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National Park ServiceU.S. Department of the Interior Northeast RegionHistory ProgramHarriet Tubman Underground RailroadNational MonumentHistoric Resource StudybyI n Pa rt n e r s h i pwith theKate Clifford Larson, Ph.D.O rga n i z at i o nofA m e r i c a n H i s t o r i a n s /N at i o na l Pa r k S e rv i c e1

Harriet Tubman UndergroundRailroad National MonumentHistoric Resource StudybyKate Clifford Larson, Ph.D.Presented to the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National MonumentIn Partnership withtheOrganization of American Historians/National Park ServiceNortheast Region History ProgramNational Park ServiceU.S. Department of the InteriorDecember 2019Cover Illustration: Powelson, Benjamin F, photographer.Portrait of Harriet Tubman. Circa 1868. Library of Congress.

Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National MonumentHistoric Resource StudyKate Clifford Larson, Ph.D.Presented to the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National MonumentIn Partnership withthe Organization of American Historians/National Park ServiceNortheast Region History ProgramDecember 2019Recommended by:MARY EYRINGDigitally signed by MARY EYRINGDate: 2020.06.02 16:27:39 -04'00'Shaun Eyring, Chief, Cultural Resources Division, Northeast RegionRecommended by:DEANNAMITCHELLDateDigitally signed by DEANNAMITCHELLDate: 2020.06.24 14:23:42 -04'00'Deanna Mitchell, Superintendent, Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National MonumentDateCover Illustration: Powelson, Benjamin F, photographer.Portrait of Harriet Tubman. Library of Congress.Disclaimer: The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of this author and should notbe interpreted as representing the opinions or policies of the U.S. Government. Mention of trade names orcommercial products does not constitute their endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Table of ContentsOverview and Purpose of the Historic Resource Study 1Early Preservation and Commemoration 1A Proposal for a National Park 3The Historic Resource Study 7Research 9Historical Family and Community Figures 12Historical Context of the National Monument/Park 15Executive Summary/Introduction 23Part OnePre-colonial Nanticoke and Choptank indigenous history in the Chesapeake,European Contact and Settlement, and the rise of New World slaveryto Tubman’s Birth in 1822.Chapter 1: Paleo-Indian Settlement to 1720 27Chapter 2: 1720–1775 55Chapter 3: 1775–1800 79Chapter 4: 1800–1822 107Part TwoHarriet Ross Tubman Occupation Period—Birth, Enslavement, Freedom, and the Underground RailroadChapter 5: 1822–1835 127Chapter 6: 1836–1849 163Chapter 7: 1850–1861 193Part ThreeCivil War, Emancipation, and Post Tubman HistoryChapter 8: 1861–1864 259Chapter 9: 1865–Present Day 287Chapter 10: Research Recommendations 329v

Back MatterList of Figures 333Appendix AArchitectural survey reports and Historic Register nominationsfor significant historic structures within the Monument boundaries(including some since demolished) 359Appendix BHistory of the Bucktown Store 363Appendix CArchival Resources and Online Historical Databases 365BibliographyPrimary and Secondary Source Bibliography for this submittal 373vi

