Mental Health Conditions In Film & Tv

1y ago
13 Views
2 Downloads
2.44 MB
42 Pages
Last View : 2d ago
Last Download : 5m ago
Upload by : Warren Adams
Transcription

MENTAL HEALTH CONDITIONS IN FILM & TVUSC ANNENBERG INCLUSION INITIATIVEAMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR SUICIDE PREVENTION@Inclusionists@afspnationalMENTAL HEALTH CONDITIONS ARE RARE IN POPULAR FILM & TVOUT OF4,598 CHARACTERSIN FILM1.7%OUT OF1,220 CHARACTERSIN THE7%18.9%IN TVU.S. POPULATIONEXPERIENCE AMENTAL HEALTHCONDITIONEXPERIENCE AMENTAL HEALTHCONDITIONEXPERIENCE AMENTAL HEALTHCONDITIONRATIO OF MALESTO FEMALESRATIO OF MALESTO FEMALESRATIO OF MALESTO FEMALES1.5:11.15:11:1.5MENTAL HEALTH PORTRAYALS LEAVE OUT THE LGBT N FILM WERE SHOWNWITH A MENTALHEALTHCONDITIONIN TV WERE SHOWNWITH A MENTALHEALTHCONDITIONIN FILM WERE SHOWNWITH A MENTALHEALTHCONDITION100 FILMS50 TV SERIESCHARACTERS100 FILMSACROSS AN ADDITIONAL 100 MOVIES FROM 2017, ONLY 1 LGBT CHARACTER WAS SHOWN WITHA MENTAL HEALTH CONDITION. NO TRANSGENDER CHARACTERS WERE DEPICTED WITH A MENTAL HEALTH CONDITION. 2019 DR. STACY L. SMITHPAGE 1

MENTAL HEALTH CONDITIONS IN FILM AND TVNumber of characters with mental health conditions, by category2931Addiction3015Anxiety/PTSD1810 Mood Disorders613688CATEGORIESSuicideOF MENTALHEALTHCONDITIONSAPPEARED ACROSSFILM & TVDisturbance in Thinking3 Spectrum Disorders72 Cognitive Impairment112 Eating DisordersFilmTVAddiction is not always recognized as a distinct mental health condition, but was included as such in this study. Across both portrayals infilm and TV, 5% (4) of film characters and 1% (1) of TV characters were shown with addiction and another mental health condition.MENTAL HEALTH IS MISSING FROM STORYTELLINGNumber of characters per story with a mental health condition, in percentagesNUMBER 14%5%Five 52%3%26%4% 2019 DR. STACY L. SMITHPAGE 2

MENTAL HEALTH IS STIGMATIZED AND TRIVIALIZED IN FILM AND TVDISPARAGEMENTHUMORCONCEALMENTTOTAL # OFCHARACTERSFILM47%22%15%87TVPercentage of characters with a mental health condition shown in context with.38%50%12%32UNDERREPRESENTED CHARACTERS AND MENTAL HEALTHPercentage of characters with a mental health condition who are from an underrepresented racial/ethnic group20%PREVALENCE OF MENTAL HEALTHCONDITIONS IN THE U.S. BYRACE/ETHNICITY30%Hispanic/Latino: 16.3%Black/African American: 18.6%31%Asian: 13.9%American Indian/Alasaka Native: 28.3%FILMTVTVTEENS’ MENTAL HEALTH DOES NOT TRANSLATE TO ENTERTAINMENT7%OF CHARACTERS WITH AMENTAL HEALTHCONDITIONIN FILM WERE TEENS.6%OF CHARACTERS WITH AMENTAL HEALTHCONDITIONIN TV WERE TEENS.20%OF U.S. TEENSEXPERIENCE AMENTAL HEALTHCONDITION. 2019 DR. STACY L. SMITHPAGE 3

MENTAL HEALTH IS MISSING FOR MANY COMMUNITIESNO0FILM CHARACTERSWITH A MENTALHEALTH CONDITIONWERE.HISPANIC/LATINO00MIDDLE EAST/NORTH AFRICANNATIVEAMERICAN0NATIVE HAWAIIAN/PACIFIC ISLANDEROnly 1 Multiracial/ethnic, 4 Asian, and 11 Black or African Americancharacters were shown with a mental health condition.NAME-CALLING IS NORMALIZED IN FILM AND TVSelected words/phrases used to refer to characters with a mental health UTSNITWITPSYCHOTHE VIEW OF MENTAL HEALTH IS VIOLENT IN FILM & TV46%OF FILMCHARACTERSWITH AMENTAL HEALTHCONDITION WEREPERPETRATORSOF VIOLENCE. 2019 DR. STACY L. SMITHPAGE 4

