PRECISION NUTRITIONVIDEO COURSELESSON 2THE KEY PRINCIPLESOF ENERGY BALANCEPART 2CALORIESOUTPrecision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
THE SURPRISING PROBLEMWITH CALORIE COUNTINGPart 2: ‘Calories Out’By John Berardi Ph.D. and Helen Kollias Ph.D.Think meticulous calorie counting means knowing exactly howmuch breakfast you’re burning during exercise? Unfortunately,it’s more complicated than that. Here, 4 reasons why daily activitytracking and exercise counts can be problematic.
In Part 1: ‘Calories In’, we revealed some of the hiddenimperfections of calorie math.Of course, when I say “hidden”, I mean “unknown to most”. Becausescientists — at least those specializing in nutrition — have knownabout calorie math’s quirks for a long time.The calorie certainly has its uses, and knowing how to apply caloriecounts properly is a crucial skill for health and fitness pros (that’swhy we devote a whole chapter to it in the Precision Nutrition Level 1Certification).However, despite what most people think, meticulous calorie countingsimply isn’t a “must” when it comes to weight management — and thatgoes for ‘calories in’ and ‘calories out’.In this infographic, we present 4 reasons why depending on calorieburn estimates for weight management can be really problematic.It’ll change your understanding of how nutrition and exercise worktogether to achieve (or maintain) a fit, healthy body. If you’re a fitnesspro, it might change how you coach and communicate with clients.Precision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
THE SURPRISING PROBLEMWITH CALORIE COUNTINGPART 2: ‘CALORIES OUT’Most people who count calories for weight management assume it’s an exact science.Here, 4 reasons why tracking the calories you burn can be problematic.1CALORIE BURN ESTIMATESARE IMPRECISE.The calorie expenditure figures you see in lifestyle publications, online calculators,and fitness trackers are based on laboratory averages with large margins of error.DIRECT CALORIMETRYMARGIN OFERROR:UP TOScientists use a hermetically sealedisolation chamber to measure energyburned. It’s the most expensive method,so it’s rarely used.MARGIN OFERROR:UP TO10.2%3.3%DOUBLY LABELLEDWATER METHODStudy subjects drink water containingmedical isotopes, which scientists measurein body fluids over time to estimateaverage daily metabolic rate.INDIRECT CALORIMETRYGas exchange measurements are takento estimate energy expenditure. This isthe method behind 99% of the calorieburn estimates you see.Precision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy BalanceMARGIN OFERROR:UP TO45%precisionnutrition.com
Consumer fitness trackers are off by about 30% for total daily calorie expenditure. Andfor aerobic exercise, the devices show errors between9% and 23%. Here’s what that looks like for a 300-calorie 69230Fu Nikelb eandBasisBBa 1ndPDi hiliprectL siferapGT ERROR: AT LEAST 10%Precision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
2INDIVIDUALS BURN CALORIESUNIQUELY AND VARIABLY.Many factors affect the true number of calories you’ll burn during exercise and at rest.EPIGENETICSGENESA single variation in the FTO gene cancause you to burn 160 fewer calories perday.External factors affect how genes areexpressed. In mice, when a mother eatsmore of a specific nutrient (methyldonors) during pregnancy, her offspringburn 5% more calories per day than others.Human studies indicate the potential forsimilar findings.BROWNFATIn cold environments, people withbrown fat (fat tissue containing moremitochondria) burn up to400 calories more per day than peoplewithout it. Diet is also a factor: In onestudy, people who ate capsaicinburned 120 more calories per day viabrown fat activation.Precision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy BalanceSLEEPSleep deprivation for a single nightmay decrease calories burned by 5-20%.precisionnutrition.com
HORMONESBMR (CALORIES)Women’s menstrual cycle affects theirresting metabolic rate.1,6001,5881,5001,4801,5001,4531,4000123456789 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28MENSESOVULATIONFOLLICULAR PHASELUTEAL PHASEPHASE OF MENSTRUAL CYCLEOverall, it’s not unusual for an individual’s metabolic rate to vary by100 calories from day to day.ERROR: UP TO 20%Precision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
3WHAT AND HOW MUCH YOU EAT INFLUENCESHOW MANY CALORIES YOU’LL BURN.For example, in response to overeating, metabolism increases.However, some people’s metabolism will adapt more than others’.0.79 LB. GAINED1,000CALORIES MORETHAN THEY NEEDPER DAY FOR8 WEEKS9.3 LB. GAINEDWithout adaptive metabolism, each person would have gained 16 pounds.Importantly, you’ll burn more energy digesting some macronutrients than others.PERCENTAGE OF A MACRONUTRIENT’S CALORIES YOU’LL BURN VIA ROR: UP TO 20%Precision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
4YOUR WEIGHT HISTORY INFLUENCESHOW MANY CALORIES YOU’LL BURN.If you've ever been overweight / obese,your metabolic rate may be lower thanequations predict due to somethingcalled adaptive thermogenesis.Consider a 40-year-old man who weighs 200pounds. Equations predict he'll require2,759 calories / day to maintain his weight.He starts to eat less in an effortto lose weight.Over time, he loses 20 lb., or 10% of his previous bodyweight. Since a smaller body needs to process fewercalories to live, his total caloric output goes down.Precision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
