Encountering The Old Testament

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Encounteringthe Old TestamentBill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.

To Susan and Yvonnewith loveProverbs 31:10Encountering Biblical StudiesWalter A. Elwell, General Editor and New Testament EditorEugene H. Merrill, Old Testament EditorEncountering the Old Testament: A Christian Survey, Second EditionBill T. Arnold and Bryan E. BeyerReadings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sourcesfor Old Testament StudyBill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, editorsEncountering the New Testament: A Historical and Theological Survey,Second EditionWalter A. Elwell and Robert W. YarbroughReadings from the First-Century World: Primary Sources for NewTestament StudyWalter A. Elwell and Robert W. Yarbrough, editorsEncountering the Book of Genesis: A Study of Its Content and IssuesBill T. ArnoldEncountering the Book of Psalms: A Literary and Theological IntroductionC. Hassell BullockEncountering the Book of Isaiah: A Historical and Theological SurveyBryan E. BeyerEncountering John: The Gospel in Historical, Literary,and Theological PerspectiveAndreas J. KöstenbergerEncountering the Book of Romans: A Theological SurveyDouglas J. MooEncountering the Book of Hebrews: An ExpositionDonald A. HagnerBill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.

Encounteringthe Old TestamentA Christian SurveySecond EditionBill T. Arnoldand Bryan E. BeyerKBill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.

Book copyright 1999, 2008 Bill T. Arnoldand Bryan E. BeyerDesign copyright Angus Hudson Ltd/Tim Dowley & Peter Wyart trading asThree’s Company 1998;and Baker Book House CompanyPublished by Baker Academic, a divisionof Baker Publishing GroupP.O. Box 6287,Grand Rapids MI 49516-6287 USAwww.bakeracademic.comCD-ROM copyright 1999, 2008Baker Book House CompanyISBN 978-0-8010-0301-1All rights reserved. No part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—for example, electronic, photocopy, recording—without the prior written permission of the publisher. The only exception isbrief quotations in printed reviews.Designed by Peter Wyart, Three’s Company, and DanMalda, Baker Book House CompanyWorldwide coedition organized byLion Hudson PLC,Wilkinson House, Jordan Hill Road,Oxford, OX2 8DR, ure quotations labeled NRSV are from the NewRevised Standard Version of the Bible, copyright 1989, by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the UnitedStates of America. Used by permission. All rightsreserved.Picture AcknowledgmentsIllustrationsAlan Parry: pp. 151, 227, 330, 389PhotographsBible Scene Slide Tours: pp. 132, 135British Museum: 25, 55, 81, 159, 163, 241, 244, 245, 246,255, 258, 264, 284, 338, 343, 349, 371, 399, 429, 457Tim Dowley Associates: pp. 39, 43, 49, 50, 61, 65, 95,110, 118, 131, 136, 142, 161, 162, 168, 170, 174, 176, 189,198, 201, 204, 211, 217, 223, 225, 232, 239, 253, 271, 295,305, 309, 320, 328, 332, 401, 413, 419, 423, 443, 452, 467,469Jamie Simson: pp. 67, 90, 252, 254, 280, 345, 433Peter Wyart: pp. 3, 26, 27, 62, 97, 105, 155, 156, 177, 182,183, 185, 187, 197, 203, 243, 257, 269, 279, 283, 290, 293,294, 297, 314, 327, 337, 355, 361, 377, 387, 397, 408Zev Radovan: pp. 373, 459Dr. James C. Martin: pp. 121 (Copyright PBT & Dr.James C. Martin. Mus’ee du Louvre; Authorisation dephotographer et de filmer.), 145PhoenixDataSystems.com, Neal and Joel Bierling: 306Printed in SingaporeUnless otherwise indicated, Scripture quotations arefrom the HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONALVERSION . NIV . Copyright 1973, 1978, 1984 byInternational Bible Society. Used by permission ofZondervan. All rights reserved.Scripture quotations labeled NLT are from the HolyBible, New Living Translation, copyright 1996. Usedby permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.,Wheaton, Illinois 60189. All rights reserved.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataArnold, Bill T.Encountering the Old Testament : a Christian survey / Bill T.Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer. — 2nd ed.p.      cm.Includes bibliographical references (p.   ) and indexes.ISBN 978-0-8010-3170-0 (cloth)1. Bible. O.T.—Textbooks. I. Beyer, Bryan. II. Title.BS1140.3.A76   2008221.6’1—dc222007042455Bill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.