HOW CAN ENTERTAINMENT DEAL RESPONSIBLY WITH SUICIDE? 10MAMERICANSREPORT HAVINGSUICIDALTHOUGHTS EACHYEAR1.4MAMERICANS LIVETHROUGH SUICIDEATTEMPTSEACH YEARMOSTINDIVIDUALS WHOATTEMPT SUICIDEGO ON TO LIVE OUTTHEIR NATURALLIVESAuthentic, nuanced, and safe portrayals are needed when suicide is depicted.STRATEGIC SOLUTIONS TO CHANGE STORYTELLINGTo create authentic, nuanced, and safe portrayals, content creators should ask.WHY AM I TELLING THIS STORY?ASK: IS THE MENTAL HEALTH CONDITION USED AS A PLOT DEVICE?ASK: IS THE MENTAL HEALTH CONDITION USED FOR HUMOR?ASK: IS THERE UNNECESSARY STIGMA DEPICTED?ASK: IS HELP-SEEKING DEPICTED? 2019 DR. STACY L. SMITHPAGE 5

1Mental Health Conditions in Film & TV:Portrayals that Dehumanize and Trivialize CharactersUSC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative&American Foundation for Suicide PreventionExecutive SummaryThe purpose of the present study was to content analyze mental health conditions inpopular films and TV series. To this end, we scrutinized the 100 top movies of 2016 aswell as the first episode of the highest rated TV series from the 2016/2017 season. Anadditional analysis of the 100 top movies of 2017 was undertaken to examine LGBTportrayals as they relate to mental health conditions in storytelling. The major trends anddata points are illuminated below.Mental Health Conditions are Missing in Popular StorytellingIn popular films, only 1.7% of characters (n 4,598) are shown with a mental healthcondition. While TV improves on this figure, the 7% of characters in popular TV shows(n 1,220) portrayed with mental health conditions are still not representative of the 20%of the U.S. population experiencing a mental health condition or illness. Over half of the100 films (52%) and 26% of the 50 TV series in the sample did not feature a singlecharacter with a mental health condition.Portrayals of addiction occurred most often across both film (29 characters) and TV (31characters). Fifteen film characters and 30 TV characters were shown with anxiety andpost-traumatic stress disorders. Eighteen film and 10 TV characters exhibited mooddisorders (e.g., depression). Disturbances in thinking/perception affected 8 filmcharacters and 6 TV characters. Seven characters in film and 3 in TV experiencedspectrum disorders, while a number of characters (11 film, 2 TV) evidenced cognitiveimpairment. Only 2 TV characters were shown with eating disorders.Characters with Mental Health Conditions Face Inclusion DisparitiesThe characters who were presented with mental health conditions reflect anexacerbation of existing inclusion disparities across film and TV. The majority of mentalhealth portrayals feature white (film 80%, TV 69%) male characters (film 60%, TV 54%).Few teenagers were shown with mental health conditions (film 7% or 6 characters,TV 6% or 5 characters) on screen.Only a handful of characters with a mental health condition were Black (film 14%,TV 19%), Asian (film 5%, TV 4%), Hispanic/Latino (film 0, TV 5%) and multiracial(film 1%, TV 4%). It is important to note that there was not one Native American, Middle 2019 Dr. Stacy L. Smith

