National Science Technology And Innovation Policy Draft 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTSFOREWORDEXECUTIVE SUMMARY . 4CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION . 61.1Background . 61.2Existing Institutional Arrangements for Science, Technology and Innovation . 91.3What Constraints have limited STI Application? . 101.4Justification for Science, Technology and Innovation Policy . 11CHAPTER 2: VISION, GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPLES . 122.1. Vision . 122.2. Goal . 132.3. Objectives. 132.3.1Long-term Objectives . 132.3.2Medium-Term Objectives . 132.3.3Short-Term Objectives . 142.4. Guiding Principles . 14CHAPTER 3: SECTOR-SPECIFIC POLICIES AND MEASURES TO APPLY SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY ANDINNOVATION . 153.1 Agriculture . 153.1.1Objective . 153.2.1 Strategies . 153.2 Health . 163.2.1 Objective . 163.2.2Strategies . 163.3 Education . 173.3.1Objective . 173.3.2Strategies . 173.4 Energy . 183.4.1Objective . 183.4.1Strategies . 183.5 Industry . 183.5.1Objective . 183.5.2Strategies . 193.6 Trade . 203.6.1Objective . 203.6.2Strategies . 203.7 Environment . 203.7.1Objective . 203.7.2Strategies . 20NATIONAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION POLICY2

3.8 Human Settlements . 213.8.1Objective . 213.8.2Strategies . 213.9 Natural Resources (Land, Minerals, Water, Oil, Gas, Wildlife, Etc.) . 223.9.1Objectives . 223.8.2Strategies . 223.10Science Acculturation . 233.10.1Objective . 233.10.2Strategies . 233.11Information and Communications Technologies . 243.11.1Objective . 243.11.2Strategies . 243.12Building and Construction. 243.12.1Objectives . 243.12.2Strategies . 253.13Science, Technology and Innovation and National Security . 253.13.1Objectives . 253.13.2Strategies . 253.14Nuclear Science and Technology . 263.14.1Objective . 263.14.2Strategies . 263.15Basic Research . 263.15.1Objective . 263.15.2Strategies . 273.16Sports and Recreation. 273.16.1Objective . 273.16.2Strategies . 273.17Youth Innovation . 273.17.1Objective . 273.17.2Strategies . 283.18Roads and Transport . 283.18.1Objective . 283.18.2Strategies . 283.19Tourism . 283.19.1Objective . 283.19.2Strategies . 29CHAPTER 4: MANAGING SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION POLICY . 294.1The Policy, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Directorate. 304.2Measuring the Performance of Science and Technology . 324.3Promoting the Development and Utilisation of STI Capabilities . 334.4Promoting Science and Technology Capacity Building . 334.5Strengthening National Engineering Design Capacity . 344.6Strengthening the Protection of Intellectual and Innovative Property Rights . 34NATIONAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION POLICY3

4.7Promoting participation of Women in Science and Technology . 344.8Promoting International and Local Co-operation and Linkages . 354.9Promoting a Science and Technology Culture . 35CHAPTER 5: MECHANISMS FOR FINANCING, MANAGEMENT AND EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCEOF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY . 355.1Financing Science and Technology . 36APPENDIX 1 – THE STI ORGANISATIONAL FRAMEWORK IN GHANA. 37APPENDIX II - SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT AND PROMOTION INSTITUTIONS . 37EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroductionAt the dawn of independence in 1957, Ghana nursed the dream of rapid social and economicdevelopment using knowledge and tools derived from Science and Technology (S & T). In spiteof the post-independence push to create the current S & T capacity, there has been noremarkable progress in ensuring that Science, Technology and Innovation drive socio-economicactivities. A major cause is the absence of a definitive and prescriptive National STI policydocument which defined the vision, goals, objectives and priorities for investment in STI. ANational Science and Technology Policy would commit government, the productive sector of theeconomy, science and technology sector institutions to targets for production, processing,research and development (R&D) and innovation.The existing Science and Technology (S&T) policy was adopted as a national document in 2000.The policy was however not implemented. More importantly, advances in S&T with wideapplications, such as innovations in ICT and Internet applications as well as emerging trends inBiotechnology and nanotechnology make it imperative for Ghana to review the S&T policy. It isin the context of the above that this Draft National Science, Technology and Innovation Policywas crafted for adoption. It has benefited from earlier documents and was reviewed by a crosssection of the science and technology community including social scientists. Unlike previousdocuments the concept of innovation is strongly welded into this new framework of actions,policies and programmes to apply science and technology to achieve social and economicobjectives. This has come from the realization worldwide that technologies are able to bringabout desired changes only when they are fully integrated into local systems and practiceswhich may not necessarily have emerged from R&D. In this sense, innovation is a critical driverfor socio-economic and sustainable development.Vision, Goals, ObjectivesNATIONAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION POLICY4

