Principles And Concepts Of Food Hygiene And Safety

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10/7/2020Principles and concepts of foodhygiene and safetyBhavana GuptaAssistant Professor1

10/7/2020Food Safety is the set of practices one must observe forthe food to be free from hazards. It ensures that the food weeat is fit for consumption. It encompasses all aspects ofensuring the food’s condition. Food safety starts fromensuring the cleanliness of food up to its quality and howsuppliers market the product.Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling,preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness.Occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illnessesresulting from the ingestion of a common food is known as afood-borne disease outbreak.2

10/7/2020Food hygiene are the conditions and measures necessary toensure the safety of food from production to consumption(Food Chain Sequence). Handling, preparing and storing foodor drink in a way that best reduces the risk of consumersbecoming sick from the food-borne disease.Food hygiene falls under the umbrella term ‘food safety’.Food hygiene itself does not include all the other key areasof food safety.Food safety refers to an entire system of managing risks.Meanwhile, food hygiene refers to an individual set ofpractices for controlling only one aspect.3

10/7/2020 Food safety will help to Prevent, detect and manage foodborne risks. Contributing to food security, human health, economicprosperity, agriculture, market access, tourism andsustainable development.Under the umbrella of “The Future of Food Safety”. WHO,in collaboration with the Food and AgricultureOrganization(FAO) of the United Nations In 2018, theUnited Nations General Assembly declared June 7 as theWorld Food Safety Day. June 7, 2019, marks the firstanniversary of World Food Safety Day and the theme for WorldFood Safety Day 2020 was 'Food Safety, everyone's business”.4

10/7/2020The United Nations (UN) has assigned two of itsagencies, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)and the World Health Organisation (WHO) to leadefforts in promoting food safety around the world.5

10/7/2020The World Food Safety Day is celebrated every year onJune 7 to draw global attention to the health consequencesof contaminated food and water.World Food Day is an international day celebrated everyyear around the world on 16 October in honor of the dateof the founding of the Food and Agriculture Organization ofthe United Nations in 1945.People from around the world come together to declaretheir commitment to eradicate worldwide hunger from ourlifetime.6

10/7/2020The per capita availability of milk in India during 201718 was 375 gm/day to average world per capitaavailability of 229 gram/day.IndianCouncilofMedicalResearch(ICMR) recommends an average daily intake of 300 gmper day of milk to deliver the requisite macro-micronutrients, the national average of per-capitaconsumption is about 185 gm and 146 gm a dayrespectively in urban and rural India.7

10/7/2020 Food safety is a shared responsibility betweengovernments, producers and consumers. Everybody has arole to play from farm to table to ensure the food weconsume is safe and will not cause damages to ourhealth. Through the World Food Safety Day, WHO pursuesits efforts to mainstream food safety in the public agendaand reduce the burden of foodborne diseases globally. 2020theme “Food safety, everyone’s business.”8

10/7/2020Definition of Food Chain Sequence of stages Operations ge &handling of a food &food ingredients fromprimary production toconsumption.9


10/7/2020The key elements of food hygiene arePersonal hygiene. This includes handwashing,protective clothing, illness procedures, and other duties(such as avoiding smoking).Preventing cross-contamination. This includespreventing bacterial, physical, chemical, and allergeniccontamination, particularly by having appropriateequipment in place (such as separate cutting boards).Cleaning procedures. Thorough cleaning of thekitchen, equipment, and kitchenware (including platesand cutlery) is vital.11

10/7/2020Allergen control. All businesses must clearly explain whichfoods are allergenic and must prevent allergens from crosscontaminating other food.Safe storage of food. This includes storage locations andcontainers, a First-In First-Out system, labelling, andtemperature control.Cooking temperatures- must ensure cooking and holdingof food at appropriate temperatures to prevent bacterialrisks.12

10/7/2020According to WHO five key principles of foodhygiene are:Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreadingfrom people, pets, and pests.Separate raw and cooked foodscontaminating the cooked foods.topreventCook foods for the appropriate length of time and atthe appropriate temperature to kill pathogens.13