Overview and Purpose of the HistoricResource StudyLocated on 11,750 acres of wetlands, agricultural and open fields, woodlands,rivers, and streams in Dorchester County on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake inMaryland, the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Monument joined theNational Park System in 2013. Established to honor the life and legacy of Harriet Tubman,who was born and raised in the county as an enslaved person during the early to mid1800s, the park’s expansive landscapes encompass the larger story of slavery and freedomin the Upper South and the strategies enslaved people employed to survive and resist theirinvoluntary condition.Initiated by the National Park Service [NPS] in 2000, the Monument began as partof an extensive Special Resource Study [SRS] rooted in longtime efforts to recognizeTubman’s history and legacy. Born in Maryland in 1822, Tubman spent the first twentyseven years of her life enslaved in Dorchester and Caroline counties on the Eastern Shore.After escaping slavery in 1849, she spent eleven years rescuing family and friends fromenslavement in Maryland. Allied with northern abolitionists and Underground Railroadnetworks, Tubman navigated hundreds of miles of terrain in Pennsylvania, New Jersey,New York, Massachusetts, and Canada. In 1859 she purchased a seven-acre farm inAuburn, New York, from William Henry and Frances Miller Seward for herself and herfamily, who were then living in St. Catharines, Canada. Recruited to work as a spy, scout,nurse, and cook for the U.S. Army during the Civil War, Tubman gained national recognition for her bravery and skill. After the war, Tubman returned to Auburn, where she resided for nearly fifty years, campaigning for woman suffrage, health care for AfricanAmericans, and civil rights until her death in 1913. While the National Monument and Parkin Maryland encompass the landscapes of Tubman’s life in Maryland, the Harriet TubmanNational Historical Park in Auburn protects her home site, Home for the Aged, her church,and gravesite. Her legacy as a champion of freedom, equality, justice and self-determination set the stage for memorials to her life for more than one-hundred years.Early Preservation and CommemorationAttempts to commemorate and memorialize Tubman began as early as her death inMarch 1913. For generations local, regional, and national groups have campaigned for agreater recognition of Tubman’s contributions to our nation’s history. The work of these1

Overview and Purpose of the Historic Resource Study individuals helped support and preserve Tubman’s memory, and secured her place amongthe pantheon of national heroes and great leaders. 1Early efforts to achieve national recognition started with saving and restoringTubman’s Home for the Aged in Auburn—a property she purchased in 1896 and gifted tothe African Methodist Episcopal Zion [A.M.E. Zion] Church in 1903. The home andproperty served the needs of ill, homeless, and aged African Americans for nearly threedecades and eventually fell into disrepair. Restoration began in earnest in the 1950sthrough the joint efforts of the church, family members, and a newly organized preservation group called the Harriet Tubman Boosters to save the property and buildings, securingTubman’s historical and cultural legacy. With the 1990 purchase of Tubman’s formerseven-acre farm and brick primary residence—built in 1883 to replace Tubman’s woodframe house destroyed by fire in early 1880—the original two Tubman properties werebrought back together for the first time since separated shortly after Tubman’s death in1913. Designated by the National Park Service as a National Historic Landmark (NHL) in1975, the thirty-two-acre Harriet Tubman Home for the Aged and her residence remainowned and operated as a public museum by the A.M.E. Zion Church. Thompson MemorialA.M.E. Zion Church, Tubman’s place of worship, and her gravesite at Fort Hill Cemetery inAuburn all received NHL status as well. During the 1990s, with the involvement of the NewYork State Office of Parks, Recreation, and Historic Preservation [OPRHP], the AuburnCity Planning Office, and the Preservation League of New York State, grants awarded bythe New York legislature, the governor’s office, and Save America’s Treasures helpedstabilize the structures and support preservation efforts. The then newly established NewYork State Freedom Trail highlighted Tubman’s role as a famous conductor on theUnderground Railroad.For decades, an annual spring A.M.E. Zion pilgrimage to the Tubman property inNew York hosted by the Harriet Tubman Boosters and Friends of the Harriet TubmanLibrary draws hundreds of families and individuals from all around the country to celebrate Tubman’s enduring legacy.In Maryland, early commemorative efforts included a Civil War centennial markerplaced at Tubman’s childhood home, the former Brodess Farm outside of Bucktown, in1965.2 Early community celebrations honoring Tubman’s life and legacy held on or nearJuneteenth at Bazel Church in Bucktown have recently ceased. Founded in the 1980s as acommunity-centered museum and educational resource center inspired by Tubman, theHarriet Tubman Organization [HTO] (also known as the Harriet Tubman Museum andEducation Center) in Cambridge remains central to commemorative efforts focused onMany thanks to Mike Long, Auburn, NY, and Glenn Carowan, MD DNR, for their assistance in writing thistimeline.2No structures from Tubman’s occupation period survive at the farm site today. The current building sited onthe farm is an early twentieth-century structure.12

