2022 FORMULA 1 TECHNICAL REGULATIONSPUBLISHED ON 30 MARCH 2020Issue 1Convention:Black text: as originally approved for 2021 by the WMSC on 06 March 2020Pink text: changes for this initial 2022 versionRed text: text which needs attention / checking / finalisationGreen text: comments / not regulatoryCONTENTS :PagesARTICLE 1: GENERAL PRINCIPLES1.1Formula One World Championship1.2Regulatory Framework1.3Dangerous construction1.4Compliance with the regulations1.5New systems or technologies1.6Duty of Competitor7ARTICLE 2: DEFINITIONS2.1Formula One Car2.2Competition2.3Component classification categories2.4Car mass2.5Sprung mass2.6Unsprung mass2.7Power unit2.8Power train2.9Geometrical planes2.10Reference Volumes and Surfaces2.11Coordinate system and references9ARTICLE 3: AERODYNAMIC COMPONENTS123.1Definitions3.2General Principles and Legality Checking3.3Component Definition2022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile130 March 2020
3.4Overall Dimensions3.5Floor3.6Front Bodywork3.7Rear Bodywork3.8Tail & Exhaust Tailpipe3.9Front Wing (FW)3.10Rear Wing3.11Final Assembly3.12Bodywork not defined in Articles 3.5 to 3.113.13Wheel bodywork3.14Suspension Fairings3.15Aerodynamic Component Flexibility3.16Aerodynamic Component constructionARTICLE 4: MASS4.1Minimum mass4.2Mass distribution4.3Mass of tyres4.4Ballast4.5Adding during the race4.6Mass of the driver36ARTICLE 5: POWER UNIT375.1Definitions5.2Engine specification5.3Other means of propulsion and energy recovery5.4Power unit dimensions5.5Mass and centre of gravity5.6Power unit torque demand5.7Power unit control5.8Engine high rev limits5.9Exhaust systems5.10Variable geometry systems5.11Fuel systems5.12Ignition systems5.13Energy Recovery System (ERS)5.14Engine ancillaries5.15Engine intake air5.16Materials and Construction – Definitions5.17Materials and construction – General2022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile230 March 2020
5.18Materials and construction – Components5.19Materials and construction – Pressure charging and exhaust systems5.20Materials and construction – Energy recovery, storage systems and electronic systems5.21Starting the engine5.22Stall prevention systems5.23Replacing power unit parts5.24Oil and coolant systems and charge air cooling5.25General electrical safety5.26ES design and installationARTICLE 6: FUEL SYSTEM6.1Fuel tanks6.2Fittings and piping6.3Fuel tank fillers6.4Refuelling6.5Fuel draining and sampling6.6Fuel System Hydraulic Layout53ARTICLE 7: OIL AND COOLANT SYSTEMS AND CHARGE AIR COOLING7.1Location of lubricating oil tanks7.2Location of lubricating oil system7.3Oil and coolant lines7.4Heat exchangersARTICLE 8: ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS588.1Definitions8.2Software and electronics inspection8.3Control electronics8.4Start systems8.5Data acquisition8.6Telemetry8.7Driver inputs controls and information8.8Master switch8.9Driver radio8.10Accident analysis8.11Accident data8.12FIA Marshalling system8.13Track signal information display8.14Medical warning system8.15Installation of electrical systems or components2022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile56330 March 2020
8.16Timing transponders8.17Cameras and camera housings8.18Wheels display panel8.19Electromagnetic radiationARTICLE 9: TRANSMISSION SYSTEM659.1Definitions9.2Clutch control9.3Traction control9.4Clutch disengagement9.5Homologated Gearbox & Component Classification9.6Gearbox Dimensions9.7Gear ratios9.8Reverse gear9.9Gear changing9.10Torque transfer systems9.11DriveshaftsARTICLE 10: SUSPENSION, STEERING SYSTEMS, WHEELS AND TYRES10.1Definitions10.2Sprung suspension10.3Outboard suspension10.4Inboard suspension10.5Steering10.6Suspension Uprights10.7Wheel rims10.8Tyres10.9Wheel attachment and retentionARTICLE 11: BRAKE SYSTEM7811.1Brake circuits and pressure distribution11.2Brake calipers11.3Brake discs and pads11.4Brake pressure modulation11.5Liquid cooling11.6Rear brake control system11.7Supply of Brake Friction and Brake System Hydraulic componentsARTICLE 12: CAR CONSTRUCTION AND SURVIVAL CELL (CHASSIS)12.17180Definitions and General Requirements2022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile430 March 2020
