WorldTariffProfiles2019Applied MFN tariffs0 22 44 66 88 1010 1515 2020 - max
About this publicationWorld Tariff Profiles is a co-publication of the WTO,ITC and UNCTAD on market access for goods.This annual publication provides comprehensiveinformation on the tariffs and non-tariff measuresimposed by over 170 countries and customsterritories. Non-WTO members are included ifdata on the tariffs they applied in 2018 or 2017are available in the databases of the WTO, ITCor UNCTAD.For more informationThe statistical tables included in thisreport can be downloaded from the WTOweb site at www.wto.org/statisticsThe map on the cover represents the latest available average MFN tariffs applied by countries/customs territories. These tariffs (in %) are groupedinto eight categories. Data are sourced from this publication (covering 2018 and 2017) and from previous publications if more recent data are notavailable. The boundaries shown on the map do not imply any judgment, ofﬁcial endorsement or acceptance by the WTO as to the legal status orfrontier of any territory.
General note and abbreviations I SUMMARYTABLESContents2Introduction 3I. S ummary tables Tariff466Technical notes 7All products 8Agricultural products 14Non-agricultural products 20TradeII COUNTRY/TERRITORYTARIFF PROFILESDescription of column headings 26Description of column headings 26Technical notes 27Imports and exports profile 2834Index of tariff profiles36Technical notes37Country/territory tariff profiles42III. Non-tariff measures 1. Introduction1901931942.1. Anti-dumping1942.2. Countervailing measures2042.3. Safeguards212IV. S pecial topic: Aligning trade and tariffpolicies with sustainable development IV SPECIAL TOPIC2. Statistics on some selected non-tariff measuresAligning trade and tariff policies with sustainable developmentIII NON-TARIFF MEASURESII. C ountry/territory tariff profiles 218220References 221Technical Notes230231Table 1: Tariff and import profiles for goods related to selected SDGs232242A. Data sources244B. Frequently asked questions249AcknowledgementsWTO ITC UNCTADWorld Tariff Profiles 2019ANNEXESV. Annexes VDescription of column headings252Download the data:www.wto.org/statistics1
General note and abbreviationsAbbreviationsAVGAverageAGAgricultural productsAVEAd valorem equivalentHS Harmonized System(nomenclature)MaxMaximum dutyMFNMost favoured nationNAVNon-ad valorem dutyNon-AGNon agricultural productsSSGSpecial safeguardsTLTariff lineUVUnit valueNotations–Not applicable0 0 (not rounded)0.0 0 and 0.05100 100 (not rounded)100.0 99.95 and 100Blank Bound or appliedduties and/or importsare not availableat all for a givencountry or territory.Italics Maxima, based on AVEestimates are printed initalics; this also appliesin cases when thead valorem is part ofa compound or mixedduty as ceiling or floor.US 2United States dollarDownload the data:www.wto.org/statisticsThe statistics related to applied tariffsand imports are calculated usingdata which are based on the HSnomenclature adopted by the countryfor the reference year. For statisticson bound tariffs, the calculations arebased on the approved schedule ofconcessions of the WTO member.In previous issues of World TariffProfiles, each schedule is based onthe HS version which the memberused when it acceded to the WTO.Starting with the 2010 issue of thispublication, bound tariff statisticsare based on the approved scheduleof concessions for each memberin the most recent HS version. Thismight have some implications on thehistorical series of various boundtariff indicators affected by the useof a different nomenclature. Whilethe member’s commitments have notchanged as a result of the transposition,some aggregate statistics might havebeen affected as a consequence ofthe change to another HS version.The classification of products intoagricultural and non-agriculturalis based on Annex 1 of the WTOAgreement on Agriculture which listsall products covered in the Agreement.The Annex enumerates HS codesthat are subject to the agriculturenegotiations in the WTO and areconsidered agricultural products.HS codes which are not in Annex 1are subject to the non-agriculturalmarket access negotiations and areconsidered non-agricultural products.In the comparison of bound and appliedduties within countries and acrosscountries, the following caveats need tobe taken into account besides that of theeffects of different HS versions used andnomenclature breakdowns. These are:(1) binding coverage; (2) tariff bindingsnot fully implemented; and (3) AVEs. While binding commitments coverall agricultural products, in principle,this is not always the case fornon-agricultural goods. There are anumber of WTO members where thebinding coverage for non-agriculturalproducts is less – and sometimesmuch less – than 100 per cent. Also,a number of developed countrieshave not yet fully bound all thetariff lines in their schedules. Anycomparison of bound and appliedtariff indicators is only valid in casesof full binding coverage. For most WTO members, exceptthe most recently acceded ones,all commitments dating back tothe Uruguay Round have by nowbeen implemented. In caseswhere commitments are not yetfully implemented, one may seeMFN applied averages or maximaexceeding the corresponding boundduty indicators. Last but not least, the calculationof AVEs may affect the comparisonbetween bound and applied dutieswhen the changes in nomenclaturehave resulted in the use of differentunit values. In other cases, boundduties have been expressed in away that is not directly comparablewith the currently used appliedduties. In a number of cases, theestimated MFN applied AVEs wereadjusted when the correspondingbound tariff lines were defined inad valorem terms. In these cases,the corresponding bound ad valoremduty was used as ceiling for theAVE estimate.WTO ITC UNCTADWorld Tariff Profiles 2019
IntroductionWTOThe World Trade Organization (WTO) isthe only global international organizationdealing with the rules of trade betweennations. At its heart are the WTOagreements, negotiated and signed bythe bulk of the world’s trading nations andratified in their parliaments. The goal isto help producers of goods and services,exporters, and importers conduct theirbusiness. The WTO’s main function isto ensure that trade flows as smoothly,predictably and freely as possible. It doesthis by administering trade agreements,acting as a forum for trade negotiations,settling trade disputes, reviewingnational trade policies, assistingdeveloping countries in trade policyissues through technical assistance andtraining programmes and cooperatingwith other international organizations.ITCThe International Trade Centre (ITC)is the joint agency of the World TradeOrganization and the United Nations. ITCenables small business export successin developing countries by providing,with partners, sustainable and inclusivetrade development solutions to the privatesector, trade support institutions andpolicymakers. ITC’s strategic objectivesare to strengthen the internationalcompetitiveness of enterprises, todevelop the capacity of trade serviceproviders to support businesses, and tosupport policymakers in integrating thebusiness sector into the global economy.UNCTADEstablished in 1964, the UnitedNations Conference on Trade andDevelopment (UNCTAD) promotesthe development-friendly integrationof developing countries into the worldeconomy. UNCTAD has progressivelyevolved into an authoritative knowledgebased institution whose work aimsto help shape current policy debatesand thinking on development, witha particular focus on ensuring thatdomestic policies and internationalaction are mutually supportive in bringingabout sustainable development.WTO ITC UNCTADWorld Tariff Profiles 2019The World Tariff Profiles is a jointpublication of the WTO, ITC andUNCTAD devoted to market accessfor goods. This statistical yearbookcontains a comprehensive compilationof the main tariff parameters for eachof the 164 WTO members plus othercountries and customs territorieswhere data is available. Each tariffprofile presents information on tariffsimposed by each economy on itsimports complemented with an analysisof the market access conditions itfaces in its major export markets.Statistics for all countries and territoriesare given in standardized tables whichallow easy comparisons betweencountries/territories, between sectorsand, specifically for WTO members,between bound and applied tariffsas well. The calculations are basedon national tariff schedules andimports in conformity with a standardHarmonized System (HS) nomenclatureversion. To the extent possible, advalorem equivalents (AVEs) of nonad valorem tariffs are estimated andare included in the estimation of tariffindicators. Nonetheless, certain caveatsapply in the interpretation of theseindicators and the reader is advisedto read the methodological notesthat precede the statistical tables.The publication is presented in five mainparts. The first part shows summarytariff statistics for all countries andterritories for all products, as wellas a breakdown into agricultural andnon-agricultural products. The secondpart shows for each of these countriesand territories one full page withdisaggregation by sectors and dutyranges. It also contains a section onthe market access conditions faced intheir respective major export markets.A new third part has been addedto this edition to cover informationon non-tariff measures which are ofincreasing importance in internationaltrade. The