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Examples of Successful DRM Reformsand the Role of International Co-operationDiscussion Paper

Examples ofSuccessful DRM Reformsand the Role ofInternational Co-operationDiscussion PaperJuly 2015

iSpecial Thanks to:Ghana Revenue AuthorityMinistry of Finance, AfghanistanMinistry of Finance and Treasury, Bosnia and HerzegovinaMinistry of Finance, El SalvadorMinistry of Finance, GeorgiaMinistry of Finance and Economic Planning, RwandaMinistry of Finance, Vietnam

content iiContentivTables, Figures, BoxesvAcronymsviiExecutive Summary1Section 1. Introduction2Challenges for Developing Countries3What do We Know About Tax Reform?4Aid and Tax ReformThe Main International Actors5Aid Modalities for Tax Reform7Section 2. Case Studies81. AfghanistanTax Reform10ResultsInternational Co-operation112. BangladeshTax ReformResults12International Co-operation133. Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH)Tax Reform15Results16International Co-operation174. GeorgiaTax Reform19Results20International Co-operation

iii205. ParaguayTax Reform22ResultsInternational Co-operation236. RwandaTax Reform24Results25International Co-operation267. VietnamTax Reform27Results29International Co-operation3031Section 3. Findings and ConclusionsGeneral FindingsFindings On International Co-operation and Assistance343738Technical FindingsAnnex: IndicatorsIndicators of Tax PerformanceTax RevenueBase Broadening40Improving the Business Enabling EnvironmentIndicators of Use of Increased Revenues for Development Purposes41References45Imprint

content ivTablesFigures9Table 1:Afghanistan Tax Performance Indicators12Table 2:Bangladesh Tax Performance Indicators15Table 3:Bosnia and Herzegovina Tax Performance Indicators18Table 4:Georgia Tax Performance Indicators19Table 5:Social Spending21Table 6:Paraguay Tax Performance Indicators24Table 7:Rwanda Tax Performance Indicators25Table 8:Registered Taxpayers in Rwanda28Table 9:Vietnam Tax Performance Indicators39Table 10:Tax System Performance Indicators3Figure 1:Tax Revenue as Percentage of GDP inLow and Middle Income Countries14Boxes6Figure 2:Registered Taxpayers in BiHBox 1:Principles for International Engagement in SupportingDeveloping Countries in Revenue Matters33Box 2:Revenue Increases can be Attributed to Well-MonitoredCapacity Development in International Tax Issues35Box 3:Simplifying the Tax Administration to IncreaseEfficiency in Ghana36Box 4:Creation of the Transparency and Anti-Corruption Unitof the Ministry of Finance of El Salvador

vAcronyms(A)EoI(Automatic) Exchange of InformationAPAAdvance Pricing AgreementsASEANAssociation of Southeast Asian NationsARDAfghanistan Revenue DepartmentBEPSBase Erosion and Profit ShiftingBiHBosnia and HerzegovinaBRTBusiness Receipts TaxCADEPCentro de Análisis y Difusión de la Economía ParaguayaCEPALComisión Económica para América Latina y el CaribeCITCorporate (Company) Income TaxCITPRODCorporate Income Tax ProductivityDfIDUK Department for International DevelopmentDIEDeutsches Institut für EntwicklungspolitikDRMDomestic Resource MobilisationEACEast African CommunityERCAEthiopian Revenues and Customs AuthorityEUEuropean UnionFADFiscal Affairs DepartmentFfDFinancing for DevelopmentFPUFiscal Policy UnitGDPGross Domestic ProductGDTGeneral Department of TaxationGHSGhanaian CediGIZDeutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale ZusammenarbeitGIRoAGovernment of the Islamic Republic of AfghanistanGOBGovernment of BangladeshGOPGovernment of ParaguayGRAGhana Revenue AuthorityGVNGovernment of VietnamHMRCHer Majesty’s Royal CustomsIMFInternational Monetary FundISTDIncome and Sales Tax DepartmentITInformation TechnologyITCInternational Tax CompactJICAJapanese International Cooperation AgencyKMKonvertible Mark

