978-1-906627-76-8 Religion In Britain: Challenges For Higher Education

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June 2015 ISBN: 978-1-906627-76-8Religion in Britain:Challenges forHigher EducationStimulus paperTariq ModoodProfessor of Sociology, Politics and Public PolicyUniversity of BristolCraig CalhounDirector and School Professor of Social ScienceLondon School of Economics and Political Science

Stimulus Paper SeriesThe Leadership Foundation is pleased to present this latestseries of ‘Stimulus Papers’ which are intended to informthinking, choices and decisions at institutional and systemlevels in UK higher education. The themes addressedfall into different clusters including higher educationleadership, business models for higher education, leadingthe student experience and leadership and equality ofopportunity in higher education. We hope these paperswill stimulate discussion and debate, as well as giving aninsight into some of the new and emerging issues relevantto higher education today.First published June 2015Leadership Foundation for Higher EducationPublished by the Leadership Foundation for Higher EducationRegistered and operational address:Leadership Foundation for Higher EducationPeer House8-14 Verulam StreetLondonWC1X 8LZTel: 44 (0) 20 3468 4810Fax: 44 (0) 20 3468 4811E-mail: info@lfhe.ac.ukwww.lfhe.ac.uk Leadership Foundation for Higher EducationAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may bereproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording orany information storage and retrieval system, without priorpermission in writing from the copyright owner.ISBN 978-1-906627-76-8Designed & produced by Smith CreativePrinted in the United Kingdom

ContentsForewordBy Professor Sir Robert Burgess01Introduction03Paper 1: ‘We don’t do God’? the changing nature of public religionBy Professor Tariq Modood04IIIIIII04040608091013Secular states and public religionsWestern European moderate secularismMulticulturalismChanges in religious demographyMinority identitiesThe public sphereConclusionPaper 2: Religion, the public sphere and higher educationBy Professor Craig Calhoun14IIIII1416181922The ‘vaguely Christian’ UKReligion and dissent in universitiesReligion as a public goodReligion and knowledge of religion in UK universitiesConclusionReferences for paper 123References for paper 225Author biographies26

01 Religion in Britain: Challenges for Higher EducationForewordThe Leadership Foundation has commissioned an interesting and timely pairof papers from Tariq Modood and Craig Calhoun. Together they bring theirexpertise in the social sciences to examine issues concerned with the place ofreligion in contemporary society and in turn the part it plays in higher education.Both papers cover similar territory and similar concepts. Craig Calhoun’s paperdraws not only on social science but also on his experience of being the head ofa higher education institution where many of these issues are not just mattersof intellectual debate but require practical solutions on a daily basis. Students,members of academic staff and those who lead and manage higher educationinstitutions address the questions that the authors raise in different ways.The papers demonstrate how religion is intertwined with a range of issuesand themes in society including the inter-relationship of religion, politicsand life choices. They also reveal how religion is not well integrated withinhigher education institutions generally since many are secular in terms of theirfoundation and ethos. Only the recently established Cathedrals Group comprising16 institutions has a formal link with religion that looks back to their founding bythe churches for the purpose of training teachers. Similarly, some of the collegesof Oxford, Cambridge and Durham have formal links with the Church of Englandthat stem from their origins in the training of Anglican clergy. Clearly this hasimplications for the formal curriculum and the student experience.It is against this background that the papers draw on a number of major themesthat stimulate a range of questions appropriate for debate and action. Amongthem are: what are the roles of chaplains and chaplaincies in a multifaithcommunity? Is it appropriate for chaplaincies to be established for churches anddenominations that are typically English? Should religion be considered as acomponent of racial equality and diversity policies?The growth in student numbers and increased recruitment of internationalstudents brings many students who are adherents of non-Western faiths. Inthis respect we must ask what the implications are for higher education? Whatcultural assumptions can no longer be made? Finally, we might ask, wheredo atheists fit in campus life? Taken together, these questions and issues raiseimplications that need careful consideration by staff and students.In terms of academic disciplines, there is an opportunity to address religiousilliteracy among students and staff as opportunities arise where insights fromdifferent faiths can inform academic debate and understanding. Ethical issuescan become part of the formal curriculum in the sciences and in medicine. In thearts and humanities, consideration can be given to the way religion has shapeddifferent traditions of literature and the arts. In the teaching of history, the impactof Methodism, for example, on life, work and politics can provide insights into keydebates for students and their teachers.