12.2Survival cell specifications12.3Intrusion Protection12.4Roll Structures12.5Cockpit Specification12.6Cockpit Padding12.7Seat fixing and removalARTICLE 13: SAFETY STRUCTURES AND HOMOLOGATION13.1General Principles13.2Survival Cell Frontal Impact Test13.3Roll Structure Testing13.4Survival Cell Load Tests13.5Side Impact Structure13.6Front Impact Structure13.7Rear Impact Structure13.8Steering Column Impact TestARTICLE 14: SAFETY EQUIPMENT14.1Fire Extinguishers14.2Rear view mirrors14.3Rear lights98ARTICLE 15: MATERIALS15.1Definitions15.2General Principles15.3Permitted Materials15.4Specific Prohibitions15.5Specific Exceptions15.6Prescribed Laminates101ARTICLE 16: FUEL AND ENGINE OIL10616.1Basic principles16.2Fuel definitions16.3Fuel properties16.4Composition of the fuel16.5Fuel approval16.6Fuel sampling and testing at a Competition16.7Engine oil definitions16.8Engine oil properties16.9Composition of the engine oil2022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile87530 March 2020
16.10 Engine oil approval16.11 Sampling and testing at a CompetitionARTICLE 17: COMPONENTS’ CLASSIFICATION11117.1Definitions17.2General Principles17.3Listed Team Components (LTC)17.4Standard Supply Components (SSC)17.5Prescribed Design Components (PDC)17.6Transferable Components (TRC)17.7Open Source Components (OSC)17.8List of LTC, SSC, PDC, TRC and OSCARTICLE 18: APPROVED CHANGES FOR SUBSEQUENT YEARS18.1Changes for 202218.1Changes for 202318.2Changes for 202418.3Changes for 2025120APPENDIX 1: REGULATION VOLUMES122APPENDIX 2: DRAWINGS136APPENDIX 3: POWER UNIT SYSTEMS, FUNCTIONS, COMPONENTS AND SUPPLY PERIMETER138APPENDIX 4: 2021 2022-2025 POWER UNIT HOMOLOGATION142APPENDIX 5: 2021 2022-2025 FUEL AND ENGINE OIL SUPPLY145APPENDIX 6: INFORMATION REGARDING SSC’s AND PDC’s1462022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile630 March 2020
ARTICLE 1: GENERAL PRINCIPLES1.1Formula One World Championship1.1.1The FIA will organise the FIA Formula One World Championship (the "Championship") whichis the property of the FIA and comprises two titles of World Champion, one for drivers andone for constructors. It consists of the Formula One Grand Prix races which are included inthe Formula One calendar and in respect of which the ASNs and organisers have signedorganisation agreements with the FIA. All the participating parties (FIA, ASNs, organisers,competitors and circuits) undertake to apply as well as observe the rules governing theChampionship and must hold FIA Super Licences which are issued to drivers, competitors,officials, organisers and circuits.1.1.2The Championship and each of its Competitions are governed by the FIA in accordance withthe Regulations.1.1.3In the sense of the Regulations, terms referring to natural persons are applicable to anygender.1.2Regulatory Framework1.2.1The Regulations applicable to the Championship are the International Sporting Code (the“Code”), the Formula One Technical Regulations (the “Technical Regulations”), the FormulaOne Sporting Regulations (the “Sporting Regulations”), the Formula One Financial Regulations(the “Financial Regulations”), and any other regulations applicable to the Championship asissued by the FIA from time to time, together referred to as the “Regulations”.1.2.2The Technical Regulations are issued by the FIA, apply to the Championship taking place inthe calendar year referred to in the title. Any changes made by the FIA for safety reasons maycome into effect without notice or delay.1.2.3The definitive text of the Technical Regulations shall be the English version which will be usedshould any dispute arise as to their interpretation. Headings in this document are for ease ofreference only and do not affect the meaning of the Technical Regulations.1.3Dangerous constructionThe stewards may exclude a vehicle whose construction is deemed to be dangerous.1.4Compliance with the regulationsFormula 1 Cars must comply with these regulations in their entirety at all times during aCompetition.Should a Competitor introduce a new design or system or feel that any aspect of theseregulations is unclear, clarification may be sought from the FIA Formula One TechnicalDepartment. If clarification relates to any new design or system, correspondence mustinclude:a. A full description of the design or system.b. Drawings or schematics where appropriate.c. The Competitor's opinion concerning the immediate implications on other parts ofthe car of any proposed new design.d. The Competitor's opinion concerning any possible long term consequences or newdevelopments which may come from using any such new designs or systems.e. The precise way or ways in which the Competitor feels the new design or system willenhance the performance of the car.1.5New systems or technologies2022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile730 March 2020