Contents in BriefPreface 13To the Professor 15To the Student 17Abbreviations 191. What Is the Old Testamentand Why Study It? 212. Where and When Did theEvents of the Old TestamentTake Place? 35Part 1Encountering the Pentateuch3. Introduction to the Pentateuch:The Birth of God’s People 634. Genesis 1–11: The Preludeto Israel 775. Genesis 12–50: The Patriarchs:Ancestors of Israel’s Faith 896. Exodus: A Miraculous Escape 1037. Leviticus: Instructionsfor Holy Living 1178. Numbers: Failure in the Desert 1279. Deuteronomy: Restoringthe Covenant 141Part 2Encountering the Historical Books10. Introduction to the HistoricalBooks: The Historyof Israel’s Nationhood 15711. Joshua: Conquest and Division 16712. Judges and Ruth:Israel’s Moral Crisis 18113. First Samuel: God Grantsa King 19514. Second Samuel: David’sReign 20915. First Kings: The Glory of Solomonand the Beginning of the End 22116. Second Kings: The End ofNational Israel 23717. First and Second Chronicles: ALook Back 25118. Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther:A Time to Rebuild 263Part 3Encountering the Poetical Books19. Introduction to the PoeticalBooks: The Literatureof God’s People 28120. Job: One Man’s Searchfor Justice 28921. Psalms: The Songbookof Ancient Israel 30322. Proverbs: Advice on Livingin God’s World 31323. Ecclesiastes and Song of Songs:Israelite Faith in Everyday Life 325Part 4Encountering the Prophets24. Introduction to the Prophets:Voices of God’s Servants 33925. Isaiah 1–39: Prophet of Judah’sRoyal Court 35326. Isaiah 40–66: Great DaysAre Coming! 36927. Jeremiah 1–20: Strugglingwith God’s Call 38328. Jeremiah 21–52 and Lamentations:Dealing with Disaster 39329. Ezekiel 1–24: Rough DaysAre Coming! 40730. Ezekiel 25–48: God’s Planning anExciting Future! 41731. Daniel: The Kingdom of God—Now and Forever 42732. Hosea, Joel, and Amos: A Callfor Repentance and a Promisefor Blessing 43933. Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum,Habakkuk, and Zephaniah:God’s Plan for the Nations 45134. Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi:Rebuilding a People 463Epilogue 475Glossary   477Notes 491Subject Index 502Scripture Index 514Name Index 524Bill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.5

Bill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.

ContentsPreface 13To the Professor 15To the Student 17Abbreviations 191. What Is theOld Testamentand Why Study It? 21OutlineObjectivesCanon: What Is the Bible? Definition of “Canon”Tests for CanonicityThe Formation of the CanonHebrew and English BookOrderInspiration: How Wasthe Bible Written? Neo-Orthodox TheoryDictation TheoryLimited Inspiration TheoryPlenary Verbal InspirationTheoryTextual Transmission: HowDid We Get the Bible? Scribal Care of the OldTestament Text Transmission in the OriginalLanguages Transmission in OtherLanguagesHermeneutics: How Do WeInterpret the Bible? Use the GrammaticalHistorical Method Understand the Context Determine the Type ofLiterature Interpret Figurative Language Let Scripture InterpretScripture Discover the Application toModern LifeSummaryKey TermsKey PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading2. Where and When Didthe Events of the OldTestament Take Place? 35OutlineObjectivesWhere Did the Eventsof the Old TestamentTake Place? Three Regions of the AncientNear East Four Subregions of Israel Highways of the Ancient NearEastWhat Events Does theOld Testament Describe? Israel’s Ancestry:The Patriarchs Israel’s Beginnings:Moses and Joshua Israel’s Statehood:David and His Dynasty Israel’s Exile and Restoration:Ezra and NehemiahSummaryKey TermsKey People/PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther ReadingPart 1Encounteringthe Pentateuch3. Introduction to thePentateuch: The Birthof God’s People 63OutlineObjectivesWhat Is the Pentateuch?What Is the PentateuchAbout?What Are the OverarchingThemes of the Pentateuch? Sovereignty of GodHistoryFallen Condition of HumanitySalvationHolinessWho Wrote the Pentateuch? Authorship and TraditionalConsensus Modern Critical ApproachesSummaryKey TermsKey PeopleStudy QuestionsFurther Reading4. Genesis 1–11:The Prelude to Israel 77OutlineObjectivesPrimeval Historyand Its NatureContents of Genesis 1–11 Outline Creation and Its Nature(chapters 1–2) Sin and Its Nature(chapters 3–11)SummaryKey TermsKey PlaceStudy QuestionsFurther Reading5. Genesis 12–50:The Patriarchs: Ancestorsof Israel’s Faith 89OutlineObjectivesBackground of thePatriarchal NarrativesThe Story of the Patriarchs Outline Abraham and Isaac (12–25) Jacob and His Twelve Sons(25:19–36:43) Joseph (37:1–50:26)Theology of the PatriarchalNarratives Election Promise CovenantSummaryKey TermsKey People/PlacesBill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.7

