Healthcare Systems And Services Practice McKinsey On Healthcare

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Healthcare Systems and Services PracticeMcKinsey onHealthcare2020 Year in ReviewJanuary 2021

McKinsey on Healthcare: 2020 Year in Review is published by the partnersof McKinsey’s Healthcare Systems and Services Practice.McKinsey & CompanyHealthcare Systems and Services Practice150 West Jefferson, Suite 1600Detroit, Michigan 48226Executive editor: Shubham SinghalEditor: Elizabeth NewmanArt director: Ginny HullEditorial production: Lyris AutranLead reach and relevance partners: Drew Ungerman, Adi Kumar, Neil Rao, and Nikhil SahniExternal relations: Sharmeen AlamPractice manager: Julia BarclayThis publication is not intended to be used as the basis for trading in the shares of anycompany or for undertaking any other complex or significant financial transaction withoutconsulting appropriate professional advisers. No part of this publication may be copiedor redistributed in any form without the prior written consent of McKinsey & Company.Copyright 2021 McKinsey & Company. All rights reserved.

ForewordBy the end of March 2020, it becamea pparent the year would fall into two parts:the “normal” period before COVID-19, andeverything that has followed, including ourefforts to find the “next normal.”It is fair to say that the winter of 2020–21may appear to be the darkest time in ourexperience of the pandemic. Rising COVID-19 case numbers, delays in elective or preventative care, strained criticalcapacity, a workforce at risk of burnout,and cascading mental health and substance use metrics among patients andproviders are keeping many stakeholdersawake at night.Yet amid enormous challenges facingevery facet of the healthcare industry,steps forward have been taken to mitigate the crisis and create positive change.We anticipate these trends to acceleratethroughout 2021:Technology-driven innovation. New entrants and incumbents continue to searchfor ways to engage patients through digital and mobile platforms. While thepace of change in healthcare has laggedother industries in the past, the COVID-19pandemic may shift that dynamic. For example, the pandemic has driven a rapidexpansion in virtual care—and, as our research highlighted, long-term potentialexists to virtualize up to 250 billion ofcurrent US healthcare spend. In the realmof artificial intelligence, a 2020 joint report between the European Union’s EITHealth and McKinsey noted that venturecapital funding for the top 50 firms inhealthcare-related AI was reaching 8.5billion, and big tech firms, startups, pharmaceutical and medical-devices firms,and health insurers are all engaged withthe burgeoning AI ecosystem.ForewordInvestment in preventive health measures and transformation in the deliveryof care. It is expected that the effects ofCOVID-19 will cost the global economy upto 8 percent of real GDP in 2020, according to the McKinsey Global Institute. Yeteach year, poor health for a patient coststwice as much in real GDP when accounting for premature deaths and lost productivity among the working-age population.The proposed solutions include genomicsto deliver more targeted prevention andtreatment; data science and AI to detectand monitor disease and enhance research; tech-enabled delivery to expandand reimagine access; and advances inthe understanding of the biology of aging.Addressing healthcare disparities anda growing focus on equity. Intersectinghealth and social conditions—such asphysical health or behavioral health challenges, unmet social needs, and racial inequity—are correlated with poorerhealth outcomes. COVID-19 has amplifiedexisting inequitable health outcomes, andits resulting economic disruption couldcause long-term ripples. For example, inour midyear McKinsey Consumer HealthInsights survey, we found that while Blackand Hispanic/Latinx American healthcareconsumer respondents were more likelyto attempt to find COVID-19 testing, generally they were less successful. BlackAmericans are on average about 30 percent more likely to have health conditionsthat exacerbate the effects of COVID-19.Our Center for Societal Benefit throughHealthcare aims to help clients addresssome of these deeply r elevant societalissues, including racial and ethnic disparities in access to care, social determinantsof health, rural health, maternal health,and behavioral health.1

