/lastacceptor of hydrogenORJoins/combines/bonds/fixes withhydrogen to form water/H2OPage 61Final hydrogencarrier/receptorForms with/converts hydrogento water

QuestionAcceptable answer(s)1DifferenceMore cristae(e)MaxMarkUnacceptableanswerNegatesMany cristaeMention ofmatrixOR crista/cristae/innermembranehave a larger surface area/more (highly) folded/moredensely packed/longer/largerin muscle cellreference to muscle could bein explanationOR converse for skin /needs/requires more energy/ATP/powerMore respirationOR produces ATP fasterfor (muscle) contraction/movement/activityFor muscle cellaloneMuscle function1relax not negating2Transmitted/passes through ORreflected/bounces back1Not converse forskin hereOther wronganswersPigment – XJustificationAbsorbs blue and red (light)Absorbs red andblue light aloneAbsorbs very littlegreen lightHigh absorption ofred and blue lightbest/better/more/mainly/at ahigher percentage/greater/higher/more efficiently (thanpigment Y/than green)ORConverse for greenBoth1Violet not negatingPage 7

QuestionAcceptable answer(s)2As wavelength/nm increasesto 550 nm absorption alsoincreases1(c) (i)MaxMarkUnacceptableanswerNegatesDescription ofpigment XDrops at 680nmAs wavelength/nm increasesfurther/over 550 nmabsorption decreasesColours instead ofwavelengthsnm needed at least once550 needed at least onceIncreases thendecreasesno units 12(c) (ii)12Would allow absorption/use ofGets lightLight/wavelengths/coloursAbsorbs green lightaloneBlocked byBy-passesShines throughNot absorbed by/reflectedfrom/transmitted through/notused by/passing through/filteredthrough/transmitted byLarger plants/the canopy/ trees/sun plants/higher leaves/leavesabove3(a)TrueFalseFalseLeaves alonePlants alone1messenger/mRNAnucleotidesRNA aloneAll lines 2, 1 or 2 123(b) (i)40013(b) (ii)13213(c)(rough) ER/endoplasmicreticulumOR vesicles from ERVesicles alone1Smooth not negating3(d)globular – 1, 3 and 4 OR namesfibrous – 2 OR nameAll correct 2, one in wrongcolumn 1Page 82tRNA

QuestionAcceptable answer(s)MaxMark4(a)1·75 g per litre14(b)10 – 20 hours14(c)15·75 - 16 hours14(d)20 g15(a)Have a common/the sameancestor ORevolved/started/came froma single/the same speciesUnacceptableanswer1petals/tube/flower ed to/suitable for/changed to fit/made it easierfor/varied to suit/evolved tosuit/changed /each/different pollinatorsNectar feedinganimalsAnimals aloneOR correctly described allthree flowers and theirpollinators15(b)Interspecific5(c)Energy from nectar/food/pollenmust exceed/be greater than/outweigh/ that used in foraging ORsearching for/obtaining/gaining/finding nectar/food/it21Page 91interspeciesNet energy gainaloneEnergy gain fromfood must not beless than energylost foragingPredators/preyNegates

QuestionAcceptable answer(s)6Increases from 0·12 g per 100 gto 0·14 in/by 2006.Decreases to 0·02 in/by 2011.Remains constant (until 2012).(a) (i)MaxMarkUnacceptableanswerOR using differences but musthave a correct reference pointAll 3 2, 2 1, units requiredonly onceAll figures correct but nounits 1Extra data not negating28:116(a) (ii)6(a) (iii) 2·5 kg16(b) (i)80%16(b) (ii)Plants/they produce/contain/have (Bt)-toxin/poisonOR a toxin/poison isproducedSubstanceHas a gene toproduce toxinso (leaf eating) s/preventsinsects eatingleaves1so morephotosynthesis/energyOR greater surface area (ofleaves) for photosynthesis/energyfor increased yield ORgrowth OR seed productionOR reproduce more61(b) (iii) 25·6 kg21Page 10Negates

QuestionAcceptable answer(s)7Many/some/E. coli/bacteriaresistant and survive/live/donot die(a)MaxMark(b)Immune (penaliseonce)Selectiveadvantage alone1pass on/breed to pass on/multiply to pass onreplicatingresistance/resistance traitOR /mutationsStrong/better/best/goodto offspring/next generation7Unacceptableanswer12Antibiotic – AJustification – there weremore/greater percentage ofIt begins higherA reached a higherresistance quickerresistant (bacteria)Many/largepercentageOR higher resistanceHigher resistancethroughoutat the start/initially/0 months/alreadyAntibiotic and justificationboth correctPage 11After firstinjection/exposure1Negates