acronyms viKRAKenya Revenue AuthorityLDCLeast Developed CountryLTOLarge Taxpayers OfficeLTULarge Taxpayers UnitMOFMinistry of FinanceMTOMedium Taxpayers OfficeNBRBangladesh National Board of RevenueOECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOHROffice of the High RepresentativePAYEPay as you EarnPEPFARPresident’s Emergency Plan for AIDS ReliefPITPersonal Income TaxPITPRODPersonal Income Tax ProductivityRSRepublic of SerbiaRRARwanda Revenue AuthoritySAAStabilization and Association AgreementSDGsSustainable Development GoalsSIGTASStandardized Integrated Government Tax Administration SystemSMESmall and Medium-Sized EnterprisesSOEState-Owned EnterpriseSRSState Revenue ServiceTACTSTax Administration Capacity and Taxpayer ServicesTAMPTax Administration ProjectTINTaxpayer Identification NumberUKUnited KingdomUNUnited NationsUNDPUnited Nations Development ProgrammeUSUnited StatesUSAIDUS Agency for International DevelopmentUSDUnited States DollarUTACEl Salvador Transparency and Anti-Corruption UnitVATValue Added TaxVATGCRVAT Gross Compliance RatioWDIWorld Development IndicatorsWTOWorld Trade OrganizationZRAZambia Revenue Authority

Executive Summary

executive summary viiiThis study adds to the evidence base of successful tax reforms bygovernments in developing countries where international supporthas helped.Introduction and BackgroundTax and non-tax revenue are vital components of domestic resource mobilisation(DRM), aimed at providing governments with the funds needed to invest in development, relieve poverty and deliver public services. Raising tax revenue posesmany challenges for developing countries such as a difficult external environmentand weak administrative capacity. Specific challenges that loom especially largein developing countries include weak tax administrations, low taxpayer moraleand compliance, corruption, a small tax base and the missing reciprocal linkbetween tax and public and social expenditures.The implications of a more open international trading system are posing challengesfor international tax matters. Developing countries rely more heavily on corporateincome tax and there is a greater exposure to base erosion issues and internationaltax evasion. The problems are the subject of the G20/OECD Base Erosion ProfitShifting (BEPS) Project and the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange ofInformation for Tax Purposes which provide tools to enhance international taxtransparency and co-operation.Experience shows that progress can be made by developing countries in the rightenvironment. Tax to gross domestic product (GDP) ratios showed marked resilienceduring the global financial crisis and there is a general improving trend. Commonelements of success in developing countries are sustained political commitmentat the highest levels of government, administrative reforms aligned closely withpolicy changes, and strong leadership of the revenue administration. Differentnational tax reforms largely share a common ‘toolbox’. Broadly speaking, reformsin tax policy have relied primarily on broad-based taxes at moderate rates.Aid for tax reform is relatively low, but it has proven effective. Developing countriescan rely upon various actors in the international community to support their taxreforms. Aid is delivered in a number of ways. There is no one best approach totax reform and donor programmes should be customised to fit country conditions.What matters most is ownership and leadership in the country concerned.

ixThe Case StudiesSeven case studies form the core of this paper covering countries in Asia (Bangladesh Vietnam and Afghanistan), Europe (Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Georgia),Latin America (Paraguay), and sub-Saharan Africa (Rwanda). The review shows thereforms carried out by these countries, the results and the international cooperationthat helped achieve them.General FindingsThe general findings from the case studies include: Tax reform in the case countries led to significant increases of the tax/GDPratio. Even in fragile environments revenues increased significantly. Tax reform can support trade liberalisation. In some country studies thecontribution of import duties to tax revenues declined during the reformperiod. Tax reforms brought other quantifiable gains. Transaction costs for the publicand for business were reduced in several country studies. DRM has an impact on development. In each of the country studies, increasedrevenues funded development needs, whether education, health, or the overalldevelopment budget.Findings on International Co-operation and Assistance: International co-operation can make very important contributions to tax reform.External assistance supported reform in each of the case countries in a varietyof ways. International co-operation was strategically important in terms of policyanalysis and recommendations. International organisations in several casesundertook diagnostic studies, whether of tax policy or tax administration, whichgovernments usually followed up with decisions to develop reform programmesand sought resources to implement them, including further technical assistanceand capacity support. All the seven cases show that building local capacity –at the level of the individual, the organisation, and the enabling environment –contributes to institutional sustainability. Attributing reform outcomes to international assistance can be a challengeand requires robust monitoring and evaluation. This review has shown in sevencountries how international co-operation can be supportive of tax reform.