2Eastern/North African (MENA) or Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (NHPI) characterportrayed with a MHC across 100 movies or 50 TV series.Mental Health Conditions Evade Characters from the LGBT CommunityNot one character with a mental health condition was from the LGBT community acrossthe 100 top films of 2016. Only 1 LGBT character (white, male) featured a mental healthcondition across the 100 most popular movies of 2017. Thus, out of 9,052 speakingcharacters and 200 films, only one depiction of an LGBT character with a mental healthcondition was presented on screen. This is notable as members of the LGBT communityexperience disparities (e.g., bullying, discrimination) and thus mental health conditions ata higher rate than the population.Television fared slightly better. A total of 8 characters with a mental health conditionwere lesbian, gay or bisexual (9.3%), which is an improvement from film. However, it isimportant to emphasize not one transgender character with a mental health depictionappeared across the 50 most popular TV shows across the 2016-2017 season and the top200 movies from 2016-2017.Mental Health Conditions are Dehumanized in Popular StorytellingNearly half (47%) of the characters with a mental health condition were disparaged byother characters in film and 38% in TV. Disparagement manifested itself in the form ofname calling, dehumanizing phrases, and stigmatizing behavior. Forty one negative ordehumanizing terms/phrases were used to describe a character with a mental healthcondition in film and 15 in TV.Humor was another facet linked to portrayals of mental health conditions. Twenty-twopercent of film characters and half (50%) of TV characters were shown in a humorous ormocking light. These findings suggest that experiences of individuals with mental healthconditions are largely trivialized in entertainment storylines.Characters with a mental health condition were also shown as perpetrators of violence.In film, 46% of characters utilized aggression, while 25% of TV characters with mentalhealth conditions were shown acting violently. The erroneous belief that individuals withmental health conditions are largely “dangerous” to society is one that is beingreinforced in media depictions.Suicidal Ideation, Attempts, and Death are Infrequent in Popular StorytellingSuicide-related portrayals in the form of ideation, attempts and death were examined. Infilm, a total 13 (10 males, 3 females; 91% white) out of 4,598 characters were shown asthinking about, attempting or dying by suicide. Seven of these characters were depictedattempting suicide. Of the 5 suicides, 1 was shown on screen in an animated movie. One 2019 Dr. Stacy L. Smith

3depiction focused on ideation. Approximately half of the 13 characters were shown witha mental health condition and only 2 were shown receiving therapy or treatment.In TV, the portrayal of suicide was even more infrequent. Six characters of 1,220 werecoded with suicide-related thoughts or actions, with only 2 portrayals in the actualepisode sampled and coded. Of those 2 depictions (one male, one female), one involvedideation by verbal reference and one was a suicide attempt (e.g., opioid overdose).Largely, the portrayals of suicide-related thoughts and behaviors in film and TV offeredlittle context related to mental health or other risk factors.The Way Forward: Research, Advocacy, & Industry ActionThe lack of characters depicted with mental health conditions, the demographic skew,and contextual features associated with these portrayals must be addressed. Three areasare proposed for intervention, focusing on research, advocacy, and content creation.Research should focus on updating and extending the current study to include work thatevaluates the creation and impact of portrayals of mental health conditions. A series ofquestions are also offered for content creators who are developing characters withmental health conditions. These questions are designed to move away fromdehumanizing or trivializing depictions and toward more authenticity.The lived experiences of individuals with mental health conditions are missing frompopular media. Audience members who live and thrive with mental health conditions canadvocate for authentic and nuanced portrayals that illustrate their own stories. Inparticular, the importance of effective treatment and support is missing from film and TV.Four film characters were treated with medication for their mental health condition and22% attended or discussed receiving therapy. Three TV characters were shown usingmedication and 20 were in some form of therapy, ranging from attending AA meetings toreceiving multiple forms of treatment. By asking for more genuine depictions, audiencemembers can ensure that others see stories of hope and healing. 2019 Dr. Stacy L. Smith

4Mental Health Conditions in Film & TV:Portrayals that Dehumanize and Trivialize CharactersUSC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative&American Foundation for Suicide PreventionMental health conditions affect a quarter of individuals worldwide,1 including 18.9% ofthe adult U.S. population in 2017, 2 with 4.5% of American adults identified with moresevere forms of mental illness.3 The World Health Organization finds that depression isamong the leading contributors to medical disability globally, 4 yet prejudicial attitudesand behaviors are still barriers to receiving care and acceptance by families andcommunities.5 Less than half of American adults experiencing a mental health conditionreceive treatment,6 indicating that stigma, knowledge deficits, access to care, and otherimpediments may severely limit our ability to address one of the most serious publichealth threats facing our nation.The consequences of mental illness are staggering, leading to disability and suffering atthe individual, family and societal levels. Mental health conditions cut across all peoplegroups, with 50% of lifetime mental illness presenting by mid- teens and 75% in the early20’s,7 affecting all genders, races/ethnicities, and geographical and socioeconomicpopulations. Just over one-quarter of homeless individuals living in shelters had a seriousmental illness,8 and the Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that 45% of inmates infederal prison, 56% in state prison, and 64% in local jails experienced mental healthproblems.9The ramifications of mental illness include functional impairments and disruptions inschool, work, and social dimensions, and impact families and loved ones of thoseaffected. Unaddressed mental health conditions are also a leading risk factor for suicideand the 2nd leading cause of death in young Americans (age 10-34 years).10 Clearly,mental illness is a public health crisis and its ramifications are not limited simply toindividuals nor to a particular segment of society.Dealing with societal perceptions of mental health is critical to improving the lives ofindividuals in our nation. One arena that may influence public opinion and culture relatedto mental health is mass media. Film and TV exert critical influence, and if they paint askewed portrait of mental illness, could represent an active and significant obstacle toadvancing knowledge and health behaviors related to mental health. In media, mentalillness may be used to vilify a character, or be inappropriately and inaccurately linked toviolence.11 Representing mental illness in this way may be one reason experts haveargued that the mass media contributes to stereotypes and stigma surrounding mentalhealth.12 Given this, it is imperative to understand how popular media depict mentalhealth conditions. 2019 Dr. Stacy L. Smith