QuestionAcceptable sStronger/larger/tallerMore /keptdown/kept in checkKilled/kept back/kept at bay1allowsothers ORless dominant/less vigorous/slower-growing/lessaggressive/less competitiveto survive/grow/thrive/flower/gain light for photosynthesis8(b) (i)More species togrowWeaker/smaller/delicate/fragile1(b) (ii)compete moresuccessfullyThere are survivors/is diversitythe graph does not reach zeroThe graph levelsoff at high grazingintensityat 5-6 (units) of grazing/highgrazing intensities/intensegrazingExtreme grazingintensityOR as grazing (intensity)increases diversity/graph neverreaches zero821Low/underground/basal/deepmeristems/growing points/regions of mitosisOR underground stemsOR deep rootsOR high powers of regenerationLong roots18(c) criptions8(c) ge 12resin

QuestionAcceptable answer(s)9no/lack of sweat glandsOR does not sweatOR dry mouth/nasal s sweatglandsSweat ductsDry ng/large surface area oftubules/loops of HenleReferences toglomeruliBig loops of HenleOR more/high ADHAll 4 2, 2 or 3 19(b) (i)2B, C and FAll 1910(b) (ii)(a) (i)Tubules morepermeableIncreased ADH1A and DBoth 11Letter – AReason – widerOR larger diameter/bore/lumen1Thin wallsLarger aloneLateral meristem10(a) (ii)Cambium110(a) (iii) Annual (growth) c genesare switched on/activatedAND others are switched off/notswitched on/remain switched offOR correct description of geneswhich are switched on and thosewhich are switched off in anamed cellPage 13OtherincorrectanswersDifferent genesswitched on and/oroffUnused genesSome are on andsome are offExpressed notequivalent to on1Otherincorrectanswers

QuestionAcceptable answer(s)11Regulator (gene)(a)MaxMarkswitches on/turns on/activatesstructural gene/gene 2 (and off)UnacceptableanswerControls structuralgeneSwitches offstructural geneBinds torepressor/YStructural (gene)All 3 2, 2 or 1 1211(b)Translation111(c) (i)Lactose111(c) (ii)Saves/conserves/does notwaste/makes efficient use ofresources/energy/ATP/aminoacids/materials1Page 14Protein synthesisOnly makesenzyme whenneededEnzyme notwastedEnergy preserved/reservedDoes not use upresources/energy/ATP/amino acids/materialsNegates

QuestionAcceptable answer(s)12Scales including origin pointand enclosingAND labels from tableincluding units (acceptseconds and sec for s)Plots AND straight lineconnectionIgnore prediction extensionline12(a)(b) (i)MaxMarkDuration ofexercise (s)11(b) (ii)(c)BikePersonFood intakeAir flowHydration levelsOxygen levelsActivity duringrecovery periodWater intake alone2Repeat (experiment) with moresubjects/people/humans/different sexesat least one other personsuggested122Rate/speed/intensity of pedallingOR resistance/gear/effortOR volume of water intakeOR clothing/area of exposedskinOR method of measuring sweatproduction (or description)OR length of recovery periodAny 2 each from a differentcategory12UnacceptableanswerRepeat aloneRepeat experimentRepeat at eachduration ofexercise1Same (surface) area of skinOR per cm2 of skin usedmeasured/used/takenANDsize/height/mass/skin surface/build (of subject) does notmatter/could be different112(d)0·48mg112(e)Any value from 0·45 – 0·48mg1Page 15Different subjectsto be comparedaloneNegates

Question12(f)Acceptable answer(s)(i)MaxMarkEnzymes have an optimumtemperature/temperature atwhich they work best/aredenatured by high temperatures/work slowly at low ermic1Page 16UnacceptableanswerEnzymesare temperaturedependent/arecontrolled/affectedby temperature/work within a rangeof temperatures/work at a specifictemperature/wouldbe denaturedendotermNegates

QuestionAcceptable answer(s)13Repeat exactly/same set up/same experiment/description(a) (i)MaxMarkbut include/with/addmagnesium/all elements/allminerals/all macro-elementsOR without lacking magnesium13(a) (ii)UnacceptableanswerSame set up butuse magnesium1oxygen for respirationBreakdown ofglucoseAerobic respirationaloneAir/it for respirationrespiration releases/ provides/produces energy/ATPATP/energy needed for activeuptake/active transport ORuptake against concentrationgradientAll 3 2, 2 or 1 113132(a) (iii) ChlorosisOR yellow/chlorotic leavesOR lack of me/enzymes1Page 17Hydrogen carriersPrevents anaemiaNegates