Because the man has been livingon a calorie deficit and lost significantweight, his brain thinks he’s in danger of starvingto death. His fat cells release less leptin, ahormone that influences hunger and activity cues.This sends the body into calorie conservation mode,causing the man to subconsciously move less (via adrop in non-exercise activity thermogenesis, orNEAT) and making his muscles more efficient sohe burns fewer calories even when heexercises.Because of this adaptive thermogenesis, researchshows the man may always require up to 300 fewercalories per day than equations predict tomaintain his new weight.Whereas most equations would predict the manrequires 2,623 calories per day to maintain 180 lb.,he might actually need as few as 2,323 daily.ERROR: UP TO 10%Precision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERBecause Calorie burn estimates are imprecise;Individuals burn calories uniquely and variably;.counting ‘calories out’ may be less reliable than you think.TOTAL ERROR WHEN COUNTING ‘CALORIES OUT’:UP TO 25%WHERE DO WE GOFROM HERE?Tracking calorie intake and calorie output isimprecise and variable. Until science comes up with abetter way, we like to keep things simple:Commit to a daily movement practice and ballparkfood portions using a hand measurement system.Precision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
Some important notesLowercase ‘c’For the scientists among our readership: Throughout the introductionand infographic, ‘calories’ — lowercase ‘c’, refers to kilocalories —or ‘Calories’. Over time, popular language has lost the big C/little cdistinction.Section 1: “Calorie burn estimates are imprecise.”Direct calorimetry measures the heat you give off in a sealedmetabolic chamber. It’s similar to a bomb calorimeter, which measuresthe caloric value of a food by burning the food, measuring the heatgiven off, and extrapolating the caloric value.Doubly labeled water uses two isotopes, tritium (3H) and 18O inthe form of water (3H218O). After drinking the doubly labeled waterscientists sample water lost through urine, feces, and sweat, and theCO2 lost when breathing.Using the proportions of “labeled” hydrogen and oxygen, scientistscan estimate energy used based on some physiological assumptions.However, some of these assumptions only hold true above a certainthreshold of carbohydrate intake, so when individuals are on lowcarbohydrate diets the calorie estimates are very inaccurate.Indirect calorimetry estimates the calories you burn based on theamount of oxygen you use and carbon dioxide you produce. Thesevalues are related to overall metabolism because oxygen is consumed(and carbon dioxide given off) in proportion to metabolic activity.However, many variables affect this relationship. For example, as youconsume less carbohydrate it becomes less accurate (because ofPrecision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
basic assumptions it uses to calculate energy burned). These basicassumptions don’t hold up on a low carb diet.Section 2: “A single variation in the FTO gene can causeyou to burn 160 fewer calories per day.”The FTO gene polymorphism has been associated with obesity. Infact, it has the most evidence supporting it and is the most compellingpolymorphism for linking obesity risk to a single gene.Section 2: “External factors affect how genes are expressed.”Epigenetic changes result in modifications to DNA that don’t changethe DNA sequence. The two main types of epigenetic modificationsare DNA methylation and histone modification.In the case of the mice referenced in this infographic, mothers atemore of the methyl donors: folic acid, B12, choline chloride, andanhydrous betaine. And their offspring were more metabolically active.The details of epigenetics in people are less clear. However, recently,researchers found possible epigenetic causes for differences seenin body weights of identical twins. For example: A gene called Trim28controls a network of other genes (Nnat, Peg3, Cdkn1c and Plagl1)by epigenetic modifications (histone deacetylation). Lower levelsof Trim28 lead to one twin being obese while their sibling (who hashigher levels of Trim28) is lean.Section 2: “Women’s menstrual cycle affects their restingmetabolic rate.”Although scientists aren’t 100% sure of this, hormone-driventemperature changes during the menstrual cycle are likely the reasonPrecision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