5Investigating and advocating for media inclusion and authenticity is the focus of theAnnenberg Inclusion Initiative (AI2). Each year the Initiative conducts a comprehensiveanalysis of representation in popular film. To date, the team has analyzed 1,100 topgrossing movies from 2007 to 2017 examining gender, race/ethnicity, and LGBT status. In2015, for the first time, the Initiative examined disability including those potentiallyrelated to mental health conditions. The study found that across 4,370 speakingcharacters in the 100 top films of 2015, only 2.4% were depicted with a disability. Of thefew individuals with a disability, 37.1% were depicted with a disability in the mental orcognitive (brain health) domain.13Despite the considerable scope of our research, further exploration was needed. In ourprevious investigation, we assessed mental illness that constituted disability rather thanthe spectrum of mental health conditions faced by Americans. To address this gap, weexpanded our current work to include an examination of mental health conditions acrossthe 100 most popular films of 2016 and the first episode of the 50 top-rated TVbroadcast and cable shows from 2016 to 2017.We also needed to create a new set of criteria and definitions for identifying mentalhealth conditions in film and TV portrayals based on the existing medical, psychological,and social science research. Drawing from multiple resources, a character was coded aspossessing a mental health condition when a significant and/or persistent negativereaction (e.g., adverse thoughts, emotions, behaviors) was evidenced by internalizing orexternalizing symptoms. Characters with evidence of major psychiatric conditions such asmood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, addictions and eating disorderswere included in this definition, as were suicidal ideation or behaviors intended for selfinjury (though those motivated by political or ideological reasons were excluded). Thedefinition was broad and included substance use disorders, as they may co-occuralongside other conditions.15In the section that follows, we present results on the frequency and nature of mentalhealth conditions in 100 popular films and then 50 TV shows. The paper concludes byover viewing the major findings, outlining a program of future research, and specifyingspecific practices for writers, directors, and producers telling stories that feature mentalhealth conditions.FilmPrevalenceOut of 4,598 speaking characters across the 100 top films of 2016, only 76 or 1.7% weredepicted with a significant or persistent mental health condition.16 This is significantly outof step with the real world where roughly 20% of adults in the U.S. live with a mentalhealth condition annually.17 2019 Dr. Stacy L. Smith

6Fifty-two of the 100 top movies did not feature a single instance of a mental healthcondition on screen. Put differently, less than half (n 48) of the sample depicted one ormore characters with a mental health condition (MHC). Disaggregating this further, 31%of the movies featured one character with a MHC, 9% two, 5% three, and 3% four. Thus,83% of the 100 top films of 2016 presented no portrayal or only 1 character depiction ofa mental health condition (see Figure 1).Figure 1Number of Characters Per Film w/Mental Health Condition9%5% 3%0 characters w/MHC52%1 character w/a MHC2 characters w/MHCs3 characters w/MHCs31%4 characters w/MHCsIn terms of role, we examined whether characters were leads/co leads, secondarycharacters, or inconsequential to the plot. Eighteen movies featured a leading or coleading character with a mental health condition across the 100 top films. As notedabove, this is nearing proportional representation. Thirty-seven characters weresecondary to the storyline (49%) and 20 were completely inconsequential (26%).We now turn our attention to the nature of mental health conditions on screen. First, wefocus on the demographic and identity attributes (i.e., gender, age, race/ethnicity, LGBT,parental status, romantic relationship, occupation, veteran status, homelessness) of allspeaking characters with a MHC. Then, we present the types of mental health conditionsand illnesses shown across the 100 top films. The section concludes by examining thebroader context (e.g., disparagement/stigma, humorous context, perpetrator of violence,childlike, receiving therapy, treatment) associated with the MHCs portrayed in popularfilm.For all of the analyses below, our sample size increases from 76 to 87. This is due to thefact that some of the characters were shown at an earlier or later life stage (Finding Dory,The Accountant) with a mental health condition. Consistent with all of our content-basedresearch, we included these demographic changes as they provide rich contextualinformation about the way in which mental health conditions were depicted orreferenced on screen. 2019 Dr. Stacy L. Smith