Stimulus paper by Tariq Modood and Craig Calhoun 02Meanwhile, many senior leaders in higher education have to deal with the provisionof space on campus for religious activities. This should be a relatively easy matterto resolve compared with handling the pronouncements of politicians on freedomof speech and the extent to which university authorities might become involved inmatters concerning the choice of speakers and the activities of student societies. AsCraig Calhoun notes, these are complex issues that institutions will regularly confrontwhen students and staff become involved in the local community and religionbecomes part of civic engagement.The themes pursued in these papers also have relevance for governing bodies.Here they must not be drawn into narrow operational issues but instead will needto use their independence and advisory role to consider the implications that suchquestions hold for leadership, governance and management. This in itself providesa strong case for the Leadership Foundation publishing these papers and beingcentrally involved in stimulating major debates between religious groups and thosewho live, work and study in higher education institutions.Professor Sir Robert BurgessFormer Vice-Chancellor, University of Leicester

03 Religion in Britain: Challenges for Higher EducationIntroductionThese two papers, by Tariq Modood and Craig Calhoun respectively, addressaspects of religion in contemporary Britain, raising questions about what isconsidered public and what private, and the need to consider this in the publicinstitutions of higher education.Modood’s paper focuses on the changing nature of public religion and secularismin Britain. It sets out some of the relevant changes that are giving religion a newpublic character, some of the controversies associated with this, and the kind ofand rationale for institutional accommodation that already exists and may needto be extended. It does so in relation to the state and the public space in general,and without focusing on higher education. It thus aims to provide a context fordiscussions about the place of religion in British higher education and how suchdiscussions may be approached.Calhoun’s paper prompts questions about the ways in which universities may befailing to live up to their aspirations to be a public good and to foster equalityand inclusivity. He considers some of the challenges posed for higher educationinstitutions and their leaders in coming to terms with the fact that the presence ofreligion in universities, with all its ambivalences and tensions, cannot be thoughtto be merely of interest to religious believers alone.We hope that taken together, the two papers are helpful in starting a debatewithin the sector, and in particular among its leaders, in thinking again aboutthe place of public religion and public secularity in higher education. Theseinstitutions are changing and so need to be revisited as places of learning andunderstanding, as contributors to the good of society and in relation to thecomposition of, relations among and responsibilities towards students.

Stimulus paper by Tariq Modood and Craig Calhoun 04‘We don’t do God’? the changingnature of public religionProfessor Tariq Modood, University of BristolSecular states and public religionsFor many in Britain and the rest of Western Europe, the claim that our states are orshould be secular is suggestive of an absolute separation of religion and the state.This common assumption, however, is quite misleading about European realities.For example, every state in the EU gives funding either to religious schools orfor religious education in state schools, and over a third collect taxes or helpraise money for (some) religions. Additionally, a third give funding to charitablereligious institutions and one in five has an ‘established’ state religion, such as theLutheran Church in Denmark and the Church of England in the UK. What WesternEuropean states and publics largely insist on is that this state control and supportmust not compromise the autonomy of politics and statecraft: it must be largelyjustifiable in political terms, not just for religious reasons, and it must not restrict(but may support) political authority and state action. Autonomy does not meanstrict separation of the US-type; it is consistent with some control over, someinterference in, some support for, some cooperation with (selected) religiousorganisations and religious purposes, as is the case in every single WesternEuropean state - which after all are the seed-bed for modern, Western politicalsecularisms. For most Western European states, the autonomy of the state goeshand in hand with the autonomy of churches and associated religious freedoms,with people free to believe, worship and form religious organisations within thelaw. Hence, political secularism in Western Europe is best understood not in termsof ‘separation’, nor in terms of one-sided control but in terms of mutual autonomyand mutual support1. It is a ‘moderate secularism’, albeit taking different formsand being institutionalised in different ways in each Western European statedepending upon its distinctive history, religious demography, state tradition andpolitical culture. Britain is very much a part of this European mainstream culture2.Western European moderate secularismWithout going extensively into the character of moderate secular states, itis important to understand three important features of it that illuminate thekind of public space it gives to organised religion, and which can be helpful inconsidering the ethos that might guide public institutions in a country such asBritain.1. Religion is a public, not just a private good.It is understood that organised religion can play a significant role in relation toethical voice, social wellbeing, cultural heritage, national ceremonies and nationalidentity. This can take the form of its input into a legislative forum, such as theHouse of Lords, or to moral and welfare issues; but also to being a social partnerto the state in the delivery of education, and health and care services; or moreintangibly, in building social capital and the production of attitudes that create,for example, family stability or economic hope. Of course the public good that1Stepan (2000)2Modood (2010)