Any new system, procedure or technology not specifically covered by these regulations, butwhich is deemed permissible by the FIA Formula One Technical Department, will only beadmitted until the end of the Championship during which it is introduced. Following this theFormula One Commission will be asked to review the technology concerned and, if they feelit adds no value to Formula One in general, it may be specifically prohibited by the FIA.Any team whose technology is prohibited in this way will then be required to publish fulltechnical details of the relevant system or procedure.1.6Duty of CompetitorIt is the duty of each Competitor to satisfy the FIA technical delegate and the stewards thathis Formula 1 Car complies with these regulations in their entirety at all times during aCompetition.The design of the car, its components and systems shall, with the exception of safetyfeatures, demonstrate their compliance with these regulations by means of physicalinspection of hardware or materials. No mechanical design may rely upon softwareinspection as a means of ensuring its compliance.Due to their nature, the compliance of electronic systems may be assessed by means ofinspection of hardware, software and data.CAD models may be requested by the FIA in order to check compliance with the Regulations.Such models should be supplied in a format and by a method specified by the FIA. In suchcases, scanning technology will be used by the FIA to check that the physical car is the sameas the inspected CAD models.2022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile830 March 2020
ARTICLE 2: DEFINITIONS2.1Formula One CarAn automobile (the car) designed solely for speed races on circuits or closed courses that ispropelled by its own means, moving by constantly taking real support on the ground, ofwhich the propulsion and steering are under the direct control of a driver aboard the vehicle.It runs on four non-aligned complete wheels, with wheel centres that are arrangedsymmetrically about the car centre plane, when in the straight-ahead position, to form thefront and rear axles.2.2CompetitionAs defined in Article 2.2 of the Formula 1 Sporting Regulations2.3Component classification categoriesThe terms LTC, SSC, PDC, TRC and OSC defined in Articles 17.3 to 17.7 and used throughoutthe Regulations, refer to the classification of the car’s components in terms of their Design,Intellectual Property, Manufacture and Supply.2.4Car massIs the mass of the car with the driver, wearing his complete racing apparel, at all times duringthe Competition.2.5Sprung massAll parts of the car that are entirely supported by the sprung suspension.2.6Unsprung massAll parts of the car composing the sprung suspension external to the sprung mass and/or notentirely supported by the sprung suspension. For the purpose of this definition the boundarybetween sprung and unsprung mass will be at the suspension members’ inboardattachments.2.7Power unitAs defined in Article 188.8.131.52Power trainAs defined in Article 184.108.40.206Geometrical planes2.9.1Reference plane: a nominally horizontal plane sitting at the bottom of the sprung part of thecar, with the exception of the plank assembly defined in Article 220.127.116.11.9.2Centre plane: a vertical plane, which is perpendicular to the reference plane and aligned withthe direction of motion of the car. The centre plane is the nominal plane of symmetry of thecar.2.9.3Plane A-A (also referred to as “A-A”): a plane which is perpendicular to both the referenceand centre planes, which lies on the front bulkhead of the survival cell that is defined inArticle 12, or up to 100mm behind it.2.9.4Plane C-C (also referred to as “C-C”): a plane which is parallel to A-A, whose position isdefined in Article 18.104.22.1682 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile930 March 2020