ContentsStudy QuestionsFurther Reading6. Exodus: A MiraculousEscape 103OutlineObjectivesContents of the Bookof Exodus Outline The Events of the ExodusHistorical Problemsof the Exodus Historicity of the Exodus Date of the Exodus Route of the ExodusTheological Significanceof the Exodus Deliverance Covenant Presence of GodSummaryKey TermsKey PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading7. Leviticus: Instructionsfor Holy Living 117OutlineObjectivesBackground of the Bookof LeviticusContents of Leviticus Outline OverviewThemes of Leviticus Law Sacrifice HolinessSummaryKey TermsStudy QuestionsFurther Reading8. Numbers: Failurein the Desert 127OutlineObjectivesContents of the Bookof Numbers 8Literary StructureThe Book’s Use of NumbersOutlineOverviewUse of the Book of Numbersin the New Testament First Corinthians 10 HebrewsSummaryKey TermKey Person/PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading9. Deuteronomy: Restoringthe Covenant 141OutlineObjectivesContents of the Bookof Deuteronomy Literary Structure Outline OverviewParallels from theAncient World The Hittite Parallels Treaty Structure inDeuteronomySignificance of Deuteronomyin Biblical Thought Role of Deuteronomy in thePentateuch Deuteronomy and theHistorical BooksSummaryKey TermsKey Person/PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther ReadingPart 2Encountering theHistorical Books10. Introduction to theHistorical Books:The History of Israel’sNationhood 157OutlineObjectivesContents of the HistoricalBooksThe Role of Historyin the Bible Herodotus, the Father ofHistory? The Jewish Canon and theChristian Canon History and TheologyAuthorship ofthe Historical Books The DeuteronomisticHistory Chronicles and Ezra–Nehemiah Ruth and EstherSummaryKey TermsKey PeopleStudy QuestionsFurther Reading11. Joshua: Conquestand Division 167OutlineObjectivesOutlineBackground of the Bookof Joshua Joshua the Man Date and Authorship Archaeology and the Bookof Joshua Themes of JoshuaMessage of the Bookof Joshua Israel Conquers the Land(chapters 1–12) Israel Divides the Land(chapters 13–21) Israel Begins to Settleinto the Land (chapters 22–24)SummaryKey TermKey PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading12. Judges and Ruth:Israel’s Moral Crisis 181OutlineObjectivesThe Book of JudgesContents Outline OverviewHistorical Problemsin Judges Chronology Political StructureThe Book of RuthContents Literary Structure Outline OverviewBill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.

