EiffelJohn A. Roebling and theDesign of Suspension Bridges1. Methods of stiffening suspension bridges2. Evolution of form in Roebling's suspension bridges3. Wind and dangerous oscillations in suspension bridges4. Ambiguity of form vs. structural redundancy in suspension bridges5. Artistic representations of the Brooklyn BridgeEiffelBrunel
Load Paths in Suspension BridgesLoad Paths in Suspension BridgesWeight of Bridge DeckVehicle on Bridge DeckTTTTTCCTCCShape of cable?ParabolaBendingCStiffnessResistance to DeformationCLoad Paths in Suspension BridgesVehicle on Bridge DeckTTTForceCableCCDeck or TrussBending1. Cables have Stiffness2. Force Follows StiffnessCC
The Historical RecordLongestSpanSeverelyDamagedby WindExcessiveWindInducedMotion
Buffalo Creek Bridge (1917)Union Bridge (1820)Samuel Brown449 ft spanEnglandBrighton Chain Pier (1823)Samuel Brown113 ft span225 ft spansEngland
LongestSpanSeverelyDamagedby WindExcessiveWindInducedMotionMenai Straits Bridge (1826)Thomas Telford580 ft spanWalesLongestSpanSeverelyDamagedby WindExcessiveWindInducedMotionC.L.M.H. NavierCable Stiffness: Deformation1! Weight
Wheeling Bridge (1849)Charles Ellett1010 ft spanWest VirginaNiagara Railroad Bridge (1849)John A. Roebling822 ft spanNiagara RiverLongestSpanSeverelyDamagedby WindExcessiveWindInducedMotion
John Augustus Roebling1806-1869“The means employed are:Weight, Girders, Trusses, and Stays.With these any degree of stiffness can be insured, to resisteither the action of trains or the violence of storm . . .”J.A. Roebling, Final Report, Niagara BridgeNiagara Railroad Bridge (1849)John A. Roebling822 ft spanNiagara RiverLoad Paths in Suspension BridgesLoad Paths in Suspension BridgesVehicle on Bridge DeckVehicle on Bridge DeckTTCBendingC1. Suspension Cables2.3.1. Suspension Cables2. Bridge Deck3.
Load Paths in Suspension BridgesVehicle on Bridge DeckTT“The means employed are:Weight, Girders, Trusses, and Stays.With these any degree of stiffness can be insured, to resisteither the action of trains or the violence of storm . . .”J.A. Roebling, Final Report, Niagara BridgeC1. Suspension Cables2. Bridge Deck3. Diagonal StaysNiagara Railroad Bridge (1849)John A. Roebling822 ft spanNiagara RiverJohn Scott Russell (1839)2nd Dryburgh Abbey Bridge (1818)260 ft spanSecond Montrose Bridge (1840)432 ft span
Britannia Bridge (1850)Robert Stephenson460 ft spanWalesNiagaraBritanniaSpan Length821 ft460 ftTotal Length821 ft2 @ 1400 ftWeight2400 lb/ft7000 lb/ftCost 100 /ft 215 /ftRelative Stiffness1.51
John Augustus Roebling1806-1869John Roebling’sSuspension Bridges1844 Allegheny aqueduct at Pittsburgh1845 Smithfield Street Bridge1849 Delaware and Hudson aqueducts1855 Niagara suspension bridge1856 Ohio river bridge at Cincinnati1860 Sixth Street Bridge1883 Brooklyn BridgeNiagara suspension bridge - 1855
Sixth Street Bridge (1860)John A. Roebling344 ft spansPittsburghSmithfield Street Bridge (1846)John A. Roebling188 ft spansPittsburghAllegheny River Aqueduct (18xx)John A. Roebling188 ft spansPittsburgh
Delaware and Hudson Canal Aqueducts (1847-1850)114 ft to 170 ft spansPennsylvania & New York
Ohio River Bridge (1856)John A. Roebling1057 ft spanCincinnati
What is one method for imparting stiffnessto a suspension bridge?What are the aesthetic implications ofthis method?Draw a quick sketch of such a proposal
Flood tide below me! I see you face to face!Clouds of the west – sun there half an hour high –I see you also face to faceCrowds of men and women attired in the usual costumes,how curious you are to me!On the ferry-boats the hundreds and hundreds that cross, returning home,are more curious to me than you suppose,And you that shall cross from shore to shore years hence are more to me,and more in my meditations, than you might suppose-Crossing Brooklyn FerryWalt Whitman (1856)
Boss TweedTammany Hall
Abraham HewittEmily Roebling
Brooklyn Bridge (1883)John and Washington Roebling1595.5 ft spanNew York
The Brooklyn Bridge was politically andeconomically significant because it joined thecities of New York and Brooklyn.Can you think of other civil works that havehad similar political and economic meanings?Are there places you would propose such aconstruction?Were the results positive, negative, mixed?