7Demography & Identity of Characters with a Mental Health ConditionWho is shown with a mental health condition in film? Of the 87 characters, 60% (n 52)were male and 40% were female (n 35). This is a gender ratio of 1.5 males to every onefemale.In terms of race/ethnicity, 78 of the 87 were applicable for coding.18 Of those 78, 80%were white, 14% were Black, 5% were Asian, and 1% were bi- or multiracial/ethnic. It isinteresting to note that there was not one Hispanic/Latino, Native American, MiddleEastern/North African (MENA) or Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander portrayed (NHPI) witha MHC across 100 of the most popular movies of 2016. Of the Asian characters, 3 wereSouth Asian (Indian) and the fourth was an animated character in Kubo and the TwoStrings.In total then, 20.5% of the characters with a MHC were from an underrepresentedracial/ethnic group. This point statistic is substantially below (-18.8%) U.S. Census(39.3%19) and out of alignment with the actual prevalence of MHC in racial/ethnic groupsin the U.S. which ranges from 14% to 28% with white Americans in the middle, AsianAmericans at the low end, and American Indian/Alaska Native at the high end.20Most of the characters with a MHC were young adults 21-39 years of age (46%, n 40)followed by middle-agers 40-64 years of age (33%, n 29). Only 7% of characters with amental health condition (n 6) were depicted as teens. That is, only 6 teenage characterswere shown with a MHC across 100 movies or 4,598 speaking characters. This is in starkcontrast to the fact that twenty to twenty-five percent of 13-18 year olds in the U.S.experience a serious mental health condition.21 Six (7%) characters with a MHC wereyounger children 0 to 12 years of age.Roughly a third of characters with MHCs were shown as parents (34%, n 22) or relationalpartners (32%, n 19). Not one character with a mental health condition was depicted aslesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender. Given this, we did an additional analysis of the100 top films of 2017. Out of 31 LGBT depictions across 4,403 speaking characters, only 1was portrayed with a mental health condition. These latter findings are particularlydisconcerting as NAMI asserts, “LGBTQ individuals are almost 3 times more likely thanothers to experience a mental health condition such as major depression or generalizedanxiety disorder.”22We also assessed whether characters with mental health conditions were shown with ajob23 (yes, no), as a veteran24 (yes, no) and/or homeless25 (yes, no). In terms of jobcoding, only characters 13 years of age and above were applicable on this measure(n 81). A total of 36 characters (44%) with a mental health condition were depicted withan occupation. Interestingly, the two categories of occupations with the highestfrequency were law enforcement and service-oriented professions (see Table 1). 2019 Dr. Stacy L. Smith

8Table 1Occupations of Characters with Mental Health ConditionsOccupation CategoryC-suite (e.g., CEO)Law Enforcement/Legal (e.g., police, prison guard, soldier, military, paralegal)Ruling Royalty (e.g., queens)Healthcare (e.g., doctor, nurse, therapist)Financial Services (e.g., accountant)Service/Trades (e.g., nanny, waste management, janitor, mechanic, performer)Education (e.g., teacher)Other (e.g., criminal, pilot)FrequencyCount2103321015Eleven (13%) of the 87 characters with a mental health condition were portrayed asformer members of the armed services. All of these characters were men and all but onewas white (91%, Black 9%, n 1). Four of the characters with a mental health conditionwere homeless, including one leading female character. The other three homelesscharacters were all in Jack Reacher: Never Go Back and inconsequential to the plot.Overall, many groups are missing from the portrayal of mental health conditions. Fewyounger characters were shown with a mental health condition and no members of theLGBTQ community. Very few characters were from underrepresented racial/ethnicgroups and there were more homeless portrayals than depictions with Native Americans,MENA, NHPI, or multiracial characters combined. Clearly, Hollywood continues to missthe mark when it comes to authenticity of mental health representation in storytelling.Types of Mental Health ConditionsWe examined the types of mental health conditions shown on screen. Toward this goal,the 87 characters identified as portraying mental illness were richly described based onthe definition of a mental health condition and its key stipulations. Then, the characterswere grouped across seven categories: 1) addiction, 2) anxiety/PTSD, 3) cognitiveimpairment, 4) developmental disorders, 5) disturbances in thinking, 6) depression, and7) suicide. More than one condition could be present. Thus, the sum of the columns doesnot add to 87. 2019 Dr. Stacy L. Smith