ContentsThe Sovereignty of Godand Faithful LivingSummaryKey TermsStudy QuestionsFurther Reading13. First Samuel: God Grantsa King 195OutlineObjectivesOutlineBackground of 1 Samuel Setting Authorship and Date Themes of 1 SamuelMessage of 1 Samuel A Period of Transition(chapters 1–15) David’s Rise and Saul’sDecline (chapters 16–31)SummaryKey PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading14. Second Samuel:David’s Reign 209OutlineObjectivesOutlineBackground of 2 Samuel Setting Authorship and Date Themes of 2 SamuelMessage of 2 SamuelContents of 1 KingsThe Book of Esther Outline Overview ContentsSummaryKey TermsKey Person/PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading Ezra and Nehemiah Esther16. Second Kings: The Endof National Israel 237OutlineObjectivesContents of 2 Kings Outline OverviewThemes of the Booksof KingsSummaryKey TermsKey People/PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading17. First and SecondChronicles: A LookBack 251OutlineObjectivesThe Author and His PurposeChronicles and the Canon Location in the Canon Relationship to Samueland KingsContents of 1 and2 Chronicles David’s Rise to Power in Judah(chapters 1–4) David’s Reign over All Israel(chapters 5–24) Outline OverviewSummaryKey TermsKey People/PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading David and His Dynasty The Temple and the Worshipof God15. First Kings:The Glory of Solomonand the Beginningof the End 221OutlineObjectivesThe Author and His Method Retribution Theology Regnal Formula and Sources Historical Perspectivefrom the ExileThemes of the Booksof ChroniclesSummaryKey TermsStudy QuestionsFurther Reading18. Ezra, Nehemiah,and Esther:A Time to Rebuild 263OutlineObjectivesThe Books of Ezraand Nehemiah Contents Problems of InterpretationTheological ThemesSummaryKey TermsStudy QuestionsFurther ReadingPart 3Encountering thePoetical Books19. Introductionto the Poetical Books:The Literatureof God’s People 281OutlineObjectivesWhat Are thePoetical Books?Common Characteristicsof Hebrew Poetry MeterParallelismChiasmAcrosticsUgaritic ParallelsThe Poetical BooksThemselvesSummaryKey TermsKey PlaceStudy QuestionsFurther Reading20. Job: One Man’sSearch for Justice 289OutlineObjectivesIntroduction toWisdom Literature Ancient Near Eastern WisdomLiterature Old Testament WisdomLiteratureContents of the Book of Job Outline OverviewThe Author and His TimesTheological ThemesSummaryKey TermsKey Person/PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther ReadingBill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.9

Contents21. Psalms: The Songbook ofAncient Israel 303OutlineObjectivesBackground to the Psalms The Name “Psalms” Authorship of the Psalms The Unique Place of thePsalms in ScriptureThe Division of the Psalms The Basic Arrangement Theories on the Psalms’ArrangementPsalm TitlesClassification of the Psalms HymnsPenitential PsalmsWisdom PsalmsRoyal PsalmsMessianic PsalmsImprecatory PsalmsLament PsalmsThe Psalmsand the ChristianSummaryKey TermsKey PersonStudy QuestionsFurther Reading22. Proverbs:Advice on Livingin God’s World 313OutlineObjectivesWhat Is a “Proverb”?Contents of the Bookof Proverbs Outline OverviewAuthorshipTheological ThemesSummaryKey TermsKey PersonStudy QuestionsFurther Reading23. Ecclesiastes and Songof Songs: Israelite Faithin Everyday Life 325OutlineObjectivesThe Book of Ecclesiastes Contents Authorship10The Song of Songs Contents AuthorshipTheological Themes Ecclesiastes Song of SongsSummaryKey TermsKey PeopleStudy QuestionsFurther ReadingPart 4Encounteringthe Prophets24. Introduction to theProphets: Voices of God’sServants 339OutlineObjectivesProphecy’s Biblical Heritage How Do the Prophets Fit intoGod’s Unfolding Purpose? Who Were Prophecy’s“Founding Fathers”?The Nature of Prophecy The Hebrew Terms for“Prophet” What Are Some CommonWrong Ideas about theProphets? How Are All theProphets Alike? Did Other NationsHave Prophets? Did All ProphetsWrite Down Their Messages? How Was ProphecyPassed Down to Us? What Are Some CommonThemes of the Prophets’Writings?The Historical Settingof the Classical Prophets The Assyrians The Babylonians The PersiansSummaryKey TermsKey People/PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading25. Isaiah 1–39: Prophet ofJudah’s Royal Court 353OutlineObjectivesOutlineBackground of the Bookof Isaiah Isaiah the ManIsaiah’s TimesAuthorship and DateThemes of the Book of IsaiahMessage of the Bookof Isaiah Opening Words to Judah(1:1–31) God’s Judgment Revealed(2:1–5:30) Isaiah’s Call (6:1–13) The Sign of Immanuel (7:1–17) The Coming Assyrian Invasion(7:18–8:22) Description of theMessianic Era (9:1–7) Judgment against Israeland Assyria (9:8–10:34) Further Description of theMessianic Era (11:1–12:6) Oracles against the Nations(13:1–23:18) The “Little Apocalypse”(24:1–27:13) Oracles of Woe (28:1–33:24) Eschatological Summation(34:1–35:10) Historical Interlude: Highlightsand Lowlights fromHezekiah’s Reign (36:1–39:8)SummaryKey TermsKey People/PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading26. Isaiah 40–66: Great DaysAre Coming! 369OutlineObjectivesOutlineWho Wrote Isaiah 40–66? Multiple-Author View One-Author ViewThe Servant Passagesin Isaiah 40–66Isaiah’s Message Continues Comfort, O ComfortMy People (40:1–31) The Coming Deliverance(41:1–29) The Role of the Lord’s Servant(42:1–25)Bill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.