2.10Reference Volumes and Surfaces“Reference Volumes” and “Reference Surfaces” and their position in space are defined inAppendix 1 using the car’s coordinate system, and are used throughout the TechnicalRegulations for geometrical constraints. For convenience, Reference Volumes are precededby the prefix “RV-“ and Reference Surfaces by the prefix “RS-“.2.11Coordinate system and references2.11.1A right-handed Cartesian (X, Y, Z) coordinate system will be used in these regulations, definedin the following way:a. The X axis is in the rearwards longitudinal direction, and is parallel to the referenceand car centre planes. Depending on the regulation in question, the local origin canvary, and the following convention is used:i.XA 0mm is defined to be on plane A-Aii.XB 0mm is defined to be on plane B-Biii.XC 0mm is defined to be on plane C-Civ.XF 0mm is defined to be on the front axle centre line.v.XR 0mm is defined to be on the rear axle centre line.vi.The XF 0mm and XR 0mm planes respectively pass through the origin of thetwo front or two rear wheels’ coordinate systems, as defined in Article 2.11.3,with the wheels in the straight-ahead position and the car at the legality rideheight, as defined in Article 10.1.4.vii.XDIF 0mm is defined as the output axis of the final drive as defined in Article9.6.1.viii.XPU 0mm is defined to pass through the forward most mounting face of thestuds connecting the power unit to the survival cell, as defined in Article 5.4.8.b. The Y axis is normal to the X axis, parallel to the reference plane, and pointing to theright hand side of the car. Y 0mm is defined to be on the car centre plane.c. The Z axis is normal to the reference plane and points upwards. Z 0mm is defined tobe on the reference plane2.11.2Further conventions:a. If no units are specified, it is implicit the unit will be in millimetresb. The suffix “L” may be used for local coordinates in specific rules, i.e. XL, YL, ZL, wherethese local axes are defined within a specific Article for local use.c. Planes will be referred to as the axis to which they are normal to (e.g. X-plane orXA 300 plane).d. Unless otherwise specified, the positive side of the Y axis is used in the various articlesand it is implicit that a symmetrical rule applies for the other side of the car. Theterms “inboard” or “outboard”, when used in reference to the Y coordinate,respectively refer to closer to or further away from the car centre plane.e. Unless otherwise specified any measurements & references will be with the wheels inthe straight ahead position (the wheel rotation axis lying within an X plane).f. Unless otherwise specified, when a viewing direction is stated, “front” & “rear” areparallel to the X axis, “side” is parallel to the Y axis (in the direction towards the carcentre plane) and “above”, “below” & “plan” are parallel to the Z axis.g. Unless otherwise specified, directions of angles, slopes and incidences are taken incontext of the right-handed Cartesian coordinate system defined in 2.11.1. Forexample, a positive slope within a Y-Plane would be characterised by positivelyincreasing X and Z components.2022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile1030 March 2020
2.11.3A Cartesian (XW, YW, ZW) coordinate system will be used for each wheel, defined in thefollowing way:a. The XW axis lies on the inboard plane of the wheel rim, passes through its rotationalaxis and points in the rearward longitudinal direction. XW 0mm is defined to be onthe wheel rotational axis. The XW axis is parallel to the car centre plane and to thereference plane, with the wheel in the straight-ahead position and the car at itslegality ride height, as defined in Article 10.1.4.b. The YW axis is normal to the inboard plane of the wheel rim and points towards thecar centre plane. YW 0mm is defined to be on the inboard plane of the wheel rim.Referring to this coordinate, the terms “inboard” or “outboard” respectively refer tocloser to or further away from the car centre plane.c. The ZW axis is normal to both the XW and YW axes and points upwards. ZW 0 is definedto be on the wheel rotational axis.d. Once the wheel axis system is defined as above, then it maintains a fixed orientationrelative to the suspension upright at all other suspension articulation points.2022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile1130 March 2020