The vision for which Ghana applies STI remains that of becoming a middle–income economy inthe shortest possible time. The goal of the STI policy which is fully integrated into a nationaldevelopment strategy would harness the nation’s total science and technology capacity toachieve national objectives for poverty reduction, competitiveness of enterprises, sustainableenvironmental management and industrial growth. Specific objectives are among others to:i.ii.iii.facilitate mastering of scientific and technological capabilities;provide the framework for inter-institutional efforts in developing STI andprogrammes in all sectors of the economy to provide the basic needs of thesociety;create the conditions for the improvement of scientific and technologicalinfrastructure for research and development and innovation.The policy will be driven on the principles of relevance, realism, cost-effectiveness, synergy andpartnership.Sector-Specific Policy StrategiesThe principal thrust of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy is to ensure thatscience and technology pervades all sectors of the economy. In order to achieve theseobjectives, sectoral policies, programmes and strategies would be implemented on the basis ofthe overall National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy. Sectoral policies in Agriculture,Health, Education, Environment, Energy, Trade, Industry, Natural Resources, HumanSettlements and Communications shall be driven by sector-specific science and technologyprogrammes and activities. This policy document highlights some specific activities andprogrammes of individual sectors.Management of Science, Technology and Innovation PolicyThe draft STI policy sees the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology as the sectorministry with responsibility for Science, Technology, and Innovation (STI) and which will manageand implement Government’s STI policies. This mandate will be executed through theorganizations operating under its auspices and where necessary through other relevantorganizations. The cabinet minister and the political head of the ministry would provide theneeded leadership to link with other ministries and organizations for STI application anddevelopment in the country. The Policy, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (PPME)Directorate of the Ministry would be its nerve centre. This is the Directorate responsible forPolicy formulation and the development of appropriate strategies for the monitoring andevaluation of these policies. There would be an apex STI body established to ensure strongadvocacy for STI in the country, to provide STI advice to the ministry and the President, and toensure coordination and harmonization of the nation’s STI policy and programs. This bodywould serve as a Think Tank with representation from the Ghana Academy of Arts and Science,the CSIR, the faculties of science and engineering and technology, professional science andtechnology-based associations to provide the STI oversight and advice for policy formulation.Financing S&TNATIONAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION POLICY5

Government would take stock of the inadequacy of the funding which had handicapped thecountry’s progress in the past and would accordingly boost public expenditure in STI to achievethe ends of the renewed vision to use science and technology as the major drivers for economicgrowth. Government would make appropriate arrangements for financing the science andtechnology development and delivery system. To ensure the availability of funds at all times tomeet the demands of innovation, Government will among other things:i.take stock of all existing funding lines established to support development in scienceand technology and industry with the aim of streamlining them to achieveeconomies in their operations;ii.strengthen and modify the National Science and Technology Foundation toincorporate support for innovation in its sphere of operations;iii.accelerate the allocation of a minimum of 1% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP)to support the science and technology sector; an attractive tax incentive mechanism for contributors to the institutedfunds or directly to R&D activities, but in such a way as not to erode the national taxbase.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1.1BackgroundScience and Technology are perceived the world over as major tools for rapid social andeconomic development. The more industrialized countries of the world applied science andtechnology to develop their economics. China, South Korea, India, Malaysia and Singapore, anda few other countries, followed their footsteps and have also successfully applied science andtechnology to transform their economies. The very rapid economic transformation that hastaken place in the Republic of Korea, for example, in contrast to our country Ghana is generallyattributed to their greater success in acquiring and using the knowledge and innovation basedon science and technology. Yet at the dawn of independence in 1957, Ghana also nursed thedream of rapid social and economic development using knowledge and tools derived from S & T.In a speech which the founding Prime Minister of Ghana, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah delivered at theNATIONAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION POLICY6

last meeting of the old legislative assembly on the 5th of March, 1957 he spelt out clearly a visionof rapid development based on the application of S & T. He said:“Our whole educational system must be geared to producing a scientifically-technically mindedpeople. Because of the limitations placed on us, we have to produce, of necessity, a higherstandard of technical education than is ne

The principal thrust of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy is to ensure that science and technology pervades all sectors of the economy. In order to achieve these objectives, sectoral policies, programmes and strategies would be implemented on the basis of the overall National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy.

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