05 Religion in Britain: Challenges for Higher Education3ibidreligion can contribute is contextual; religion can in other contexts be sociallydivisive and can lead to civil and international wars. Hence religion can also be apublic bad. The point is that the good or bad that religion produces is not confinedto private lives but is socially and politically significant in many different ways.2. A national church (or churches), as key organisers of this publicgood, belong to the people/country, not just its membersand clergy.Non-members of the national church can nevertheless feel ‘ownership’ of orassociation with it through a sense of it meeting, for instance, certain standardsthat are not expected of religious organisations in general. For example, whenthe Church of England’s ruling body, the Synod, failed in 2012 to achieve the twothirds majority necessary to allow the creation of women bishops, many secularcommentators felt that it had let the country down, while the absence of womenclergy in the Roman Catholic Church or women imams is not part of a nationalconversation. This loud criticism by those who are not active Anglicans played apart in the Church reversing its decision in 2014. Similarly, the Lutheran Churchin Denmark is almost universally thought by Danes to be a central element ofDanish national identity, even though a minority say they believe in its doctrinesand even fewer attend worship. In these and other ‘moderate secular’ countries,such individuals, even if they be atheists, feel they have a right to use the nationalchurch for occasions such as weddings and funerals. Of course the nationalreligion(s) are far from being the only religions contributing to the public good,but their historically central, indeed privileged character means that more isexpected of them.3. It is legitimate for the state to be involved in bringing out theelement of public good associated with organised religion(and not just protecting the public good from the dangers thatorganised religion can pose).If organised religions are recognised as being public goods, then, dependingon the circumstances, it might be decided that they are best achieved throughsome state–religion connections rather than strict separation. This is a contingentmatter but clearly the experience of Western Europe is that some connectionsare better than none. Of course, as has been said, religion can also be a ‘publicbad’ – it can for example in some circumstances be a basis for prejudice,discrimination, intolerance, sectarianism, social conflict and violence, so thestate has a responsibility to check the bad as well as enhance the good3. As withpublic goods, so with public bads: the interests of the state will not be primarilytheological or a mere preference for or against one religion regardless of theconsequences, but will instead be motivated by fostering and maintainingtangible and intangible public – or what we might call ‘secular’ – good. The keyconsideration for the state will not be secular ‘purity’ but that the means and endsare consistent with secular rationales and are effective, without being constrainedby a fetish for ‘separation’. In recent years, concern with Islamist terrorism and‘radicalisation’ have led states such as the UK to extol and condemn certainkinds of Islam, to co-opt certain Muslim groups into governance, and to engagein matters of imam training and the schooling of Muslim children. Moreover, ifreligious organisations are supported with public funds or tasked by the state tocarry out some educational or welfare duties, then the state will want to ensure