Increased choices for sites of care.While the shifting of care out of a hospitalsetting is not new, COVID-19 has accelerated this trend. The next decade of carecould be increasingly varied across sites,integrated around the patient through digital and analytics within patient-centeredecosystems, and driven by scale and performance. Virtual health technologies,such as remote monitoring, also may allowprimary care and specialty care practicesto expand their virtual patient interactions.Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, onestudy found that health systems, undervalue-based care arrangements, demonstrated 17 percent savings when they provided virtual care with their existinghealthcare professionals.The next steps for healthcare reform.The pandemic potentially set the stage forhealthcare reform along three dimensions:COVID-19-era waivers that could becomepermanent; actions that may be taken tostrengthen the healthcare system to dealwith pandemics; and reforms to addressCOVID-19. Between early March 2020 andmid-August, the Centers for Medicare &Medicaid Services had introduced morethan 190 waivers and modifications. Whilesome of these measures will continue onlyduring the pandemic, leaders could assesswhether other initiatives, such as expansion of telehealth access, are worth preserving. In December, the White Houseannounced it would add more than 60 services to the Medicare telehealth listthat will continue to be covered beyondthe end of the public health emergency.These efforts collectively may tie into trying to mitigate spikes reflecting tertiaryeffects of COVID-19; for example, in ananalysis from March to June 2020, wefound an increase of 17 percent in “excessdeaths” among Americans. Data and technology through predictive analytics maybe able to help direct prevention and resources to those most at risk.ForewordFlexibility and agility. In a McKinseysurvey of health system CFOs conductedthis year, more than 90 percent of respondents reported that COVID-19 willhave a negative financial impact, evenafter accounting for federal and statefunding. Ongoing financial pressure onindependent physician groups couldlead to a new wave of consolidation andnew affiliations driven by health systems,payers, and private equity. We expecthealth systems to continue consolidatingto achieve more scale and re-invest intechnology and digital/virtual, alternatesites of care, and risk-bearing assets.Given the level of uncertainty, healthcareleaders may continue to seek ways tomaximize agility and flexibility, allowingthem to more quickly and ably respondto changing market dynamics and ensureresiliency.While we have published extensively onhealthcare this year, we hope this compendium offers you a chance to readand reflect on some core insights. Finally,as professionals who work with healthcare stakeholders across the industryand around the world, we also offer ourthanks. While the next normal may notyet be here, we look forward to walkingtoward it with you.Sincerely,Shubham SinghalShubham Singhal@mckinsey.comDrew UngermanDrew Ungerman@mckinsey.comNeil RaoNeil Rao@mckinsey.comAdi KumarAdi Kumar@mckinsey.comNikhil SahniNikhil Sahni@mckinsey.comHealthcare Systems and Services PracticeMcKinsey & Company2

Table of contentsPart I: Resilience in healthcare: The COVID-19 challengeTelehealth: A quarter-trillion dollar post-COVID-19 reality?9Oleg Bestsennyy, Greg Gilbert, Alex Harris, and Jennifer RostTelehealth has helped expand access to care at a time when the pandemic has severelyrestricted patients’ ability to see their doctors. Actions taken by healthcare leaders todaywill determine if the full p otential of telehealth is realized after the crisis has passed.Physician employment: The path forward in the COVID-19 era17Kyle Gibler, Omar Kattan, Rupal Malani, and Laura Medford-DavisNew financial pressures resulting from the C OVID-19 pandemic may increase physicianpractice acquisition and consolidation. H ow ever, results from McKinsey physician surveysboth before and during the COVID-19 pandemic suggest that these partnerships maybenefit from an updated approach.A holistic approach for the US behavioral health crisis duringthe COVID-19 pandemic26Erica Coe, Lisa Crystal, Kana Enomoto, and Razili LewisCOVID-19 creates additional challenges for healthcare leaders seeking to improve behavioral health while offering an o pportunity for meaningful change.Insights on racial and ethnic health inequity in the context of COVID-1934Erica Coe, Kana Enomoto, Alex Mandel, Seema Parmar, and Samuel YamoahMcKinsey’s Center for Societal Benefit through Healthcare shares insights on u nderlyinghealth inequities that contribute to the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on communi ties of color and vulnerable populations.From “wartime” to “peacetime”: Five stages for healthcare institutionsin the battle against COVID-1939Penelope Dash, Prashanth Reddy, Shubham Singhal, and Kyle WeberHealthcare has found itself tested by the p andemic. The frontlines are delivering hero ically, but the next normal for healthcare will look nothing like the normal we leave behind.Table of contents3