Contents Israel’s Redemptionfrom Babylon (43:1–45:25) Judgment against Babylon(46:1–47:15) Israel’s Release and Exaltation(48:1–52:12) The Suffering Servant(52:13–53:12) Celebrating the Return(54:1–59:21) The Climax ofGod’s Restoration (60:1–66:24)SummaryKey TermsStudy QuestionsFurther Reading27. Jeremiah 1–20:Strugglingwith God’s Call 383OutlineObjectivesOutlineJeremiah’s BackgroundJeremiah’s Message God Calls Jeremiah to Service(1:1–19) Jeremiah Describes Judah’sSad Condition (2:1–10:25) Jeremiah Wrestles with Peopleand with God (11:1–20:18)SummaryKey Person/PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading28. Jeremiah 21–52 andLamentations: Dealingwith Disaster 393OutlineObjectivesOutlineJeremiah’s MessageContinues (21:1–52:34) Jeremiah Challenges Rulersand Prophets (21:1–29:32) The Book of Comfort(30:1–33:26) The Failure of Jerusalem’sLeadership (34:1–39:18) Jerusalem after Its Fall(40:1–45:5) Oracles about the Nations(46:1–51:64) Jerusalem’s Fall Revisited(52:1–34)Lamentations:A Cry of AgonyDaniel as ApocalypticLiterature Outline The Background ofLamentations The Message of Lamentations Uniqueness of ApocalypticLiterature Characteristics of ApocalypticLiterature “Biblical” ApocalypticSummaryStudy QuestionsFurther Reading29. Ezekiel 1–24: Rough DaysAre Coming! 407OutlineObjectivesOutlineBackground of EzekielMessage of Ezekiel Oracles and Events Relatingto Ezekiel’s Call (1:1–5:17) The Day of the Lord (6:1–7:27) God’s Glory Departs(8:1–11:25) Judgment against Jerusalem(12:1–24:27)SummaryKey TermsKey PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading30. Ezekiel 25–48:God’s Planning anExciting Future! 417OutlineObjectivesOutlineEzekiel’s Message Continues(25:1–48:35) Oracles against the Nations(25:1–32:32) Israel’s Restoration(33:1–39:29) Israel’s New Temple(40:1–48:35)SummaryKey TermsKey PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading31. Daniel:The Kingdom of God—Now and Forever 427OutlineObjectivesContents of the Bookof Daniel Outline OverviewThe Theological Themesof Daniel The Sovereignty of God The Pride of Humankind The Ultimate Victory ofGod’s SaintsProblems of Interpretation BilingualismIdentity of the Four KingdomsVision of the “Seventy Weeks”Historical QuestionsDate of CompositionSummaryKey TermsKey People/PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading32. Hosea, Joel, and Amos:A Call for Repentanceand a Promisefor Blessing 439OutlineObjectivesHosea: Sharing God’sHeartache OutlineThe ManHis TimesMajor Themes of the BookContent of the BookHosea and the New TestamentJoel: The Day of the Lord Outline Joel’s Background Joel’s MessageAmos: Shepherdfor Social Justice Outline Amos’s Background Amos’s MessageSummaryKey TermsKey People/PlaceStudy QuestionsFurther ReadingBill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.11