ARTICLE 3: AERODYNAMIC COMPONENTS3.1Definitions3.1.1Aerodynamic Components or BodyworkAll parts of the car in contact with the external air stream.a. The following components are considered to be bodywork:i.all components described in Article 3;ii.inlet or outlet ducts for the purpose cooling, up to the component they areintended to provide cooling for;iii.inlet ducts for the power unit (air boxes) up to the air filter;iv.primary heat exchangers, as defined in Article 7.4.1 (b).b. The following components are not considered to be bodywork:3.1.2i.cameras and camera housings, as defined in Article 8.17;ii.rear view mirrors as defined in Article 14.2;iii.the ERS status light;iv.parts definitely associated with the mechanical functioning of the power trainand running gear;v.the wheel rims and tyres;vi.the brake discs, calipers and pads.Frame of ReferenceThe geometry, component or group of components with respect to which certain bodyworkmust remain immobile.3.1.3External air streamThe flow of air around the car which has a primary impact on its aerodynamic performance.3.1.4Concave and convex curvatureReferences made in this Article on curvature of aerodynamic surfaces refer to the part of theaerodynamic surface which is in contact with the external air stream.When references are made to the curvature of a surface, without specifying an intersectionwith a particular plane, the local curvature at any point will be defined as the curvature of theintersection of the surface in question with a plane passing through a line normal to thesurface at that point. The concave radius of curvature of the surface at that point will bedefined as the minimum concave radius of curvature obtained when the intersecting plane isswept through 180 degrees around the normal line. The convex radius of curvature of thatsurface at that point will be defined as the minimum convex radius of curvature obtainedwhen the intersecting plane is swept through 180 degrees around the normal line.As an example, and for the sake of clarity, the aerodynamic surface of a solid sphere wouldbe the surface where this sphere makes contact with the external airstream, and would beconsidered to be a convex surface.3.1.5Normal to an aerodynamic surface or curveThe normal applied to an aerodynamic surface at a given point is a vector which isperpendicular to the surface at that point and points towards the local external air stream.The normal to a curve at a given point will be considered to be the normal to the surfacecontaining the curve at the same point.3.1.6Tangency Continuity2022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile1230 March 2020
Tangency Continuity between two curves or at a given point of a curve, is satisfied if the twocurves or parts of a curve are tangent to one another and also have their normal coincidentwith each other.Tangency Continuity between two surfaces or at a given point of a surface, is satisfied if thetwo surfaces or parts of a surface are tangent to one another and also have their normalcoincident with each other.Where two adjacent surfaces are not tangent continuous but could be made so by applying afillet radius of no more than 1mm along their boundary, these surfaces will be consideredtangent continuous at this boundary whether or not the fillet radius is applied, as long assuch a fillet radius is permitted according to the relevant article.3.1.7Curvature ContinuityCurvature Continuity between two curves, at a given point of a curve, between two surfacesor within a surface is satisfied if the value of the curvature is continuous and in the samedirection.3.1.8Open and closed sectionsWithin the prescribed limitations of the relevant regulation, a section through the bodyworkwhen intersected with a defined plane will be considered closed if it forms a completeboundary by itself otherwise it will be considered open.3.1.9Fillet RadiusAn arc of constant radius, with no inflection and connecting two surfaces that is appliedtangential to the surfaces and perpendicular to the boundary between the surfaces that havefirst been fully defined. Any such applied fillet is not considered part of the previously definedsurfaces for legality assessment purposes provided that the resulting fillet is not subvertingthe intention of these regulations. Unless otherwise specified, fillet radii may change inmagnitude around the periphery of the boundary around which they are defined, but suchchanges must be continuous.If there exists a discontinuity in tangency at the trailing edge of the intersection between theparts to be joined by the fillet, then the fillet surfaces may be extended behind the trailingedge to provide a