Part II: Reimagining healthcare in a COVID-19 era‘And now win the peace’: Ten lessons from history for the next normal57Shubham Singhal and Kevin SneaderWe are not at the end of the COVID-19 crisis, and maybe not even at the end of the begin ning. But it is not too soon to build the strategies that will foster broad-based growth.Reimagining the postpandemic economic future70Wan-Lae Cheng, André Dua, Zoe Jacobs, Mike Kerlin, Jonathan Law, BenSafran, Jörg Schubert, Chun Ying Wang, Qi Xu, and Ammanuel ZegeyeAs the COVID-19 crisis continues to devastate US lives and livelihoods, policy makersare challenged to emerge from it in a way that lays a foundation for a strong, healthy economy in the long run.The great acceleration in healthcare: Six trends to heed78Cara Repasky and Shubham SinghalNext-generation care management, health for all, consolidated care delivery, andreform efforts are among the trends that may shape healthcare in the years ahead.When will the COVID-19 pandemic end? An update90Sarun Charumilind, Matt Craven, Jessica Lamb, Adam Sabow,and Matt WilsonOur November 23 update takes on the q uestions raised by recent news: When will vaccines be available? And is the end of COVID-19 nearer?Part III: Partnerships, value-based care, and integrationThe math of ACOs99Michael Chernew, Rachel Groh, David Nuzum, and Nikhil SahniSeveral factors will shape the financial p erformance of physician- and hospital-led organizations under total cost of care p ayment models.The next wave of healthcare innovation: The evolution of ecosystems112Zachary Greenberg, Basel Kayyali, Rob Levin, and Shubham SinghalHow healthcare stakeholders can win within evolving healthcare ecosystems.Table of contents4

Part III: Partnerships, value-based care, and integration (continued)Walking out of the hospital: The continued rise of ambulatory careand how to take advantage of it124Pooja Kumar and Ramya ParthasarathyAmbulatory care is one of the fastest-growing and highest-margin segments of thehealthcare industry. Analyzing variations in Commercial claims data and doctor surveysshows that significant growth potential remains. While many health systems have bene fited from investing ahead of this trend, significant opportunity r emains to be captured.Part IV: Special topics in healthcareConsumer decision making in healthcare: The role of information transparency137Jenny Cordina and Sarah GreenbergWhen armed with transparent information, consumers are likely to make different decisions. These decisions include choosing a d ifferent provider, often considering reputation, quality, and costs.Women in healthcare: Moving from the front lines to the top rung149Gretchen Berlin, Lucia Darino, Rachel Groh, and Pooja KumarOur analysis shows women in healthcare have made progress and continue to report highjob satisfaction. However, women also encounter persistent obstacles to advancement,particularly for senior positions, where they remain underrepresented.Prioritizing health: A prescription for prosperity161Penelope Dash, Martin Dewhurst, Matthias Evers, Katherine Linzer,Aditi Ramdorai, Jaana Remes, Kristin-Anne Rutter, Shubham Singhal,Sven Smit, Matt Wilson, and Jonathan WoetzelBetter health promotes economic growth by expanding the labor force and by boostingproductivity, while also delivering immense social benefits.Table of contents5

Disclaimer: These materials reflect an accelerated response to the COVID-19 crisis. These materials reflect general insightbased on currently available i nformation, which has not been independently verified and is inherently uncertain. Future resultsmay differ materially from any statements of expectation, forecasts or projections. These materials are not a guarantee of results and cannot be relied upon. These materials do not constitute legal, medical, policy or other regulated advice and donot contain all the information needed to determine a future course of action. Given the uncertainty surrounding COVID-19,these materials are provided “as is” solely for information purposes without any representation or warranty, and all liabilityis expressly disclaimed. References to specific products or organizations are solely for illustration and do not constitute any endorsement or recommendation. The recipient remains solely responsible for all decisions, use of these materials, and compliance with applicable laws, rules, regulations and standards. Consider seeking advice of legal and other relevant certified/licensed experts prior to taking any specific steps.Table of contents6