Overview and Purpose of the Historic Resource Study Tubman and her life on the Eastern Shore. Educational programs, tours, communityoutreach, and a yearly conference engage visitors from near and far. The HTO is a strategicpartner with NPS, the state of Maryland, and county and local officials and organizations.A Proposal for a National ParkIn 1995, The National Park Service successfully completed the UndergroundRailroad Special Resource Study, establishing the National Park Service’s Network toFreedom Program, which now boasts over six hundred documented sites associated withthe Underground Railroad nationwide. Two sites associated with Harriet Tubman inAuburn were among the many sites across the country identified in the SRS as worthy ofadditional study.3In the late 1990s, through the encouragement of Vincent DeForest, Special Assistantto the Director of the National Park Service, along with Addie Richberg (of theInternational Network to Freedom Association), Mike Long from the Auburn CityPlanning Office, and A.M.E. Zion Church bishop George Herbert Walker, discussed theidea of a Harriet Tubman National Park. Bishop Walker, Rev. Paul G. Carter (the residentdirector of the Tubman home property and then minister at Thompson Memorial A.M.E.Zion Church in Auburn), Vince DeForest, Addie Richberg and Mike Long met inWashington, D.C. to discuss the idea with National Park Service Director Robert Stanton.The group discussed and tentatively approved the idea of turning Tubman’s thirtytwo-acre property in Auburn into a national park through a public-private partnershipwith the A.M.E. Zion Church and its nonprofit management entity, The Harriet TubmanHome, Inc., similar to the partnership that operates the Martin Luther King Jr. Center forNonviolent Social Change. With the help of Mike Long and Rev. Paul Carter, VinceDeForest drafted the initial legislation for a Harriet Tubman Special Resources Study. Thislegislation primarily focused on the Tubman property, Fort Hill Cemetery gravesite,Thompson Memorial A.M.E. Zion Church, and the William Henry Seward House inAuburn, and St. Catharines, Canada, where Tubman spent time during the 1850s.Sponsored by Congressman Amo Houghton in 1997, the legislation did not include anysites related to Tubman’s formative years in Maryland. Lacking broad congressionalsupport, the bill failed to pass.During July 1998, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton sponsored a Save America’sTreasures tour, making a special visit to the William Seward Home and the Harriet TubmanHome in Auburn. Featured in newspapers around the world, the Tubman site event wasattended by more than four thousand people. Later that summer, President Bill Clinton3https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online books/underground/srs.pdf3

Overview and Purpose of the Historic Resource Study signed an Executive Order declaring Tubman’s home property in Auburn a NationalHistoric Site.In Maryland, work had begun on establishing a Harriet Tubman UndergroundRailroad Scenic Byway. In 1998, the Maryland State Highway Administration, the HarrietTubman Organization, and other Tubman stakeholders and residents developed a sixtyfour-mile Harriet Tubman Byway, which included several sites related to Tubman’s life asan enslaved person and other significant African American historical and cultural sites inDorchester and Caroline Counties. Finalized in 1999, then revised and expanded in 2005 tocover 126 miles, the route now includes some of the most significant sites related toTubman’s birth, childhood, young adulthood, and Underground Railroad rescue missionpreviously not included in the original byway. Additional historical and cultural sites enrichan already powerful historic road. In 2009 the Federal Highways Administration awardedthe Tubman byway All-American Road status, the highest and most prestigious rankawarded to a scenic byway.4In April 2000, New York senator Charles Schumer reintroduced legislation for theHarriet Tubman SRS. The original group of supporters and leaders from Auburn, the NPS,and the A.M.E. Zion Church coordinated their efforts with Mrs. Evelyn Townsend andother members of the HTO in Cambridge, Maryland. The new legislation amended andexpanded the former Houghton effort to include three sites in Dorchester County—BazelChurch, the former Brodess Farm, and the Bucktown Village Store. The legislation passedboth the House and the Senate, and in November 2000, President Clinton signed theHarriet Tubman Special Resources Act. The act authorized the National Park Service tobegin its study to determine the suitability and feasibility of establishing a national park inhonor of Tubman.In July 2002, the HTO in Cambridge developed a proposal to “create the nation’snewest national park” to honor Tubman in Dorchester County. On July 9, 2002, 3,328delegates attending the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People[NAACP] annual convention unanimously endorsed the creation of the Harriet TubmanNational Park.The Tubman SRS took eight years to complete—one of the longest special resourcestudies ever conducted by the National Park Service. The study revealed that initial sitesdesignated by the legislation were inadequate to represent Tubman’s life history andcontributions. With the help of historians, researchers, and local supporters in New York,Maryland, and from across the nation and Canada, new details of Tubman’s life andactivities expanded the scope of the resource study far beyond its original intent. The studyidentified significant sites in Maryland, South Carolina, Florida, New York, and NewEngland.4http://harriettubmanbyway.org4