closed aerodynamic fairing. This fairing need not consist of arcs of constantradius, but, relative to the fillet immediately preceding the trailing edge, it may be no largerin cross section than and no longer than three times the maximum fillet arc radius at thispoint.3.1.10Aerodynamic sealThe function by which the flow between two regions of different pressure is kept to theminimum feasible magnitude.3.1.11GurneyA component fitted to the trailing edge of a profile in order to adjust its aerodynamicperformance. In any plane normal to the trailing edge of the profile, the Gurney must containa flat section no more than 1mm thick, and of a given height (defined as the size of theGurney), and a bonding flange onto the surface of the wing which may be no more than20mm long and 1mm thick. No part of the Gurney may protrude behind a line that is normalto the surface on which the Gurney is applied at the point of the trailing edge of the profile.3.2General Principles and Legality Checking3.2.1Objective of Article 3An important objective of the Regulations in Article 3 is to enable cars to race closely, byensuring that the aerodynamic performance loss of a car following another car is kept to aminimum. In order to verify whether this objective has been achieved, Competitors may berequired on request to supply the FIA with any relevant information.In any case the Intellectual Property of this information, will remain the property of theCompetitor, will be protected and not divulged to any third party.2022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile1330 March 2020
3.2.2Aerodynamic InfluenceWith the exception of the driver adjustable bodywork described in Article 3.10.10 (in additionto minimal parts solely associated with its actuation) and the flexible seals specificallypermitted by Articles 3.13 and 3.14.4, all aerodynamic components or bodywork influencingthe car’s aerodynamic performance must be rigidly secured and immobile with respect totheir frame of reference defined in Article 3.3. Furthermore, these components must producea uniform, solid, hard, continuous, impervious surface under all circumstances.Any device or construction that is designed to bridge the gap between the sprung part of thecar and the ground is prohibited under all circumstances.With the exception of the parts necessary for the adjustment described in Article 3.10.10, orany incidental movement due to the steering system, any car system, device or procedurewhich uses driver movement as a means of altering the aerodynamic characteristics of thecar is prohibited.The Aerodynamic influence of any component of the car not considered to be bodywork mustbe incidental to its main function. Any design which aims to maximise such an aerodynamicinfluence is prohibited.3.2.3SymmetryAll bodywork must be nominally symmetrical with respect to Y 0. Consequently, and unlessotherwise specified, any regulation in Article 3 concerning one side of the car will be assumedto be valid for the other side of the car and references to maximum permissible numbers ofcomponents in Article 3 will also refer to the one side of the car.Minimal exceptions to the requirement of symmetry of this Article will be accepted for theinstallation of non-symmetrical mechanical components of the car, for asymmetrical coolingrequirements or for asymmetrical angle adjustment of the front flap defined in Article 3.9.7.Bodywork on the sprung mass must respect this Article when the suspension position of eachwheel is virtually re-orientated so that its wheel coordinate system axes (described in Article2.11.3) are parallel to their respective axis of the car coordinate system (described in Article2.11.1).3.2.4Digital legality checkingThe assessment of the car’s compliance with the Aerodynamic Regulations will be carried outdigitally using CAD models provided by the teams. In these models:a. Components may be designed to the edge of a Reference Volume or in such way as tosatisfy a geometrical criterion with infinite precision (save for the normal round-offdiscrepancies of the CAD system), provided that such a design is not intended tocircumvent the intention of the relevant regulation.b. Components which must follow a precise shape, surface or plane must be designedwithout any tolerance, save for the normal round-off discrepancies of the CADsystem.3.2.5Physical legality checkingThe