9Table 2Type of Mental Health Conditions or OutcomesCondition / OutcomeAddiction (i.e., alcohol, drugs, gambling)Mood disorders (i.e., depression)Anxiety/PTSDSuicide (e.g., ideation, attempt, death)Cognitive ImpairmentSignificant Disturbance in ThinkingSpectrum Disorders (i.e., autism)FrequencyCount291815131187#/% ofFemales8/28%10/56%2/13%3/23%7/64%6/75%2/29%#/% of : Spectrum disorders also included one developmental related condition.Addiction/substance use problems. The most frequently portrayed mental healthcondition on screen was addiction, with 29 characters (see Table 1).26 Characters wereaddicted to alcohol (n 15), drugs (e.g., opioids, crack/cocaine, cannabis; n 13), andgambling (n 1) in the sample of movies. None of these addictions co occurred, however.Given the current crisis facing the U.S., it is surprising that only 4 depictions of opioidaddiction were presented across the 100 top films of 2016.27Portrayals of addiction manifested in two major ways. First, the story presented verbal ornonverbal references (e.g., terms like junkie, drunk) and/or statements related to thecharacter with an addiction (n 23). Context cues or signs suggesting attendance at asubstance abuse program or living in a rehabilitation center also were present. Second,the narrative portrayed purchasing, using, and/or the consequences of substanceuse/abuse on screen (n 22). Examples included but were not limited to a charactershown with arm scars from heroin use, smoking crack cocaine, excessive alcoholconsumption, and passing out. Some characters were depicted engaging in riskybehaviors under the influence of a substance (e.g., horseback riding, gun use) as well asengaging in aggression or domestic abuse.In terms of character attributes, 6 were leading or co leading characters, 13 supportingand 10 inconsequential to the plot. Males were more likely to be shown with an addictionthan females (21 vs. 8) and most characters were between the ages of 21-39 years (62%,n 18) or 40-64 years (38%, n 11). Seventy-eight percent of characters with an addictionwere white (n 21) and 6 were Black (22%). For more information on addiction by raceand/or ethnicity in the U.S., see Footnote 28.Over half of the characters with addiction were parents, 38% were depicted in a romanticrelationship, and 38% held a job. Three characters with addictions were homeless andthree were veterans. 2019 Dr. Stacy L. Smith

10Mood Disorders. The second most frequent type of portrayal was a mood disorder. In thecase of film, this category is fully accounted for by 18 out of 4,598 characters (0.4%) withdepression.29 This is a severe underrepresentation, as “21.4% of U.S. adults experienceany mood disorder at some time in their lives.”30Consistent with real world diagnoses, this mental health condition was more likely to bethe domain of female characters (56%, n 10) than male characters (44%, n 8).31 Eightytwo percent of characters experiencing depression were white (n 14), 12% Black (n 2),and 6% Asian (n 1). Five characters with depression were parents and 2 were in acommitted romantic relationship. One of the characters with depression was a teenagerand the other was in elementary school.Grieving from the death of a loved one (e.g., Collateral Beauty, Manchester by the Sea) aswell as physical disability (e.g., Me Before You, Miracles from Heaven) were some of theantecedents driving characters’ depression. Here are a few excerpts of depression fromthe films examined:A malfunction in Jim’s pod causes him to wake up 90 years before the ship will land onHomestead 2 and everyone else wakes. He stops caring for himself, exhibits signs of alcoholmisuse and contemplates suicide. He puts his finger on a button to eject himself from theship without a spacesuit, re-thinks it, and runs away before collapsing to the floor andsobbing.PassengersSophie has had depression since she was a teenager. Sophie was hospitalized when she wasyounger. She has been taking anti-depressant medication. Depression affects Sophie’s abilityto care properly for her son, Martin.Lights OutRachel becomes severely alcohol dependent with significantly depressed mood and feelingsof worthlessness after learning of her infertility and husband's infidelity. After he leaves her,Rachel loses her job and becomes obsessive over a couple she watches from a train and herex-husband’s new family.Girl on a TrainFully half of characters experiencing depression were shown with another mental healthcondition, providing important representation of comorbidity between depression andother MHCs. Six (33%) of the 18 characters shown with depression ideate about,attempt, and/or die by suicide. Depressed characters often were shown with a job (44%)and their occupations varied across sector (e.g., teacher, CEO of an ad company,neurosurgeon, monarch) and skill level (e.g., janitor, mechanic, clothier). For informationon occupations and mental health conditions, see Footnote 32. No characters with thismental health condition were a veteran or shown homeless.Anxiety and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was our third major type of mentalhealth condition.33 Fifteen instances emerged across the sample (0.3% of 4,598 speakingcharacters versus actual prevalence rate of 18.1% in the American population annually34), 2019 Dr. Stacy L. Smith