10/7/2020Eight Principals of Hygiene Throughout thefood chain PRP – PRE-REQUISITE PROGRAM EIGHTGENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FOOD HYGIENE-GHP(GOOD HYGIENICPRACTICES)1.Primary production2.Establishment Design and facilities3. Control of operations4.Maintenance and sanitation information andconsumer awareness5. Personnel Hygiene6.Transportation7. Product information8.Training Throughout the food chain16

10/7/20201. Primary production – Environmental hygiene(where the environment/ surrounding poses athreat to food safety) – Hygienic production ofFood Sources (Control contamination from air,soil, water, feed-stock, pesticides, veterinary drugsor any other agent used in primary production.Protect food sources from fecal and othercontaminant)– Handling storage and nt. Protect food and food ingredientsfrom contamination by pests, chemicals,microbiological or physical or other objectionablesubstances during handling storage andtransportation. Cross contamination.)Cleaning maintenance and personal hygiene17

10/7/20202. Establishment Design and Facilities Nature ofoperations, associated risks – Premises and equipmentand facilities to minimize risk and ensure food safety –Location (Potential sources of contamination fromsurroundings) – Internal design, structures and layout of thepremises rooms and equipment (Should facilitate measuresthat prevent contamination, durable, movable capable ofbeing disassembled to allow for maintenance, cleaning,disinfecting and monitoring) – Facilities (Directly or indirectlyimpact food safety : water quality, air quality, drainage andwaste disposal, temperature control, personal hygiene,lighting, storage ensure effective protection fromcontamination during storage.) Especially temporary ormobile facilities18

10/7/20203.Control of Operations: – Control of food hazardsthrough the use of HACCP system (Potential sources ). – Key aspects of hygiene control systems(Specific process steps, Microbiological and otherspecifications, microbial cross contamination, requirements( specification to be identified and applied,where possible inspected and sorted before processing).19

10/7/2020Packaging ( Design and materials used). – Water ( incontact with food and used as an ingredient Special care forIce and steam). – Management and supervision (Size of thebusiness nature of activity and type of food).Documentation and records (period that exceeds shelf life).Recall procedures. (complete recall, handling andcommunication).20

10/7/20204. Maintenance and Sanitation Cleaning methods andprocedures. (Appropriate for the type of product and Cleaning Programs (Method, frequency and monitored fortheir suitability and effectiveness). Pest Control Systems(Preventing access, preventing harborage and infestation,monitoring and detection, eradication measures). WasteManagement (Method, frequency and it,microbialsampling)21

10/7/20205. Personal Hygiene – Health Status of Employees. – Illnessand injuries (Communicable diseases and surface injuries tohands or parts that come in contact with food items.) –Personal cleanliness-Clothing, Personal cleanliness-Clothing– Personal Behavior ( smoking, spitting, chewing and eating,sneezing , personal effects.) – Visitors ( Rules and guidelinesfor entry and access and safety or protective covering).22

10/7/20206.Transportation – Design of conveyances and tamination, Time, temperature and humidity controlsavailable and monitored, Appropriate for type of packaging)Use and maintenance. (Mixed and prior usage, appropriatescheduling and corrective measures)23

10/7/20207.Product information and consumer awareness– Lotidentification (Codex standard & FSSA rules) –Product information (Bear adequate information toenable the next person in the food chain to handle,display, store prepare and use the product safely andcorrectly.) – Labelling (Codex standards and FSSA rules)– Consumer education. (hygiene, nutrition, labelinstructions)24

10/7/20208.Training (most important) Cause of most food safetyHazards and incidents. – Awareness and responsibility –Training Programs nature of food and its ability to sustaingrowth of harmful micro-organisms. manner in which food ishandled/packed . extent/nature of processing or furtherpreparation before final consumption. conditions underwhich the food will be stored. expected length of time beforeconsumption. – Instructions and supervisions – RefresherTraining25

10/7/2020 HACCPHazard analysis and critical control points(HACCP) system ISO (International Organization for Standardization)stepped in and brought out ISO 22000:2005. Organisation for Animal Health OIE World Trade Organization (WTO)agreements Codex Alimentarius Commission26


becoming sick from the food-borne disease. 3 Food hygiene falls under the umbrella term 'foodsafety'. Food hygiene itself does not include all the other key areas of food safety. Food safety refers to an entire system of managing risks. Meanwhile, food hygiene refers to an individual set of practices for controlling only one aspect. 10/7/2020

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