Overview and Purpose of the Historic Resource Study Maryland’s Office of Business and Economic Development and the tourism andeconomic development offices in the city of Cambridge and in Dorchester and CarolineCounties urged the National Park Service to expand its scope to include nearly two dozenhistorically and culturally significant sites on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in its proposed park boundaries. These sites, they argued, represented unique examples of a surviving nineteenth-century agrarian working landscape where people pursued traditional usesof farming, timbering, hunting, fishing, and trapping during Tubman’s time. These landscapes included sites where she lived and worked as an enslaved person and where sheconducted clandestine Underground Railroad activities.In response, the National Park Service narrowed its focus to sites in New York andMaryland. Participation of local groups, including the Harriet Tubman Organization,Dorchester and Caroline County Historical Societies, state and local tourism, other localmuseums, site owners and partners, Blackwater NWR, Maryland State Parks, the NAACP,and numerous other local, regional, and national organizations and stakeholders joined insupport of the National Park Service and its expanded study.The Harriet Tubman SRS explored the question of whether the National ParkService should recognize and honor Tubman and preserve sites associated with her. Thestudy, completed in November 2008, determined that resources (buildings and landscapes)in Auburn, New York, and in Dorchester, Caroline, and Talbot Counties in Maryland, metcriteria for units of the park system. The Secretary of the Interior transmitted the study andits recommendations to Congress on January 12, 2009, with support for establishing twounits of the National Park System to honor Tubman.Meanwhile, in 2004, efforts to establish a Harriet Tubman State Park in DorchesterCounty began in earnest. At the urging of the Dorchester County Office of Tourism, Heartof the Chesapeake Heritage Area Committee, and the Harriet Tubman Organization, theMaryland Department of Budget and Economic Development’s (MDBED) Office ofTourism responded. Recognizing the rising interest and advocacy to commemorateTubman and the Underground Railroad, and the need to protect the significant Marylandsites identified by the SRS, county and state officials launched a working group of community members, historians, county and state officials, and National Park Service representatives to coordinate and advise on a potential state park project.In 2007, the transfer of a seventeen-acre site (known as the Linthicum Tract) on KeyWallace Drive owned by Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge [BNWR] to the State ofMaryland and facilitated by a land exchange coordinated by the Conservation Fund,officially established the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad State Park. Years ofplanning, public meetings, acquiring funding, and coordinating federal, regional, and localsupport led to the building of a visitor center on the site. Considered the trailhead for theTubman Byway, the visitor center opened on March 10, 2017, and has hosted over 225,0005