Again the traffic lights that skim thy swiftUnfractioned idiom, immaculate sigh of stars,Beading thy path--condense eternity:And we have seen night lifted in thine arms.“The Bridge”Hart Crane (1930)
Brooklyn BridgeScientificInnovative structural system of cables, stays and trussLongest span in the worldSocialConstruction amidst political corruptionTransforms city of New YorkBridge itself is a unique experienceSymbolicInspires numerous works of artThe image of New York CitySuspension Bridge StaticsTLoad PathAll forces or loads must eventually get to the ground.Can we trace the path of tension of compression?TTCTruckTCTTruckTTCTCHow does Roebling’s introduction of diagonal stays introduce ambiguity to the load path?
Free Body DiagramsA sketch of all or part of a structure, detached from its supportCabletensioncable ionMain span length/2Tower base reactionTower base reactionNotationEquilibriumHHAAddwHwHVBVBL/2!MA 0L/2
EquilibriumCable tensionHHAAddwHwHVBVB!MA 0,H wL2/8dL/2Hd - wL2/8 0,H wL2/8dR 10, H 2 x 105R 6, H 1.3 x 105TensionCompressionL/2w loadL sizeR L/dR formH wLR/8H functionR,L transform w into H
Design of Suspension Bridges 1. Methods of stiffening suspension bridges 2. Evolution of form in Roebling's suspension bridges 3. Wind and dangerous oscillations in suspension bridges . Longest span in the world Construction amidst political corruption Transfo
Silat is a combative art of self-defense and survival rooted from Matay archipelago. It was traced at thé early of Langkasuka Kingdom (2nd century CE) till thé reign of Melaka (Malaysia) Sultanate era (13th century). Silat has now evolved to become part of social culture and tradition with thé appearance of a fine physical and spiritual .
May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)
̶The leading indicator of employee engagement is based on the quality of the relationship between employee and supervisor Empower your managers! ̶Help them understand the impact on the organization ̶Share important changes, plan options, tasks, and deadlines ̶Provide key messages and talking points ̶Prepare them to answer employee questions
Dr. Sunita Bharatwal** Dr. Pawan Garga*** Abstract Customer satisfaction is derived from thè functionalities and values, a product or Service can provide. The current study aims to segregate thè dimensions of ordine Service quality and gather insights on its impact on web shopping. The trends of purchases have
On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.
Chính Văn.- Còn đức Thế tôn thì tuệ giác cực kỳ trong sạch 8: hiện hành bất nhị 9, đạt đến vô tướng 10, đứng vào chỗ đứng của các đức Thế tôn 11, thể hiện tính bình đẳng của các Ngài, đến chỗ không còn chướng ngại 12, giáo pháp không thể khuynh đảo, tâm thức không bị cản trở, cái được
More than words-extreme You send me flying -amy winehouse Weather with you -crowded house Moving on and getting over- john mayer Something got me started . Uptown funk-bruno mars Here comes thé sun-the beatles The long And winding road .
Business Accounting Volume 1is the world’s best-selling textbook on bookkeeping and accounting. Now in its tenth edition, it has become the standard introductory text for accounting students and professionals alike. New to this edition: Over 120 brand new review questions for exam practice Coverage of International Accounting Standards 2005 Additional and updated worked examples for areas of .