QuestionAcceptable answer(s)MaxMark14(a) (i)12 hours (of light in 24 hours)14(a) (ii)Young/offspring/calves/babies/fawnsborn in spring/summerAND when more/sufficient/enough food/grass availableOR weather favourableOR temperature warmer/favourable/higherOR to avoid unfavourableweather/temperature/lack of foodin winter11Children/bambisMonths whenResourcesConditions/climate14(b) (i)Phototropism114(b) (ii)(Shoot grown in) darkness /absence of light/ lacking light1115(a)succession15(b)climax (community)climax vegetation not negating15(c)UnacceptableanswerphototrophismLow light1Final/climax community hasmore complex/stable food websLarger food websReferences to soilOR larger/higher increasedbiomassLarger massLarger plantsOR greater species diversity/biodiversity/ number of species/range of speciesHigher diversityIncreased plantdiversityGreater variety oflifeOR conversesmust be comparativeAny 11Page 18DynamicequilibriumClimax would notbe succeededNegates

Section C1A(i)1occurrence is random and at low frequency/rare/not frequent12mutagenic agents increase/speed up the rate/frequency/likelihoodof/chance of/ occurrence of mutationNOT cause/induce mutation alone13they include chemical (agent)s/colchicine/mustard gas/benzeneNOT tars/petrochemicals/cigarette smoke etc14Radiation OR X-rays OR UV light/radiation1Any 3(ii)Max 3 (from 4)5include inversion/substitution/deletion/insertion (any 2)NOTE - accept phonetic endings eg sion for tion16the other two17description of one named mutation in terms of bases/nucleotideseg inversion – bases/nucleotides rotate through 180o/swivel/flip roundeg substitution – base/nucleotide/named bases substituted/swapped/replaced by anothereg – insertion base/nucleotide/named base inserted/placed intosequenceeg – deletion base/nucleotide/named base deleted/removedNOTE - could be shown in diagrams but note that bases/nucleotidesmust be labelled as such or named18another description19inversion and substitutionchange/affectone/two/a few bases/nucleotides OR one/two codons/tripletsOR are point mutations110deletion and insertionchange/affectall/every/each codon/triplet after mutation/from the mutation onOR are frame-shift mutations111point mutations/inversion/substitution change one/two amino acids112point mutations/inversion/substitution cause minor changesto the protein structure/function113frame shift/deletion/ insertion change all amino acids after the mutation114frame shift/deletion/insertion cause major changesto protein structure/function1Any 7Max 7 (from 10)Total 10Page 19

1B(i)1xerophytes live in arid/dry places/habitatsOR in deserts/places with water shortage/places where transpirationrates are highNOT windy/hot12xerophytes are adapted to reduce water loss/transpiration/evaporationNOT stops/prevents water loss/transpiration/evaporationOR low water availability13one adaptation, ie reduced surface area/small leaves/few leaves/leaves reduced to spines/few stomata/thick (waxy) cuticle/reversedstomatal rhythm or description of reversed stomatal rhythm14and its explanation, ie reduction of evaporation/transpirationNOT stops/prevents water loss/transpiration/evaporation15second adaptation, ie sunken stomata OR stomata in pits OR rolled/hairy leaves16and its explanation, ie reduces air movements/effect of windOR traps moist/damp air OR traps water vapour NOT moisture/waterOR traps/increases humidity17third adaptation, ie root (system) superficial/shallow/near the surfaceOR deep roots NOT long roots aloneNOTE long roots to reach deep water 7 and 8OR succulent tissues18and its explanation, ie superficial/shallow collects water whenavailable/after rain OR before water evaporates/drainsOR deep roots collect water from deep in ground/water tableOR succulent tissue to store water1Any 6(ii)Max 6 (from 8)9hydrophytes are plants adapted for life/growth(submerged) in water OR hydrophytes live in water/ponds/lochs/etc110one adaptation, floating leaves/air spaces in leaves/air bladdersOR stomata on upper surface111and its explanation, ie keep leaves in light/air/on surfaceOR keeps stomata in the air112allowing photosynthesis/gas exchangeOR allowing gas exchange(10, 11 and 12 must match up)113a second adaptation, ie flexible stems OR flexible petioles/leaf stalksOR central(ly located) xylem vessel

Page 2 Part One: General Marking Principles for: Biology Higher This information is provided to help you understand the general principles you must apply when marking candidate responses to questions in this Paper. These principles must be read in conjunction with the specific Marking Instructions for each question.

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