Overview and Purpose of the Historic Resource Study visitors from all fifty states and sixty countries.5 The years-long process involved a broadcross section of community members, local, county, and state elected officials, tourism,business, and state and local heritage organizations, Maryland State Parks and Departmentof Natural Resources, the Conservation Fund, historians, family members, the NationalPark Service, interpretive specialists, and other Tubman stakeholders.During the 110th, 111th, and 112th Congresses, legislation co-sponsored by delegates from both Maryland and New York for the Harriet Tubman National Historical Parkin Auburn, New York, and the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National HistoricalPark Act in Dorchester County, Maryland, failed to reach a vote during all sessions. OnSeptember 14, 2011, more than one hundred Tubman parks supporters from Maryland toNew York gathered in Washington D.C. for Harriet on the Hill Day to pressure Congress topass Senate Bill S. 247, The Harriet Tubman National Historical Park and Harriet TubmanUnderground Railroad National Historical Park Act.In September 2012, Maryland requested that President Barack Obama designatethe Harriet Tubman National Monument in Dorchester County. The Conservation Fundacquired a 480-acre parcel near Madison, which once contained the farm of Jacob Jackson,a free black farmer and veterinarian who helped Tubman plan the rescue of her brothersduring Christmas 1854. The transfer of the land to the Department of the Interior for theNational Park Service enabled the president, under provisions in the Antiquities Act, todesignate the site a National Monument in honor of Tubman and the site’s historic andcultural significance. President Obama designated the Harriet Tubman NationalMonument through an Executive Order on March 25, 2013, during a signing ceremony inthe Oval Office, the first step in establishing a National Park Service unit in the region.6The creation of the National Monument did not satisfy the recommendations setforth in the SRS—two National Parks in Tubman’s honor. Maryland senator Benjamin L.Cardin and three co-sponsors—New York senator Charles E. Schumer Maryland senatorBarbara A. Mikulski, and New York senator Kirsten E. Gillibrand—reintroduced theHarriet Tubman National Historical Parks Act, S. 247, in February 2013. In July 2014, theU.S. Senate passed the bill.Five months later, on December 3, 2014, the House and Senate leaders unveiled afinal agreement on the 2015 National Defense Authorization Act [NDAA], which includedlanguage establishing national parks in Auburn and in Maryland. After the 2015 NDAApassed both the House and Senate, President Barack Obama signed it on December 19,2014.As of October 1, iet-tubman-underground-railroad-national-m566

Overview and Purpose of the Historic Resource Study Though the previous Presidential Proclamation in 2013 had created the 480-acreHarriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Monument in Dorchester County, theHarriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Historical Park included more thaneleven thousand acres in Dorchester County and additional authorized acquisition areas inCaroline and Talbot Counties. The National Park Service administers the Harriet TubmanUnderground Railroad National Monument and the Harriet Tubman UndergroundRailroad National Historical Park [HATU] as one unit. NPS manages the park unit fromoffices at the separately operated seventeen-acre Harriet Tubman Underground RailroadState Park and Visitor Center in Church Creek, Maryland.The 2015 NDAA also authorized the Harriet Tubman National Historical Park[HART] in Auburn. On January 10, 2017, Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell formallyestablished the park at a signing ceremony at the Department of the Interior’s headquarters in Washington, D.C. The Tubman National Historical Park includes Tubman’s brickresidence, the Home for the Aged on South Street, and Thompson Memorial AfricanMethodist Episcopal Zion Church and Rectory on Parker Street in Auburn. The NationalPark Service owns and operates the church and rectory and will co-manage the thirty-twoacre Tubman property, which includes the Home for the Aged and the Tubman residence,with the Harriet Tubman Home, Inc., a 501c3 organization established by the A.M.E. ZionChurch.The Historic Resource StudyAccording to the NPS Cultural Resource Management Guidelines (NPS-28),“A historic resource study (HRS) provides a historical overview of a park orregion and identifies and evaluates a park’s cultural resources within historiccontexts. It synthesizes all available cultural resource information from alldisciplines in a narrative designed to serve managers, planners, interpreters,cultural resource specialists, and interested public as a reference for the historyof the region and the resources within a park. Entailing both documentaryresearch and field investigations to determine and describe the integrity,authenticity, associative values, and significance of resources, the HRS suppliesdata for resource management and interpretation.”One purpose of the HRS, as outlined in the guidelines, is to identify areas of specialneed within the Monument boundaries, including more detailed and specialized cultural,historical, and environmental studies of Monument resources. One of the recommendations is to identify sites eligible for National Register of Historic Places nominations. Tothat end, the Maryland Historical Trust [MHT] conducted an architectural historic sites7