executive summary xNevertheless, it is very difficult to attribute outcomes to the specific assistanceor co-operation provided by donors. International organisations and donoragencies should establish robust monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.Some recent work shows how well monitored revenue gains can be attributedto both reforming governments and timely technical assistance, in areas suchas transfer pricing. Reform is a long-term process which often implies steps forward and back.Tax reform, especially reform of the tax administration, is a long process anddonors can expect that reform efforts might take a decade to have a profoundimpact.Technical Findings: Tax policy reform and tax administration reform should be considered mutuallyreinforcing measures that help increase tax revenues. In many countries, taxpolicy reform and tax administration reform have complemented each other.Combining moderate tax rates with better administration has led to a substantialincrease in tax revenues. Broadening the tax base is effective and efficient. Base broadening, whetherby reducing exemptions and exonerations, or by improved audit and enforcement, has been successful in raising revenues without imposing a greater taxburden on business and society. Registering taxpayers is one key to increasing tax revenues. In each countrystudy, taxpayer registers were initially in poor shape, with many people outsidethe system. Focused attention on building the taxpayer registry and identifyingnon-filers had important and immediate impact on increasing tax revenues.All countries made determined efforts, with donor support, to increase theirtaxpayer rolls to great effect. Simplified tax procedures can deliver important gains in efficiency. Clearer taxprocedures –, combining income tax and VAT payments to the same office, forexample – can make paying taxes easier and less costly. Fighting corruption is an important tool for supporting tax reform and taxcollection. Corruption is a deep-seated challenge in many tax and customssystems around the world. Reducing corruption helps increase tax revenuefor a government. It is also beneficial to the taxpayer who is less exposed tounscrupulous actions by officials and unfair competition created by thosewilling to ‘pay to play’.

I. Introduction

I – introduction 2This study adds to the evidence base of successful tax reformsby governments in developing countries where internationalsupport has helped. The introduction summarises the challengesfor developing countries. The main international actors areoutlined together with the modalities of tax reform (Section 1).The main country cases (Section 2) are followed by findings andconclusions (Section 3).Tax and non-tax revenue is a vital component of domestic resource mobilisation(DRM), that provides governments with the funds needed to invest in development,relieve poverty and deliver public services. Secure adequate revenue is essentialto develop and sustain the fiscal responsibility that is needed to promote growth,and to reduce long term reliance on external funding flows, particularly development aid. Moreover, revenue is integral to strengthening the effective functioningof the state and to the social contract between governments and citizens. Byencouraging dialogue between states and their citizens, the taxation process iscentral to more effective and accountable states.Challenges for Developing CountriesRaising tax revenue poses many challenges for developing countries that havedifficult external environment and weak administrative capacity. Specific challengesthat loom especially large in developing countries include weak tax administrations,low taxpayer morale and compliance, corruption, a small tax base and the missingreciprocal link between tax and public and social expenditures.Many resource-rich countries still struggle to design and implement fiscal regimesthat are transparent and capable of securing a reasonable share of resource rents.The implications of a more open international trading system raise challengesfor international tax matters, with a heavier reliance of developing countries oncorporate income tax and a greater exposure to base erosion issues. The problemis being addressed by the G20/OECD Base Erosion Profit Shifting (BEPS) Projectand the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for TaxPurposes which provide tools to enhance international tax transparency andco-operation.

3What do We Know About Tax Reform?Experience shows that progress can be made by developing countries in the rightenvironment. DRM efforts in developing economies led to the collection of animpressive USD 7.7 trillion in tax revenue in 20121. Progress varies and half of1From Billions to Trillions:sub-Saharan African countries still show tax ratios (i.e. tax revenues as a percent-Transforming Developmentage of GDP) below 15%. Several Asian and Latin American countries fare littleFinance Post-2015 Financingbetter. However, tax ratios showed marked resilience during the global financialfor Development: ‘Multilateralcrisis and there is a general improving trend (see figure 1).Development Finance’, WorldBank/International MonetaryFund, 2 April 2015.Figure 1:Tax Revenue as Percentage of GDP in Low and Middle Income Countriesu opment.pdfSource:World Development Indicators,World Bank, 2015Common elements of success in developing countries are sustained politicalcommitment at the highest levels of government, administrative reforms alignedclosely with policy changes, and strong leadership of the revenue administration –all of which may encounter powerful opposition.Different national tax reforms largely share a common ‘toolbox’. Broadly speaking,reforms in tax policy have relied primarily on broad-based taxes at moderate rates.This has been accompanied by: self-assessment; tax simplification; reduction orelimination of tax preferences; rationalisation of customs duties; strengtheningthe fiscal base for local governments; streamlined tax regimes for micro, small