Stimulus paper by Tariq Modood and Craig Calhoun 06that such organisations do not compromise key policy goals. Thus, religiousorganisations are increasingly subject to requirements such as equal access ornon-discrimination.There is also a more radical secularism in European political culture, which isself-consciously exemplified in French laïcité. This form of secularism is less aboutaccommodating religion than about maintaining a republican national space inwhich religion is not present, while ensuring personal religious freedom outsidethe civic space. This civic space encompasses not just political and judicialinstitutions but also schools and, as far as some of its advocates are concerned,extends also to public culture – streets, parks and shops. While this is clearly anaspect of European public and political culture, and perhaps even central to theself-image of Western Europe in the minds of many intellectuals and academics, itmust be seen in context; namely, that it is not the mainstream political secularismof Western Europe.MulticulturalismIn a number of countries since about the 1960s, a new way of thinking andorganising minority–majority relations has emerged. Initially associated withthe new social movements and identity politics of gender, race and sexuality, inWestern Europe it is identified with the institutional accommodation of postimmigration ethno-religious minorities, or what we might call multiculturalism4.This marks a new conception of equality, that is to say, not just anti-discrimination,sameness of treatment and toleration of ‘difference’, but respect for difference;not equal rights despite differences but equality as the accommodation ofdifference in the public space, which therefore comes to be shared rather thandominated by the majority. Instead of creating a sharp distinction between thepublic sphere of rights and civic relations and a private sphere (of male–femalerelations, sexual orientations or religious beliefs), we acknowledge that thepublic sphere reflects various norms and interests of, for example, masculinity,heterosexuality, Anglophones, Christians, and that equality therefore requiresthe abandonment of the pretence of ‘difference-blindness’ and allowing others,the marginalised minorities, to also be visible and explicitly accommodated inthe public sphere. Whilst this will sometimes require enforcing uniformity oftreatment and eliminating discrimination on grounds such as religious affiliation,it will in addition sometimes require the recognition of distinct disadvantages(such as measures to increase the number of women in the legislature) or specialneeds (eg, the provision of halal meat in state schools). Finally, multiculturalismas a mode of post-immigration integration involves not just the reversal ofmarginalisation but also a remaking of national citizenship so that all can have asense of belonging to it; for example, creating a sense of being French that Jewsand Muslims, as well as Catholics and secularists, can envisage for themselves5.In this century, especially since the emergence of international Islamist networksof terrorism and attacks in the West, multiculturalism has become an unpopularconcept with politicians and publics. Nevertheless, there is good evidence thatmulticulturalist policies and accommodations are not being reversed6, andthat there could be said to exist a ‘multiculturalist sensibility’7: a multiculturalistapproach that has been extended from what we might call ethno-racial diversity4Modood (2007)5Modood (2007)6Kymlicka (2012)7Kivisto (2012)