Overview and Purpose of the Historic Resource Study and markers inventory beginning in the late 1960s through the early 2000s.7 Many of thosereports indicate National Register potential. MHT did not review or document everyhistoric structure in Dorchester County, but the approximately seven hundred surveysrepresent a significant number of historic buildings, including several within theMonument boundaries. The architectural survey reports and Historic Register nominationfiles are useful for contextualizing historic resources, even for the structures within theMonument demolished since those reports were created. The most significant sites withinthe Monument boundaries with completed survey reports are in Appendix A.Other reports include several historical and cultural landscape resource studiesconducted by the National Park Service, the state of Maryland, Maryland Historical Trust,and Dorchester and Caroline Counties officials during the early 2000s for the 126-mileHarriet Tubman Byway and All-American Road, the Harriet Tubman UndergroundRailroad State Park, the Harriet Tubman Special Resources Study, among other cultural,archaeological, and historical resource projects.8 NPS completed a Natural ResourceCondition Assessment for HATU in March 2019, and is currently conducting a CulturalLandscape Study for the Jacob Jackson site.9 I am grateful for the research sharing andconversations with Eliot Foulds, Senior Landscape Architect and Project Manager,Preservation Planning, and Jennifer Hanna, Historical Landscape Architect, at the OlmstedCenter for Landscape Preservation in Boston. They have engaged in extraordinary research about the human and physical landscapes and cultural material of Jacob Jackson’slife, his ancestors, and neighbors.https://mht.maryland.gov/research databaseportal2.shtml. Only one site within the Monument boundaries iscurrently listed on the National Register: https://mht.maryland.gov/nr/NRDetail.aspx?NRID 1692&COUNTY Dorchester&FROM NRCountyList.aspx8See John Milner Associates, Cultural Landscape Assessment for the Harriet Tubman Special Resource Study.Dorchester and Caroline Counties, Maryland (Boston Support Office, Northeast Region, Boston, MA.: NationalPark Service, 2003). National Park Service, Harriet Tubman Special Resource Study (Boston, MA: National ParkService, Boston Regional Office, 2008). Mary Means & Associates, Kittleson Associates, Tony Cohen, KateClifford Larson, and Andy Kalback, The Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway: Where Ordinary PeopleDid the Extraordinary. Corridor Management Plan (Silver Spring, MD 2007). Kate Clifford Larson, HarrietTubman Underground Railroad Byway Tour Guide Training Manual (Cambridge, MD: Dorchester and CarolineCounties Offices of Tourism, 2011). Jr. Ralph E. Esheman and Carl W. Scheffel, Maryland Lower ChoptankRiver Cultural Resource Inventory (Crownsville, MD: Choptank River Heritage, 2002). Maryland’s UpperChoptank River and Tuckahoe River Cultural Resource Inventory (Crownsville, MD: Choptank River Heritage,1999). Glenn A. Carowan and John Statsko, eds. Comprehensive Conservation Plan Approval for ChesapeakeMarshlands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Including Blackwater Nwr) (Washington, DC: Department of theInterior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006); Thomas E. Davidson, A Cultural Resource Management Plan forthe Lower Delmarva Region of Maryland (Carleston, SC: NOAA, 1997); Jesse O. Walker, Final Report: Phase IArchaological Identification Survey and Phase Ii Archaelogical Assessment Survey Tract 100m [Linthicum Site/Tubman State Park], Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Ninth Election District, Dorchester County, Maryland(Hadley, MA: Richard Grubb & Associates, Inc., 2007).9Engelhardt, K., T. Lookingbill, N. Bukach, M. Latimer, K. Ratliff, R. Gifford, J. Baek, O. Hurlbert, A. Rizzo,and B. Walsh, Natural resource condition assessment: Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad NationalHistorical Park. Natural Resource Report NPS/HATU/NRR—2019/1897 (Fort Collins, Colorado: National ParkService, 2019), 9/harriet tubman underground railroad national historical park natural resource condition assessment 2019-03-0178

Overview and Purpose of the Historic Resource Study Heritage and cultural tourism initiatives sponsored by the Maryland Department ofNatural Resources, Maryland State Parks, Maryland Department

Harriet tubman underground railroad national monument Historic resource study by Kate Clifford larson, PH.d. Presented to tHe Harriet tubman underground railroad national monument in PartnersHiP witH tHe organization of american Historians/national Park service nortHeast region History Program national ParK serviCe u.s. dePartment of tHe interior deCember 2019 Cover Illustration: Powelson .

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