fourth part contains thespecial topic which presents a newsubject in each edition. The annexesare in part five and include the datasources and the compilation of“Frequently Asked Questions”.The summary tariff tables inthe first part are designed to allowcross-country comparison as wellas comparison of the levels of boundand applied duties. Apart from thestandard indicators like tariff averages,maxima, percentage of duty-freetariff lines, peaks and non-ad valoremduties, it also contains indicators oftariff dispersion such as the numberof distinct duties and the coefficientof variation. The calculation ofthese indicators is based, whereapplicable, on a pre-aggregationto HS six-digit subheadings, whichleads to a standardization acrosscountries and thus makes thecomparisons more compatible.Similarly, the summary trade tableshowing the imports and exports profilefacilitates the comparison of selectedindicators among the economieslisted. The statistics are presentedby agricultural and non-agriculturalsector as well as for the total economy.The indicators related to the exportsprofile are based on mirror datareported by the importing economy.The tariff profiles tables are dividedinto two blocks covering (A) thedomestic market access protectionand (B) the protection faced in themajor export markets. In part A,information on bound and appliedduties is shown by duty ranges andby sectors. Information for agriculturaland non-agricultural duties is shownseparately. In addition, there areindicators on the occurrence of specialsafeguards and on tariff quotas. Inpart B, the trade diversification andmarket access conditions in the fivemajor export markets are depicted,broken down into agricultural andnon-agricultural products.The third part contains the summarytables on anti-dumping actions,countervailing duties and safeguardmeasures. The new special topicpresented on the fourth part is entitled“Aligning trade and tariff policieswith sustainable development”.Download the data:www.wto.org/statistics3
I. S ummary tables4
TariffDescription of column headings6Technical notes7All products8Agricultural products14Non-agricultural products20TradeDescription of column headings26Technical notes27Imports and Exports profile285
TariffDescription of column headingsColumnheadingsDescription or method of calculationYear of MFNapplied tariffCalendar year or start of fiscal yearBindingcoverageShare of HS six-digit subheadings containing at leastone bound tariff line. Full binding coverage is indicatedby 100 without further decimals. If some tariff linesare unbound but the result still rounds to 100 this isreflected by maintaining one decimal, i.e. 100.0.Simple averageSimple average of the ad valorem orAVE HS six-digit duty averages.Duty-freeShare of duty-free HS six-digit subheadings in the totalnumber of subheadings in the product group. Partially dutyfree subheadings are taken into account on a pro rata basis.Non-ad valoremdutiesShare of HS six-digit subheadings subject to nonad valorem duties. When only part of the HS six-digitsubheading is subject to non-ad valorem duties thepercentage share of these tariff lines is used.Duties 15 %Share of HS six-digit subheadings subject to ad valoremduties or AVEs greater than 15 per cent. When onlypart of the HS six-digit subheading is covered by suchduties, the calculation is done on a pro rata basis.Share of HS six-digit subheadings subject to ad valoremduties or AVEs greater than three times the national average.Duties 3 AVGWhen only part of the HS six-digit subheading is coveredby such duties, the calculation is done on a pro rata basis.Share of HS six-digit bound subheadings not yetConcessions notimplemented in 2018. When only part of the HSyet implementedsix-digit subheading is covered by such dutiesin 2018the calculation is made on a pro rata basis.6Download the data:www.wto.org/statisticsMaximum dutyMaximum tariff line level ad valorem duty or AVE.Numberof distinctduty ratesNumber of distinct duty rates. Non-ad valorem duties arealways treated as distinct because AVE calculations wouldalways yield distinct AVEs. For this indicator, however,duties not provided are not included in the count.Coefficientof variationStandard deviation of tariff line duty rates dividedby the simple tariff line level average of all dutyrates. Includes only ad valorem duties or AVEs.Number ofMFN appliedtariff linesTotal number of MFN applied tariff linesWTO ITC UNCTADWorld Tariff Profiles 2019