I – introduction 4and medium-sized enterprises; and better tax policy analysis. Selecting from this‘toolbox’ depends on specific country conditions. These include the level of development, the politics, the type of economic system, the size of the informal sector,and the nature of international treaty obligations.Aid and Tax ReformAid for tax reform is relatively low, but it has proven effective. The share of aidspecific to tax reform in the total official development assistance of OECD member countries was only 0.22% in 2012, a figure that had nonetheless risen fromaround 0.05% in 2006.International support to tax reform has, in the view of many observers and severalsurveys, been effective. For instance, within the broader area of support to corepublic sector services, including civil-service and judicial reform, tax reform is2World Bank, Independentamong the areas where the World Bank deems its aid to have been most effective.2Evaluation Group (2008),Public Sector Reform:What Works and Why?The Main International ActorsAn IEG Evaluation ofWorld Bank Support,Various international bodies and governments have provided support for developingWashington, D.C.countries’ tax reforms. International financial institutions such as the InternationalMonetary Fund, the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the Inter-American Development Bank provide direct advice todeveloping countries. They may also fund longer-term technical projects to buildinstitutions and capacity. The European Union (EU) has provided significant

5assistance to developing and accession countries, especially through EU budgetsupport programmes. Other international organisations that provide assistance orcarry out co-operation programmes with partner countries in developing countriesinclude the OECD and the United Nations (UN). Many developed countries providebilateral assistance.Regional tax organisations such as the Inter-American Center of Tax Administrations(CIAT) and the newer African Tax Administration Forum (ATAF) are leading promoters of south-south co-operation which are sources of information and experiencethat are an important asset for developing countries.Aid Modalities for Tax ReformThere are a number of modalities by which aid is delivered. There is no one bestapproach to tax reform, and donor programmes should be customised to fit countryconditions. What matters most is developing country ownership and leadership.3Aid for tax reform include: direct budget support whether at the general or sectorallevel; donors pooling funds through a ‘basket’ mechanism, a trust fund, or a jointproject; and bilateral (stand-alone) projects or programmes.The different modalities have their own pros and cons, in particular in the waythey trade off the costs and benefits of coordination among donors and withdeveloping countries. Each method, if well planned and carefully managed, hasa distinct and valuable role to play in improving tax systems and tax governancelinkages. It is not possible to say that one instrument works best or that any ofthem should be discarded.3ITC and OECD (2013)

I – introduction 6Box 1:Principles for International Engagement in SupportingDeveloping Countries in Revenue Matters1. Follow the leadership of government and co-ordinate at the country level.2. Do no harm.3. Take a ‘whole-of-government’ approach to maximise policy coherence anddevelopment co-operation effectiveness.4. Take account of international aspects of taxation.5. Balance revenue collection imperatives with fairness, equity and governanceconsiderations.Source:6. Encourage transparency in revenue matters.OECD (2013b), ‘Principles for7. Strengthen revenue and expenditure linkages.International Engagement in8. Promote sustainability in revenue collection systems.Supporting Developing Countries9. Encourage broad-based dialogue on revenue matters that includes civil society,in Revenue Matters’, OECD, Paris,available at:business and other stakeholders.10. Measure progress and build the knowledge base on revenue matters.u www.oecd.org/ctp/taxglobal/Principles for internationalengagement May2013.pdfDeveloping countries differ in their willingness to reform, ability to coordinatedonors, and technical capacity. Basket modalities have worked well in somecountries (in Mozambique and Uganda, for example) and bilateral aid in othercountries (in past programmes in Mali, El Salvador, and Rwanda, for instance,where governments had a long-term relationship with individual donor agencies).These experiences from recent years have been analysed by the key stakeholdersinvolved in the OECD Task Force on Tax & Development. The broad lessons havebeen distilled into 10 ‘Principles for International Engagement in SupportingDeveloping Countries in Revenue Matters’, as set out in box 1 above.Section 2 below provides seven cases which update the evidence base on recenttax reforms and how international co-operation has helped. Section 3 presentsfindings and conclusions.