SELECTED QUOTES FROM 2020Resilience in healthcare:The COVID-19 challengeThere is no doubt that the patient-providerexperience during the past several monthshas accelerated virtual models of care byfive to ten years.Annie LamontCofounder and Managing Partner,Oak HC/FTSteve CollisChairman, President and CEO,AmerisourceBergen CorporationThe importance of the medical supply chainhas never been clearer. My hope is that afterthis crisis, we’ll have an enduring discussionabout the supply-chain function. How canwe create high-quality, robust, safe, andtransparent supply chains?It was our ability to get discharges, to getpatients out of our emergency room, to helpour health center and shelter colleagues carefor their patients in place that really keptour system from being overwhelmed.Kate WalshPresident and CEO,Boston Medical CenterKristin PeckCEO of ZoetisMcKinsey on Healthcare: 2020 Year in Review7

McKinsey on Healthcare: 2020 Year in Review8

Telehealth: A quarter-trillion- dollarpost-COVID-19 reality?Oleg Bestsennyy, Greg Gilbert, Alex Harris, and Jennifer RostTelehealth has helped expand accessto care at a time when the pandemic hasseverely restricted patients’ ability to seetheir doctors. Actions taken by healthcareleaders today will determine if the full potential of telehealth is realized afterthe crisis has passed.COVID-19 has caused a massiveacceler ation in the use of telehealth.Consumer adoption has skyrocketed,from 11 percent of US consumers usingtelehealth in 2019 to 46 percent of consumers now using telehealth to replacecancelled healthcare visits.1 Providershave rapidly scaled offerings and areseeing 50 to 175 times2-4 the numberof patients via telehealth than they didbefore. Pre- COVID-19, the total annualrevenues of US telehealth players werean estimated 3 billion, with the largestvendors focus ed in the “virtual urgentcare” segment: helping consumers geton-demand instant telehealth visitswith physicians (most likely, with a phy sician they have no relationship with).5With the acceleration of consumer andprovider adoption of telehealth and extension of telehealth beyond virtualurgent care, up to 250 b illion of current US healthcare spend couldpo tentially be virtualized.6This shift is not inevitable. It will requirenew ways of working for a broad set ofproviders, step-change improvementsTelehealth: A quarter-trillion- dollar post-COVID-19 reality?in information exchange, and broadening access and integration of technology. The potential impact is improvedcon venience and access to care, better patient outcomes, and a more efficienthealthcare system. Healthcare playersmay consider moves now that supportsuch a shift and improve their future position.Telehealth has surgedunder COVID-19Many of the dynamics highlighted in E xhibit 1 are likely to be in place for atleast the next 12 to 18 months, as concerns about COVID-19 remain until a vaccine is widely available. During thisperiod, consumers’ preferences for careaccess will continue to evolve, and virtualhealth could become more deeply embedded into the care delivery system.However, challenges remain. Our research indicates providers’ concernsabout telehealth include security, workflow integration, effectiveness comparedwith in-person visits, and the future for reimbursement.7 Similarly, there is a gapbetween consumers’ interest in telehealth (76 percent) and actual usage(46 percent). Factors such as lack ofawareness of telehealth offerings, education on types of care needs that couldbe met virtually, and understanding ofinsurance coverage are some of the drivers of this gap.8What is the full potential fortelehealth and virtual care?We identified five models for virtual or virtually enabled non-acute care and9