Only duties and imports recordedunder HS Chapters 01–97 are takeninto account. Each applied tariffschedule is validated against thestandard nomenclature at the HSsix-digit subheading level of the HSversion adopted by the country for thereference year. National tariff lines thatdo not follow this standard (i.e., thefirst six digits should be based on thestandard subheading nomenclature ofthe HS version used by the country) arediscarded and not taken into account.On the other hand, missingsubheadings are added. Hence,WTO ITC UNCTADWorld Tariff Profiles 2019I SUMMARYTABLESTechnical notesall calculations are based on thecomplete standard nomenclature. Allsimple averages are based on preaggregated HS six-digit averages.Pre-aggregation means that duties atthe tariff line level are first averagedto HS six-digit subheadings.Subsequent calculations are basedon these pre-aggregated averages.To the extent possible, non-ad valoremduties are converted into ad valoremequivalents. The methodology used forthe conversion is in Technical Annex Bof World Tariff Profiles 2006.Download the data:www.wto.org/statistics7
All productsSummary TablesAll productsYear ofMFNappliedtariffCountry/Territory12Simple averageDuty-freeNon ad valorem dutiesBoundMFNappliedBoundMFNapplied4567in %3MFNappliedBoundDuties 15 %MFNappliedBoundShare of HS 6 digit subheadings in per tigua and .113.30.1Bahamas2018Bahrain, Kingdom 20.71.50018.439.0Bolivia, Plurinational State 420.735.0Bosnia and 05.10096.4Brunei Darussalam201895.525.50.2095.80.30.395.30.0Burkina abo .4Canada201899.66.54.040.318.104.22.168.96.5Central African 0.973.115.22018Costa Rica201810043.15.62.051.60096.01.2Côte 421.610.22.06.40014.96.410096.1Djibouti3.314.6Cook IslandsDemocratic Republic of the 024.00092.623.6Dominican 19.11.922.214.171.1249.821.5El n 40.911.1013.30.31.951.114.610023.7The 201897.848.512.201.50097.839.0Download the data:www.wto.org/statisticsWTO ITC UNCTADWorld Tariff Profiles 2019
Concessionsnot yetimplementedin 2018Duties 3 * AVGMFNappliedBoundNumber of distinct dutyratesMFNMFN appliedBoundappliedMaximum dutyBoundSummary TablesAll productsCoefficient of variationBoundMFNapplied1920Share of HS 6 digit subhdgs in per cent12131415161718Number ofMFNappliedtariff 22070321438946,705Antigua and 656,123Bahamas0.30.80200200413402207,520Bahrain, Kingdom 40271807,760Bolivia, Plurinational State of2.313110,317Bosnia and a00055353214287210,264Brazil0.24.20 1000134272915489111,205Brunei DarussalamBurkina 83Burundi2.06.0055501213801305,768Cabo 535,652Central African a525,350Comoros7246,777Cook Islands002200301.1133Chad2652 1000Congo0.11.2023315019133615910,349Costa Rica0.100643515559615,898Côte 114165441CubaDemocratic Republic of the 47,244Dominican Republic0.20.80868619244391037,996Ecuador0.44.50 1000 3El 16EthiopiaEuropean 9 898The 5577616,128Guinea0005035357615,898Guinea-BissauWTO ITC UNCTADWorld Tariff Profiles 201927I SUMMARYTABLESAll products47GuatemalaDownload the data:www.wto.org/statistics9
All productsSummary TablesAll productsYear ple averageDuty-freeNon ad valorem dutiesBoundMFNappliedBoundMFNapplied4567in %3HaitiMFNappliedBoundDuties 15 %MFNappliedBoundShare of HS 6 digit subheadings in per .052.4Honduras201810032.05.72.050.70089.9Hong Kong, 7.607.116.442.5Korea, Republic of201894.916.513.7126.96.36.199.520.210.7Kuwait, the State of201899.9188.8.131.52.501.697.80.2Kyrgyz Republic2018184.108.40.2069.6220.127.116.11.01.4Lao People's Democratic Republic201810019.08.51.11.60056.49.2Lebanese 79.7Macao, .00.349.61.00.798.712.1Moldova, Republic w 8.00.818.104.22.168076.139.020.1120.9North .167.9Papua New 3.3Qatar201810015.74.83.010.501.617.80.2Russian 1810089.211.31.045.100.796.937.0Saint Kitts and Nevis201895.776.59.1025.800.395.621.6Download the data:www.wto.org/statistics03.8014.220.12.41.0WTO ITC UNCTADWorld Tariff Profiles 20191.1
Concessionsnot yetimplementedin 2018Duties 3 * AVGMFNappliedBoundNumber of distinct dutyratesMFNMFN appliedBoundappliedMaximum dutyBoundSummary TablesAll productsCoefficient of variationMFNappliedBoundShare of HS 6 digit subhdgs in per 910164232031Number ofMFNappliedtariff nduras591331Haiti0000011007,576Hong Kong, 5,683Kenya2.62.7088788722113933341312,488Korea, Republic ofKuwait, the State 049Kyrgyz Republic0.74.10.49040181259789,725Lao People's Democratic Republic7.31956,146Lebanese 5050122238636,250Liberia0000011006,640Macao, ,695Malawi1.713.10 1000 82120891079,474Moldova, Republic 5Namibia3335,314Nauru0.650 211181327,926New 21181299,850North Macedonia6.05.20 1000 903243247066593255,825Papua New 647,789Peru0.03.30806524154810911,731Philippines 3142857010912512,049Russian 0942328251096,292Saint Kitts and NevisWTO ITC UNCTADWorld Tariff Profiles 2019I SUMMARYTABLESAll productsDownload the data:www.wto.org/statistics11