Contents33. Obadiah, Jonah, Micah,Nahum, Habakkuk, andZephaniah: God’s Planfor the Nations 451OutlineObjectivesObadiah: Edom Will Fall! Outline Obadiah’s MessageJonah: Running awayfrom God Outline Jonah’s Background Jonah’s MessageMicah: Zealot for TrueCovenant Living Outline Micah’s Background Micah’s MessageNahum: Nineveh Will Fall! Outline Nahum’s Background Nahum’s MessageHabakkuk: Lord,What’s Going On? Outline12 Habakkuk’s Background Habakkuk’s MessageZephaniah: God Will JudgeAll the Earth! Outline Zephaniah’s Background Zephaniah’s MessageSummaryKey TermsKey People/PlacesStudy QuestionsFurther Reading34. Haggai, Zechariah,and Malachi:Rebuilding a People 463OutlineObjectivesHaggai: Dealing withPeople Who Just Don’tCare Zechariah’s Background Zechariah’s MessageMalachi: Give GodYour Best! Outline Malachi’s MessageSummaryKey TermKey People/PlaceStudy QuestionsFurther ReadingEpilogue 475Glossary   477Notes 491Subject Index 502Scripture Index 514Name Index 524 Outline Haggai’s Background Haggai’s MessageZechariah: Get Readyfor God’s Kingdom! OutlineBill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.

PrefaceWe are grateful for the good reception En countering the Old Testament has receivedsince its publication in 1999. We appreciatively acknowledge those who havewritten with comments and insights; webelieve your constructive criticism hasfurther strengthened the work.Some readers may be interested to knowwhich author wrote individual chapters.Dr. Arnold wrote the introductory chapter on history and geography (chapter 2),all the chapters on the Pentateuch (chapters 3–9), and the Historical Books exceptJoshua and the Books of Samuel (chapters10, 12, and 15–18). He also is responsiblefor the chapters on Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and the Epilogue(chapters 20 and 22–23). Dr. Beyer wrotethe introductory chapter on the origin,inspiration, and interpretation of the OldTestament (chapter 1) and the chapters onJoshua and the Books of Samuel (chapters11 and 13–14). In addition to the PoeticalBooks introduction (chapter 19), he wroteon the Psalms (chapter 21) and all thechapters on the Prophets except Daniel(chapters 24–30 and 32–34). The chapteron Daniel (chapter 31) was a collaborativeeffort, although on all the other chaptersthe authors also gave each other the opportunity for review and comment priorto submission.The people at Baker Academic havebeen most helpful as we have prepared thesecond edition. We are grateful for theirencouragement and professionalism.Student assistants and secretaries assisted in various ways in the preparationof the manuscript. For the first edition,Dr. Arnold’s assistants were Joel R. Soza,Michael K. West, and Robert W. Wilcher;Dr. Beyer’s were Cheryl Brannan, Chandra Briggman, and Judy Peinado. JoyceHack and Jason Conrad also assisted Dr.Beyer on the manuscript preparation forthe second edition. Our thanks to all ofyou.As this second edition goes to press,we both know the joy of over thirtyyears of marriage. To Susan Arnold andYvonne Beyer go our continued love andgratitude.Bill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.13

Bill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.