1. On-demand virtual urgent care asan alternative to lower acuity emergency department (ED) visits, urgentcare visits, and after-hours consultations. These care needs are the mostcommon telehealth use cases todayamong payers. This allows a consumerto remotely consult on demand withan unknown provider to address immediate concerns (such as an acutesinusitis) and avoid a trip to the EDor an urgent care center. Such usagecould be further scaled to address aa nalyzed the full potential of healthcarevolume and spend that could be delivered this way (see technical appendixon p. 15). These models of virtual carehave increasing requirements to engagebroader and broader portions of thehealthcare delivery system, going fromoffering one-off urgent visits, to building omnichannel care models that deliver a large portion of office visits virtuallyor near virtually, to embedding virtualservices in home care models. They include:Web year article slug Exhibit x of y Exhibit 1How has COVID-19 changed the outlook for telehealth?1 ConsumerShift from:To:11%76%use of telehealth in 2019now interested in using telehealth goingforwardWhile the surge in telehealth has been driven by the immediate goal to avoid exposure to COVID-19, with morethan 70 percent of in-person visits cancelled,¹ 76 percent of survey respondents indicated they were highly ormoderately likely to use telehealth going forward,² and 74 percent of telehealth users reported high satisfaction.³2 ProviderHealth systems, independent practices, behavioralhealth providers, and others rapidly scaled telehealthofferings to fill the gap between need and cancelledin-person care, and are reportingIn addition,57%of providers view telehealth more favorably thanthey did before COVID-19 and50–175x64%are more comfortable using it.⁵the number of telehealth visits pre-COVID-19.⁴3 RegulatoryTypes of services available for telehealth have greatly expanded, with the Centers for Medicare & MedicaidServices (CMS) temporarily approving more than80 newservicesand lifting restrictions on originating site, allowing Medicare Advantage plans to conduct risk assessments viatelehealth, and adding other regulatory flexibilities to increase access to virtual care.⁶¹ McKinsey COVID-19 Consumer Survey, April 27, 2020.² McKinsey COVID-19 Consumer Survey, May 20, 2020.³ McKinsey COVID-19 Consumer Survey, April 13, 2020.⁴ Ibid.⁵ McKinsey COVID-19 Physician Survey, May 2020.⁶ “Medicare telemedicine health care provider fact sheet,” March 17, 2020, A quarter-trillion- dollar post-COVID-19 reality?10

larger portion of low acuity visits previously seen in EDs.2. Virtual office visits with an established provider for consults that do notrequire physical exams or concurrentprocedures. Such visits can be pri mary care (such as chronic conditionchecks, colds, minor skin conditions),behavioral health (such as virtual psychotherapy sessions), and somespecialty care (select follow-up visitssuch as virtual cardiac rehabilitation).An omnichannel care model that fullyleverages virtual visits includes a mixof telehealth and in-person care witha consistent set of providers, improving patient convenience, access, andcontinuity of care. This model alsoenables clinicians to better managepatients with chronic conditions, withthe support of remote patient monitoring, digital therapeutics, and digitalcoaching, in addition to virtual visits.3. Near-virtual office visits extend theopportunity for patients to conveni ently access care outside a provider’soffice, by combining virtual access tophysician consults with “near home”sites for testing and immunizations,such as worksite clinics or retail clinics.For example, a virtual visit of a patientwith flu or COVID-like symptoms couldbe followed up by a trip to a nearbyretail clinic for a flu or COVID-19 test,with a subsequent follow-up virtualcheck-in with the primary care phy sician to consult on follow-on care.4. Virtual home health services leveragevirtual visits, remote monitoring, anddigital patient engagement tools to enable some of these services to bedelivered remotely, such as a portionof an evaluation, patient and care givereducation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. Direct services, such as wound careand assistance with daily living routines, would still occur in person, butvirtual home health services couldTelehealth: A quarter-trillion- dollar post-COVID-19 reality? nhance the patient’s and caregiver’seexperience, extend the reach of homehealth providers, and improve connectivity with the broader care team. Forexample, a physical therapist couldconduct virtual sessions with elderlypatients at their home to improve theirstrength, balance, and endurance, andto advise them how to avoid physicalhazards to reduce risk of falls.5. Tech-enabled home medication administration allows patients toshift receiving some infusible and injectable drugs from the clinic to thehome. This shift can happen by leveraging remote monitoring to help manage patients and monitor symptoms,providing self- service tools for patienteducation (for example, training forself-administration), and providingtelehealth oversight of staff (for ex ample, an oncologist overseeing anurse delivering chemotherapy to apatient at home and monitoring forside effects). This would be coupledwith home delivery of the therapeutics.Our claims-based analysis suggests thatapproximately 20 percent of all emer gency room visits could potentially beavoided via virtual urgent care offerings,24 percent of healthcare office visits andoutpatient volume could be delivered virtually, and an additional 9 percent“near-virtually.” Furthermore, up to 35percent of regular home health attendant services could be virtualized, and 2percent of all outpatient volume couldbe shifted to the home setting, withtech-enabled medication administration.Overall, these changes add up to 250billion in healthcare spend in 2020 thatcould be shifted to virtual or near-virtualcare, or 20 percent of all office, outpatient, and home health spend acrossMedicare, Medicaid, and commerciallyinsured populations (Exhibit 2).Scaling telehealth does more than alle viate patient and provider concerns overthe next 12 to 18 months until a COVID-1911