cars may be measured during a Competition in order to check their conformance to theCAD models discussed in Article 3.2.4.Geometrical discrepancies at the edges of the Reference Volumes may be such that themeasured component does not protrude outside the Reference Volume.Unless otherwise specified, a tolerance of /- 2mm will be accepted for manufacturingpurposes only with respect to the CAD surfaces. Any discrepancies contrived to create aspecial aerodynamic effect or surface finish will not be permitted.Minimal discrepancies from the CAD surfaces will also be accepted in the following cases:a. Minimal repairs carried out on aerodynamic components and approved by the FIAb. Tape, provided it does not achieve an aerodynamic effect otherwise not permitted byArticle 32022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile1430 March 2020
c. Junctions between bodywork panelsd. Local bodywork fixing details3.2.6Datum PointsIn order to provide an accurate reference for the legality checking described in Article 3.2.5,The following four datum points will be used:a. [XA, Y, Z] [300, 0, 650]b. [XC, Y, Z] [-80, -600, 800]c. [XC, Y, Z] [-80, 600, 800]d. [XR, Y, Z] [625, 0, 600]Teams are required to provide brackets which precisely locate datum targets at the givenpositions. Specifications of the targets and how they should be mounted are given in theAppendix to the Technical and Sporting Regulations.3.2.7Section titles and Article titles within this article have no regulatory value.3.3Component DefinitionThe permitted bodywork and the relevant frame of reference (as defined in Article 3.1.2, andused to establish compliance with Article 3.2.2) for each group is defined in the followingArticles 3.3.1, 3.3.2 and 22.214.171.124.3.1Bodywork which is part of the sprung mass of the carThe frame of reference for any bodywork defined in Articles 3.5 to 3.12 is the sprung mass ofthe car.Prior to any trimming or filleting operation referred to in Article 3.11, all such bodywork mustbe declared as belonging to one of the groups defined in Articles 3.5 to 3.10, and lie within aReference Volume defined in each Article.Unless otherwise stated, the compliance of an individual bodywork group to Article 3 will beassessed prior to any trimming or filleting operation referred to Article 3.11 and in isolationand independent of all other bodywork groups and reference volumes.3.3.2Wheel BodyworkWheel bodywork is permitted under Articles 3.13. With the exception of wheel covers, asdefined in Article 3.13.7, the frame of reference for every part of the car classified as WheelBodywork is the corresponding upright structure.The frame of reference for any wheel cover, as defined in Article 3.13.7 is the correspondingwheel rim.3.3.3Suspension FairingsThe frame of reference for any suspension fairing, as defined in Article 3.14, is the structuralsuspension member that it is attached to.3.4Overall Dimensions3.4.1WidthWith the exception of the tyres and the wheel covers defined in Article 3.13.7, no part of thecar may lie outboard of Y 1000.3.4.2WheelbaseThe distance in X between the front wheel centre line (XF 0) and rear wheel centre line (XR 0)must not exceed 3600mm.3.4.3Front Wheel Centre lineThe front wheel centreline (XF 0) must not be behind XA 200.2022 Formula 1 Technical Regulations 2020 Fédération Internat
One Sporting Regulations (the "Sporting Regulations"), the Formula One Financial Regulations (the "Financial Regulations"), and any other regulations applicable to the Championship as issued by the FIA from time to time, together referred to as the "Regulations".
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the empirical formula of a compound. Classic chemistry: finding the empirical formula The simplest type of formula – called the empirical formula – shows just the ratio of different atoms. For example, while the molecular formula for glucose is C 6 H 12 O 6, its empirical formula
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Nazism and the Rise of Hitler 49 In the spring of 1945, a little eleven-year-old German boy called Helmuth was lying in bed when he overheard his parents discussing something in serious tones. His father, a prominent physician, deliberated with his wife whether the time had come to kill the entire family, or if he should commit suicide alone. His father spoke about his fear of revenge, saying .