07 Religion in Britain: Challenges for Higher Educationto ethno-religious pluralism. The important point is that despite the unpopularityof the term ‘multiculturalism’, doubts about certain policies and anxieties aboutcertain minorities, there is present today within mainstream public discoursesa particular way, alongside others, of conceiving of this diversity, namely not interms of toleration (ie, putting up with something negative), but rather of feelingthat minorities need to be included without having to assimilate, without havingto conform to the norms and attitudes of the majority. This multiculturalistsensibility did not arise in the context of religious difference, where variousregimes of governance, including moderate secularism, have accommodatedreligious pluralism in limited ways and with limited reference to a concept ofequality. Yet this multiculturalist sensibility, the idea that ‘difference’ is not anunfortunate fact to be put up with but is worthy of equality and respect, hastravelled in different directions from its origins and is now apparent in how some,especially Muslim, minorities see the field of religious diversity.Multiculturalism is clearly beyond toleration and state neutrality, for it involvesactive support for cultural difference, active discouragement against hostilityand disapproval and the re-making of the public sphere in order to fully includemarginalised identities. Perhaps because of this, some pro-diversity advocates arereluctant to extend multiculturalism to include religious groups. One argument isthat ‘woman’, ‘Black’ and ‘gay’ are ascribed, involuntary identities while being, say, aMuslim is about chosen beliefs, and that Muslims therefore need or ought to haveless legal protection than the other kinds of identities. Matters, however, are notthat simple. The position of Muslims today in countries such as Britain is similar tothe other identities of ‘difference’ as Muslims catch up with and engage with thecontemporary concept of equality. No one chooses to be or not to be born intoa Muslim family. Similarly, no one chooses to be born into a society where to looklike a Muslim or to be a Muslim creates suspicion, hostility or failure to get the jobyou applied for. Of course, how Muslims respond to these circumstances will vary.Some will organise resistance, while others will try to stop looking like Muslims(the equivalent of ‘passing’ for white); some will build an ideology out of theirsubordination, others will not, just as a woman can choose to be a feminist or not.Again, some Muslims may define their Islam in terms of piety rather than politics,just as some women may see no politics in their gender, while for others theirgender will be at the centre of their politics.This multiculturalism or multiculturalist sensibility can manifest itself in listeningto the demands of religious groups, in encouraging dialogue between religiousgroups and society, and in treating religious discrimination and incitement toreligious hatred seriously, and enforcing the law through an agency such as theUK Equality and Human Rights Commission. Moreover, it may also express itselfin, say, the funding of Muslim schools, bringing Muslims into governance andpromoting inter-faith relations at all levels, including in state ceremonies suchas Remembrance Day.

Stimulus paper by Tariq Modood and Craig Calhoun 08Changes in religious demographyOne of the striking features of social change in Britain (and at different speedsacross Western Europe more generally) across the 20th century is the decline ofreligion in general and of public religion in particular. This process is often called‘secularisation’. There seems to be no endogenous slowing down in the decline ofsecularisation in relation to organised religion, attendance at church services andtraditional Christian belief and practice. Focusing on Britain, nominal Christiansin the British Social Attitudes (BSA) surveys declined from 67% in 1983 to 42% in2013, though in the 2001 and 2011 censuses they were 71% and 59% respectively(less than half of 16–24 year-olds were Christian in 2011). Church attendance of atleast once a month has steadily declined from about 20% in 1983 to about 15% in2008 amongst white people and with each younger age cohort8. In contrast, theproportions stating in the BSA surveys that they had no religion were 31% in 1983and 51% in 2013, though in the 2011 Census it was 25% (with just over a thirdof 16–24 year-olds). This is not to say that religion has disappeared or is aboutto, but for many it has become more in the form of ‘belief without belonging’9,spirituality10 or ‘implicit religion’11. For example, while belief in a personal god hasgone down from over 40% in the middle of the 20th century to less than 30% byits end, belief in a spirit or life source has remained steady at around 35%–40%,and belief in the soul has actually increased from less than 60% in the early 1980sto an additional 5–10% in recent years12. Indeed, nearly a quarter of atheists sharethis belief13. Those who are consistently non-religious in identification, belief andbehaviour are only about 9%. Identification with a faith tradition, especially forChristians, often does not mean strict observance or collective worship but mayhave a ‘vicarious’ character14 and can exist alongside a ‘values gap’ between thelaity and the clergy15. Whilst the young and the highly educated are two groupsthat are less likely to be religious, nevertheless the majority of university studentssay they are religious16.The other major change in religious demography has been driven by immigration– not just the settlement of Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs from the 1950s onwards– but also more recently the growth of Black-led, especially West African,Pentecostalist churches, and the over-crowded Catholic churches as Poles joinedtheir congregations (the Polish inflow of about 600,000 between 2004 and 2008was the most concentrated single migration from one source into Britain ever).Non-Christian minorities in the 2011 Census comprise 7.4% of the population,consisting of Muslims (4.8%), Hindus (1.5%), Sikhs (0.8%), Jews (0.5%) and others(0.8%). Looking at these statistics together, these changes have altered thereligious geography of Britain, taking London from one of the least religiousareas to one of the most, and making the large towns and cities more religiousthan the small towns and the countryside, and thus reversing the traditionalpicture. If we add to this the fact that religious people have larger families (themore conservative, the larger), the growth of religion in Britain, after its longdecline through most of the 20th century, looks set to be a fact about 21stcentury Britain, although it may be disproportionately non-white and inner-city.The religious composition will be unprecedented. For example, 12.4% of 5-9year-olds in England and Wales in the 2011 Census are of a non-Christian faith(three-quarters being Muslims), suggesting that in 10 years’ time, around one ineight new adults will be of a minority faith, with the figure for London double8Voas & Crockett (2005); BRIN(2011); Kaufmann, Goujon &Skirbekk (2012)9Davie (2015)10Heelas & Woodhead (2005)11Bailey (1997)12BRIN (2011)13Spencer & Weldin (2012)14Davie (2015)15Woodhead (2013)16Weller, Hooley & Moore (2011);Guest, Aune, Sharma & Warner(2013)