II. Case Studies

II – case studies 8Each of the following seven case studies includes a review of thetax reform efforts undertaken, a brief analysis of results, and adiscussion of international co-operation that supported the reformand modernisation efforts. The case studies include countries fromAsia (Bangladesh, Vietnam and Afghanistan), sub-Saharan Africa(Rwanda), Europe (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Georgia), and LatinAmerica (Paraguay).1. AfghanistanTax Reform 4Almost all state institutions had deteriorated or beendistorted in Afghanistan prior to the ousting of theTaliban in 2001. This included the tax system. Withthe entry of the international community into Afghanistan, public finance was one of the first institutionsto be addressed. Some of the first actions includedre-establishing and staffing up the Ministry of Finance(MOF), introducing a new tax legislative framework,and building the Afghanistan Revenue Department(ARD) and hence the institutionalisation of tax as ameans to fund the state and public services.4This section is based on DfID (2007), DfID (2008)and Gallagher (2007).

9Starting in 2003 and 2004, the Government of theKunduz and Kandahar. This taxpayer segmentationIslamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA) launchedis meant to assist the ARD to better provide servicesmeasures to build the domestic tax system. Theseto these taxpayers, encouraging voluntary taxpayerincluded introducing a number of simplified taxes,compliance. At the same time, the ARD has trainedincluding a turnover tax (BRT) and withholding onmany staff in audit, taxpayer services, and generalwages. The BRT was considered more feasible thantax administration and has installed a new, commer-a modern corporate income tax, given the under-cial off-the-shelf IT tax administration system thatdeveloped state of the economy and low capacity ofsupports streamlined processes and procedures.the ARD. The ARD established an official presencein Kabul as well as in provincial offices around theThe MOF established a Fiscal Policy Unit, which iscountry, but reporting to the director general ofmostly focused on macroeconomic programmes andadministration.medium-term budgeting, but is also responsible formonitoring and reviewing fiscal, including tax, policyThe ARD has made great effort to educate the publicand conducting tax analyses and developing tax policyabout the need for taxes in a new age and encouragedreform recommendations. Parliament is reviewing apeople to register. It has set up a taxpayer awarenessnew tax administration law giving greater clarity andunit that produces leaflets to help taxpayers under-authority to the ARD and taxpayers.stand their legal obligations. These efforts at buildingdomestic revenues were matched by strengthenedIn 2009, Afghanistan enacted a comprehensivecustoms operations.income tax law, covering individuals and companies,which is much more consistent with internationalThe ARD has established Large Taxpayer Officestax practice, yet establishes rates similar to those(LTOs) as well as Medium Taxpayer Offices (MTOs) inalready being applied. The GIRoA has drafted a newKabul and the provinces of Herat, Balkh, Nangarhar,VAT law to progressively replace the Business ReceiptsTable 1:Afghanistan Tax Performance Indicators200320092010201120122013Tax ratio2. to GDP0. to GDP0. to GDP0. on trade to GDP2. Payments per year (N )Time for Tax (hours)General source notes are in the Annex.

II – case studies 10Tax through the lowering of the VAT registration thresh-International Co-operationold over time. The VAT law was enacted in the firstquarter of 2015 with a start date of December 2016.Bilateral and multilateral organisations have playedimportant roles in setting up a revenue system andhelping the GIRoA to develop a modernised tax sys-Resultstem. International advisors assisted in drafting taxlaws and regulations, provided guidance in develop-Given the low base that it started from, the GIRoA hasing and implementing strategies to update the ARD.been quite successful in its efforts to establish a moreThey also provided technical assistance, training,modern tax system. Tax offices are open around theand other capacity building assistance.country, the number of active taxpayers has increased,normal income taxes have been established, and taxAn international donor managed and funded therevenue rose drastically from 2.5% of GDP in 2003procurement of the IT system and assisted in its im-to 8.0% in 2012. This tripling in revenues occurredplementation throughout the ARD and key provincialin the face of stagnant import duties. In 2003, importoffices. Donors have provided technical assistanceduties provide about 82% of all tax revenues, but byon tax policy and helped to build the capacity of the2012 only 35%. This decline in the share of importFiscal Policy Unit to enable local experts to developduty revenues did not occur because of loweringhome-grown tax policy measures and legal drafting.import duties but rather because of the rapid rise inDonor assistance continues to build on earlier reforms,revenues from income and sales tax, each of whichstrengthen and deepen the IT aspects of the taxincreased more than tenfold.system, improve taxpayer services and implementrisk-based compliance programmes.The complexity of the system, in terms of the numberof times a taxpayer must submit tax forms to the ARDBy 2011, Afghanistan had made considerableand the amount of time it takes to comply with taxprogress in mobilising domestic resources for theregulations, has not improved since 2003. But it isgovernment budget. With the onset of troop with-relatively low compared to other low income countries,drawals and the accompanying slowing of economicto other countries in the region and to the OECD.activity, the revenue system has not maintained itsearlier trajectory. To meet targets of fiscal sustainability by 2028, the IMF projects the country willneed to raise its tax ratio by about another 70%,i.e., to about 18% of GDP.55IMF (2014), Afghanistan Article IV Consultation