To the ProfessorThis book targets primarily students whowill be taking their first course on thistopic. Although we originally wrote thebook with undergraduates in mind, weare pleased a number of graduate schoolsand seminaries have also found it useful.We hope this second edition will continueto satisfy both audiences.We have also provided a glossary thatclarifies difficult terms with which thereader may be unfamiliar. Study questions at the end of each chapter guide thereader and bring key points of the chapterinto focus. Finally, a “Further Reading”list at the end of each chapter providessuggestions for students who want moreinformation on any given topic. We hopeto stretch students’ thinking, whatevertheir backgrounds.The underlying slant of this bookis broadly evangelical. We believe theScriptures not only spoke to their original audience, but that they continue tospeak to us today. At the same time, werecognize that people from many Christian denominations will use this book.Consequently, when we discuss issueson which evangelicals have agreed to disagree, we have often chosen to survey thebasic interpretations and let the particularemphasis lie with the professor.The survey follows the canonical orderof the English Bible. We have foundthrough our research that most teachersprefer this. However, the chapter divisions make it easy for one to follow eithera canonical or chronological approach.Outlines for each Old Testament bookare taken (with some modification) fromthe Evangelical Commentary on the Bible,ed. Walter Elwell (Grand Rapids: Baker,1989). Readers seeking verse-by-versecommentary not provided by this survey may be referred to this volume forfurther study.Baker Academic has worked with usto produce a well-illustrated survey.Illustrative materials such as charts, maps,and graphs comprise approximately 20percent of the volume. The color formatmakes the book more “user-friendly” toa generation that has experienced muchin the way of technological improvement.We want to give students the feeling that“they are there” as much as possible, tohelp them see the images the Bible socarefully paints.We have also highlighted the relevanceof the Old Testament by placing strategic“sidebars” within the text. These sidebars apply the text directly to pertinentissues of today. They help the reader understand that the Bible spoke not onlythen, but still speaks today. To this end,we have also interwoven applicationmaterial as appropriate in the body ofthe text.Finally, professors will want to beaware of three items that supplementEncountering the Old Testament. The firstitem, the instructor’s manual, is availableon a compact disc, the second is a compactdisc attached to the back of the book, andthe third is a paperback volume.1. Instructor’s Resource Manual withTest Items. In addition to includingobjective-type test items, this resource includes suggestions for using the textbook, chapter outlines, chapter objectives, chapter summaries, key terms,master transparencies, lecture outlines,and media resources.2. Student’s Multimedia Interactive CDROM. Developed by biblical scholarChris Miller and educational specialistPhil Bassett, this product provides video clips of interviews with the authors video clips of biblical lands still photos of biblical lands mapsBill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.15

To the Professor interactive review questions visual organizers3. Readings from the Ancient Near East:Primary Sources for Old Testament Study(RANE). This is a collection of primary source readings related to theOld Testament. These readings are arranged in canonical order. This volume provides translations of ancient16Near Eastern documents that are useful to read hand-in-hand with the OldTestament.It is our hope and prayer that Encoun tering the Old Testament will help studentsgain a deeper love and appreciation forthe message that impacts every one ofus—the message of the Bible.Bill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd edition: A Christian Survey,Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Used by permission.

To the StudentEthical and theological issuesPrimary sourcematerialFocus box: keyissues and relevantapplicationsEncountering the Old Testament in a systematic way for the first time is an excitingexperience. It can also be overwhelmingbecause there is so much to learn. Youneed to learn not only the content of theOld Testament but also a good deal aboutthe Near Eastern world.The purpose of this textbook is to makethat encounter a little less daunting. Toaccomplish this a number of learning aidshave been incorporated into the text. Wesuggest you familiarize yourself with thistextbook by reading the following introductory material, which explains whatlearning aids have been provided.SidebarsKey terms, people,and placesStudy questionsMaterial in yellow-colored boxes isolatescontemporary issues of concern andshows how the Old Testament speaks tothese pressing ethical and theological issues. Some of these boxes contain quotesfrom various authors, whether ancientor modern, whose thoughts shed lighton the Old Testament material underdiscussion.Focus BoxesThese boxes add interest and relevanceto the text by providing practical applications or devotional thoughts.Chapter OutlinesFurther readi

Walter A. Elwell, General Editor and New Testament Editor Eugene H. Merrill, Old Testament Editor Encountering the Old Testament: A Christian Survey, Second Edition Bill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer Readings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study Bill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, editors

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