09 Religion in Britain: Challenges for Higher Education17Modood, Berthoud, Lakey,Nazroo, Smith, Virdee & Beishon(1997)18GfK NOP (2006); see also Mirza,Senthilkumaran & Ja’far (2007)the English average. While in general, young people are less likely to be religiousthan older people, amongst ethnic minorities, expressions of commitment by theyoung can be exceptionally high: more than a third of Indians and African Asians,and two-thirds of Pakistani and Bangladeshi 16-34 year-olds said that religion wasvery important to how they led their lives, compared with a fifth of Caribbeansand 5% of whites17. In the case of Muslims, the importance attached to religion byyoung people has been rising and overtaking that of their elders18.Minority identitiesThe decline of congregational worship amongst Christians, especially Anglicansand the historic Protestant churches such as Baptist, Methodist and so on acrossthe 20th century has been followed by a decline in belief, or at least doctrine, andalso in religion-based social identities in Britain (but not Northern Ireland). Onthe other hand, post-immigration minority groups are always more conscious,and made more conscious by others, of their ‘difference’, of their identity. Whilethis can focus on a colour aspect (such as Black) or a national origin (such asIndian), for most minorities in Britain, religion has assumed a primacy or at leasta salience. Moreover, for some religions – perhaps all except Protestantism – thefaith and/or identity is expressed not or not only in terms of personal beliefsbut also in shared practices. This can take a variety of forms such as diet but themost visible (and currently the most controversial) is dress. Christianity has slowlybut progressively come to say that it is really about beliefs and good work, andyou don’t need to dress in a particular way (or eat in a particular way, or thatyou can’t eat certain kinds of food) in order to be a Christian. For example, youdo not even have to wear a cross. Many (perhaps most) religious people in theworld do not understand their religion in this way and some of those peopleare now British. They believe that they have a religious or a religious-ethical dutyto dress in a certain way (or to eat or not to eat certain foods). Sikh turbans andIslamic headscarves are now an unexceptional feature of British cities and partof those minority faiths. Indeed, they are part of those minority identities sincesuch dress codes and other practices are observed by community members whomay be uncertain of their beliefs. For some, the practices and the identity theyexpress can be more concrete than personal faith; even where there is decline orvagueness about belief, a sense of belonging may persist.Two points are being made here. First, Britain is seeing a flourishing of religiousor ethno-religious or religion-based identities; these are most prominent amongpost-immigration minorities. Identity assertions usually cause identity reactions,and this is partly happening in relation to some white non-believers beginning todescribe themselves as (culturally) Christian (though not as much as in Germany)and perhaps even more asserting a reactive secularist identity (though not on theextreme scale of France).The second point is that most religions require the observance of rules of piety,and Britain is experiencing such practice-based religions re-entering the publicspace after quite a long period in which such religion has been eroded awayor transformed into private belief. Both these trends give the impression ofcontinuing and each has implications for the public sphere.

Stimulus paper by Tariq Modood and Craig Calhoun 10The public sphereThere has, then

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