112. Bangladeshlocal consultants will assist the members of theboard in this regard.8 The NBR initiated tentativeTax Reform 6efforts to introduce procedures that are more modern, improve the taxpayer registry, and strengthenBangladesh has been reforming its revenue systemenforcement and encourage voluntary compliance.since independence in 1971. Yet while incrementalA key step was the creation of two Large Taxpayerreform has been taking place over these decades,Units (LTUs), one for income tax and the other fordomestic forces have slowed it at every turn. DeepVAT. The efforts to strengthen tax administrationreform of the tax system had only been approximatedaccompanied a gradual reduction in the corporatewhen in 1991 the government introduced the VAT.income tax (CIT) rate from 40% in the early 2000s,However, even this reform came about painfully, withwhich, at the time, was one of the highest CIT ratesimplementation put off long enough for all the coun-in the world, to 27.5%, which is still relatively hightry’s organised special interests to conspire withincompared to neighbours.the political system to ensure that the VAT would beriddled with protections, exemptions, and weak sanc-Toward 2008, the country found itself in consider-tions. The authorities placed considerable discretionaryable fiscal difficulty and turned to the IMF for assis-power with tax officials with whom large businesstance. At IMF insistence, the government agreed tocould negotiate their tax settlement.7prepare a new VAT law to address weaknesses in the1991 law. It took until 2013 to enact a new VAT lawThe Government of Bangladesh (GOB) acknowledgedand the NBR is in the process of implementing newweaknesses in tax administration and the need tosystems for managing the new VAT.9increase tax revenue to support critical investment inhuman development and infrastructure. In his June2006 budget speech, the Finance Minister said ‘ Resultswith a view to reforming the revenue administration,we have formulated a Strategic Development Plan.The GOB’s major aim in improving the tax systemUnder this Plan the National Board of Revenuehas been to increase tax revenues. According to a(NBR) has been taken up on a priority basis. TheWorld Bank Project Identification Document, theboard is being revamped and reconstituted, andGOB’s objective was to implement reforms thatresponsibilities are being assigned to the membersmight increase revenues equivalent to 0.5% of GDP,of the board along functional lines. International andwhich the World Bank had assessed as ambitious.6This section draws from World Bank (2014c) andWorld Bank (2006b), among others.7Hassan and Prichard (2013) present a keen, politicaleconomy analysis of the history of tax reform periodsin Bangladesh.8World Bank (2006b)9Source: World Bank (nd) Revenue Mobilisation document

II – case studies 12Instead, the tax ratio rose from 7.5% of GDP in 2006stantially on a per capita basis, nor in terms of re-to 9.7% in 2013, a 30% increase. While some ofducing fiscal deficits. The biggest payoff seems tothis increased revenue resulted from an increase inbe in how the Annual Development ProgrammeVAT revenue by about 0.7 percentage points of GDP:(public investment) is funded. In 2005 – 06, domesticthe bigger increase came from income taxes, whichfinancing covered

Discussion Paper July 2015. i Special Thanks to: Ghana Revenue Authority Ministry of Finance, Afghanistan Ministry of Finance and Treasury, Bosnia and Herzegovina Ministry of Finance, El Salvador . revenues funded development needs, whether education, health, or the overall development budget. Findings on International Co-operation and .

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