behind the fluctuations in resting metabolic rate in women throughoutmenses.Section 3: “What and how much you eat influences howmany calories you’ll burn.”The thermic effect of feeding (TEF, also called thermic effect of food,specific dynamic action, and/or dietary-induced thermogenesis) is theenergetic cost of digesting, absorbing and assimilating food.This includes the energy it takes to chew food; for enzymes tomolecularly dismantle your food; and for transporters to shuttle thenutrients across your intestinal lining.Sections 3 and 4: Adaptive thermogenesisWhile adaptive thermogenesis doesn’t occur in everyone all the time,it’s a very important factor when trying to determine ‘calories out’.In one study conducted at the Mayo Clinic, researchers overfed 16normal-weight subjects by 1,000 calories per day for 8 weeks. That’sthe equivalent of about 2 double cheeseburgers a day. And theparticipants were asked not to perform purposeful exercise.Result: While this rate of overeating “should” have produced abouta 16-pound weight gain in each subject, participants actually gainedvery different amounts of weight. The range was quite surprising:The individual with the highest adaptive metabolism gained only 0.79pounds while the one with the lowest adaptive metabolism gained 9.3pounds.Why the difference? The subjects’ measured resting metabolic rate,thermic effect of food, and physical activity didn’t change much.Precision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
(Although we know these measures can be somewhat error-prone.)However, there were huge differences in measured non-exerciseactivity thermogenesis, or NEAT.On average, NEAT went up by 336 calories per day. But from personto person, changes in NEAT ranged from -98 to 692 calories per day.(Yes, that’s a minus sign on 98. As in one poor woman actually hadless NEAT.)The changes in their NEAT output directly predicted the amount of fateach individual gained:More NEAT, less fat gained.Less NEAT, more fat gained.This study is supported by other research, which shows:Some people find it easy to gain weight, and hard to lose it.Their energy expenditure (especially NEAT) doesn’t go up muchwhen they over-eat, and they also expend much less energywhen they eat less (as their NEAT drops more dramatically). Theyare also likely to be naturally more sedentary.Other people find it hard to gain weight, and easy to lose it.Their bodies adapt to over-eating by firing up the metabolicfurnace (cranking up their NEAT output), and don’t slow thingsdown as much when eating less (NEAT doesn’t drop much). Thisis your classic “hardgainer” who struggles to gain mass. They arealso likely to be natural fidgeters.In many people, the body fights hard to defend against weight loss orgain. Overall, researchers calculate that changes in NEAT account for85-90% of adaptive thermogenesis.Precision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
Want to learn more?If you’d like to learn more about helping people find the best way ofeating for them, check out our Precision Nutrition Level 1 Certificationprogram; the next group kicks off soon.The Precision Nutrition Level 1 Certification is the world’s mostrespected nutrition education program. It gives you the knowledge,systems, and tools you need to really understand how food influencesa person’s health and fitness. Plus the ability to turn that knowledgeinto a thriving coaching practice.Developed over 15 years, and proven with over 100,000 clients andpatients, the Level 1 curriculum stands alone as the authority on thescience of nutrition and the art of coaching.Whether you’re already mid-career, or just starting out, the Level1 Certification is your springboard to a deeper understanding ofnutrition, the authority to coach it, and the ability to turn what youknow into results.Visit this link for more information:http://get.pn/level-1[Of course, if you’re already a student or graduate of the Level 1Certification, check out our Level 2 Certification, an exclusive yearlong Master Class for elite professionals looking to take their nutritionknowledge and coaching techniques to the highest possible level.]Precision Nutrition Video Course Lesson #2: Energy Balanceprecisionnutrition.com
400 calories more per day than people without it. Diet is also a factor: In one study, people who ate capsaicin burned 120 more calories per day via brown fat activation. GENES A single variation in the FTO gene can cause you to burn 160 fewer calories per day. SLEEP Sleep deprivation for a single night may decrease calories burned by 5-20%.
0 Calories 30 Calories 150 Calories 43 Calories 180 Calories Day 5 Total Calories 450 Breakfast Snack Lunch Snack Dinner 1/2 grapefruit 4 Stalks of Celery 3.5 oz Shrimp 5 Melba Rounds 3.5 oz Chicken Breast 8 oz Green Tea Salsa 1 Cucumber 8 ox Oolong Tea 1 Apple 1/2 Apple 45 Calories 65 Calories 115 Calories 50 Calories 175 Calories .
429 Calories 152 Calories From Fat 17g Total Fat 2.5g Saturated Fat 8.3g Protein 58g Carbs 0.7g Sugars fresh greens 23 Calories 0 Calories From Fat 0g Total Fat 0g Saturated Fat 1.2g Protein 4.7g Carbs 2.4g Sugars brown rice 318 Calories 20 Calories From Fat 2.4g Total Fat
Calories 1000 minimum -1350 maximum Maximum Calories from fat 30% No more than 30% of calories (minimum 25%). Example:300 calories for a 1000 calorie meal /405 calories for 1350 calorie meal Maximum Total fat (g) 30 % total. Example: 33g for 1000 calorie meal, 45g for 1350 calorie meal Saturated fat (g) 10% max. saturated fat calories.
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calories they eat with the number of calories they expend during daily activities (such as exercise). What is the recommended amount of calories for a sedentary teenager or adult? o Roughly 2,000 calories per day. o Every 3,500 calories consumed that is not burned off by activity becomes a pound of body fat.
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