11with war/military, violence, bullying, and physical accidents being shown as theprecursors of anxiety and/or PTSD. Examples included but were not limited to thefollowing:Bruce Wayne has PTSD from his parents’ death. He has troubling sleeping, nightmares thattake place at his parents’ graves, and has triggering responses to the name Martha. Thereare several references made to his drinking habits and in one scene, he consumes wine froma glass near his bed first thing after he wakes up.Batman vs. SupermanAfter the naked assembly incident, Bob leaves high school forever. He does not come backfor prom or graduation. He discloses to Calvin that he's never been naked in front of anyonesince that day and has sex only in pitch black dark. When he sees Trevor again, he has visualflashbacks to those traumatic mem

Mental health conditions affect a quarter of individuals worldwide, 1 including 18.9% of the adult U.S. population in 201 7, 2 with 4.5% of American adults identified with more severe forms of mental illness.3. health. health conditions . mental health conditions. health conditions.

Related Documents:

Mental Health, Mental Health Europe NGO and the UK Royal College of Psychiatrists7. "No health without mental health" has also been adopted by the Irish organisation Mental Health Ireland, Supporting Positive Mental Health. Burden of Mental Disorders Mental disorders have been found to be common, with over a third of people worldwide

3.2 european Policy 12 3.4 Happiness and wellbeing debates 14 4.0 Concepts and definitions: what is mental health? 15 4.1 Dual continuum model of mental health 16 4.2 Measuring mental health 17 5.0 Benefits of mental health promotion 19 5.1 Benefits of preventing mental illness 19 5.2 Benefits of promoting positive mental health 22

3.1 Prevalence of mental ill health 9 3.2 Mental health service need 9 3.3 Mental health service provision gap 10 3.4 Housing system and homelessness 10 3.5 Entries into homelessness 11 3.6 Mental health and housing system capacity 12. 4 Links between housing and mental health 13 5 Housing for people with lived experience of mental ill health 16

A mental health policy (1996) and plan (2007-2011) existed. Emergency and disaster plans for mental health did not exist. Legislation A new Mental Health Act 846 2012 was passed in 2012 and was awaiting Government to establish the Mental Health Board. Financing of mental health services Mental health had a ring-fenced budget of 1.4% of

mental health is about much more than mental illness, and that there are significant benefits to be gained by approaching mental health from a public health perspective. Positive mental health, mental wellness and mental health promotion have emerged as the missing pieces in a system that has traditionally been

1920 - Nitrate negative film commonly replaces glass plate negatives. 1923 - Kodak introduces cellulose acetate amateur motion picture film. 1925 - 35mm nitrate still negative film begins to be available and cellulose acetate film becomes much . more common. 1930 - Acetate sheet film, X-ray film, and 35mm roll film become available.

Drying 20 minutes Hang film in film dryer at the notched corner and catch drips with Kim Wipe. Clean-Up As film is drying, wash and dry all graduates and drum for next person to use. Sleeve Film Once the film is done drying, turn dryer off, remove film, and sleeve in negative sleeve. Turn the dryer back on if there are still sheets of film drying.

South Wes t Tourism Intelligence Project 4 The Tourism Company (with Geoff Broom Associates, L&R Consulting, TEAM) The results of the focus groups have been used throughout this report, but principally in Chapters 3 and 7. A comprehensive report of the focus group findings by the