All productsSummary TablesAll productsYear ofMFNappliedtariffCountry/Territory12Simple averageDuty-free99.8Non ad valorem dutiesBoundMFNappliedBoundMFNapplied4567in %3Saint LuciaMFNappliedBoundDuties 15 %BoundMFNappliedShare of HS 6 digit subheadings in per cent64.68091001199.8Saint Vincent and the 810021.411.402.50.50.455.328.9Sao Tomé and Principe2018Saudi Arabia, Kingdom 46.386.710047.3Sierra .0Singapore201872.09.50.017.3100.00.50.00.5Solomon Islands201810078.89.700.91.30.896.50.5South Africa201894.319.27.714.360.402.739.220.7Sri 64.9Chinese nidad and 84.530.922.214.171.124.12.8United Arab Emirates201810014.64.83.010.501.60.80.2United States of 3.326.200.096.410.8Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of201810036.513.804.90099.036.8Viet .215.729.1Download the data:www.wto.org/statisticsWTO ITC UNCTADWorld Tariff Profiles 2019
Concessionsnot yetimplementedin 2018Duties 3 * AVGMFNappliedBoundNumber of distinct dutyratesMFNMFN appliedBoundappliedMaximum dutyBoundSummary TablesAll productsCoefficient of variationMFNappliedBoundShare of HS 6 digit subhdgs in per cent1213140.3151602501718193720Number ofMFNappliedtariff lines2146Country/Territory22Saint 137705,482Samoa435,504Sao Tomé and Principe0205Saint Vincent and the Grenadines0.20.80299299109231212107,142Saudi Arabia, Kingdom ychelles3.50.63011.40.00800.50.000.00.300200162008 25,510Solomon Islands713Sierra Leone3.39.60597877582401301887,905South Africa0.018.90175 100054131632167,428Sri 936,2894.10 1000 822142149,133Chinese ,457Tonga0015616371.102004270Trinidad and ,465Ukraine0.80.2020020011101191927,507United Arab Emirates7.57.203503501323112729425811,635United States of la, Bolivarian Republic ofViet 60492871246,376ZimbabweWTO ITC UNCTADWorld Tariff Profiles 2019I SUMMARYTABLESAll productsDownload the data:www.wto.org/statistics13
Agricultural productsSummary TablesAgricultural productsYear ofMFNappliedtariffCountry/Territory12Duty-freeNon ad valorem BoundDuties 15 %MFNappliedBoundShare of HS 6 digit subheadings in per .8069.9Angola201852.718.9031.70094.3Antigua and rain, Kingdom .80Benin201861.415.8000097.853.7Bolivia, Plurinational State of201840.013.101.800100.022.2Bosnia and 623.0Brazil201835.410.12.77.10095.714.4Brunei Darussalam201832.10.0098.92.21.196.80.0Burkina 68.5Cabo 5.948.168.518.6126.96.36.199Central African ongo012.130.0022.2020.099.90099.92018Costa Rica201843.211.6029.90090.78.4Côte .68.60093.415.797.8Djibouti95.73.654.6Cook IslandsDemocratic Republic of the 4.40099.9Dominican 8.429.2El Salvador201842.311.8028.200100.011.6Eswatini2018
Imports and exports profile 28 II. Country/territory tariff profiles 34 Index of tariff profiles 36 Technical notes 37 Country/territory tariff profiles 42 III. Non-tariff measures 190 1. Introduction 193 2. Statistics on some selected non-tariff measures 194 1. 2. dum- i Ant ngpi 194 2.2. Countervailing measures 204 2.3. Safeguards 212 IV.
Map of World Trade: Gravity European and U.S. Trade Trade within Europe is the largest, about 28% of world trade. Many countries Easy to ship between countries because import tariffs are low European Union (EU) countries have zero tariffs on imports from each other. EU has 25 members with two more joining in 2007.
globalization is free trade, or the elimination of trade barri-ers, such as tariffs, among nations. This movement toward free trade is not new. As early as 1947, nations began dis-cussing ways to open trade. The result of these discussions was the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Over the years, several meetings among the nations that
liberalization , as well as global reductions in tariff rates, free-trade zones, and duty-drawback programs which eliminate some of these charges, tariffs continue to represent a significant friction to trade. As the following section will show in more detail, tariffs on GSC goods
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between 20% and 30%, today, the world's applied tariffs stand at an average of around 9%. But this is also thanks to the stability the system provides. The WTO’s most-favoured nation principle (MFN) limits discrimination between goods and services from different trading partners.
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trends in selected trade policy instruments, including illustrative statistics. The second part is divided into four chapters: tariffs, trade agreements, non-tariff measures and trade defence measures. Trade trends and statistics are provided at various levels of aggregation illustrating the use of the trade policy measures across economic
Keywords --- algae, o pen ponds, CNG, renewable, methane, anaerobic digestion. I. INTRODUCTION Algae are a diverse group of autotrophic organisms that are naturally growing and renewable. Algae are a good source of energy from which bio -fuel can be profitably extracted .Owing to the energy crisis and the fuel prices, we are in an urge to find an alternative fuel that is environmentally .