Exhibit2Approximately 250 billion—or 20%—of all Medicare, Medicaid, andCommercial OP, office, and home health spend, could potentially be virtualized.Current OP and office visits that can be virtually enabledCommercial, Medicare, and Medicaid 2020 estimated,¹ billions of dollars1,2501,00420%of ED visitsdiverted24%of all officevisits/OPencounters9%of all officevisits/OPencounters3535%of home healthservices12639Total OP, office,and homehealth spendNonvirtualizablevisits/spendVirtual urgentcare2%of all officevisits/OPencountersVirtual officevisitsNear-virtualoffice visits3512Virtual strationED, emergency department; OP, outpatient.¹ Projected from 2018 commercial and Medicare spend, using National Health Expenditures.Source: Anonymized claims data representative of commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid utilizationvaccine is available. Telehealth can increase access to necessary care in areas with shortages, such as behavioralhealth, improve the patient experience,and improve health outcomes. Fundamentally, the integration of fully virtualand near-virtual health solutions bringscare closer to home, increasing the convenience for patients to access carewhen they need it and the likelihood thatthey will take the right steps to manageTelehealth: A quarter-trillion- dollar post-COVID-19 reality?their care. These solutions can also makehealthcare more efficient; evidence priorto COVID-19 shows that telehealth solutions deployed for chronic populationscan improve total cost of care by 2 to 3percent.9 The actual opportunity is likelygreater once stakeholders embed telehealth as the new normal (for example,driven by improved abilities to managechronic patients, potential increases inprovider productivity).12

Sidebar 1What changes need to happen to realize the full potential of telehealth?This value will not happen withoutconcerted efforts by healthcare stakeholders, innovations in care models,adoption of new technologies, andsupporting infrastructure.1. Scale the use of virtual urgent care.This change will require building outflexible provider networks to addressthe shortages and long wait timesthat consumers experienced duringthe initial escalation of telehealth demand. Sustaining and growing patientuse also will likely require active, personalized patient engagement, byboth providers and payers, to ensurea positive experience with telehealth.Integration with e-triage/symptomsolutions (by either provider or payer)can make the patient experience evenmore seamless and can leverage artificial intelligence (AI) to guide patientsto the most appropriate care. Finally,the ability to access patients’ medicalrecords and make post-encounteradditions may be needed to enablecare integration.2. Scale the use of fully virtual officevisits. This change would require going beyond on-demand visits withan unknown provider and embeddingvirtual health in the “brick and mortar”healthcare system. Telehealth solutions will likely need to be easier toembed in provider workflows andaddress security concerns, both ofwhich have been raised by providersas limiting factors to telehealth adoption.¹ Capabilities are needed to allowfor more seamless information exchange and sufficiently rich clinicaldata to be transferred among providers and between providers and patients (for example, ensuring all providers caring for a complex patienthave access to the clinical record andcan update it based on virtual visits,plus leveraging AI and natural lang uage processes to capture notesin easily sharable forms). In addition,retail diagnostic kits (for example,home pulse oximeters, blood pressure machines) must be widely avail able, so patients can take basicmeasurements at home and enablea broader set of care to be deliveredvirtually. Providers should have aclear end-to-end value propositionfor integrating telehealth into theirservice delivery model (for example,incor porating the value from patientattraction and retention and operating model efficiency, in addition toreimbursement for visits). Payersshould also have a clear view of potential outcomes and total costof care impact (for example, by pop ulation and care journey) to informdecisions on provider engagementstrategies and reimbursement.3. Integrate “near virtual” office visitsinto the care continuum. Thesenear-virtual visits will have requirements similar to fully virtual officevisits, and scale up the availability of“near-home” sites of care (for example, workplace and retail clinics). Theywould be integrated into provider networks and delivery system footprints,and optimize care protocols to guidepatients to these sites. Even furtherdata integration will likely be needed.This may include patient data sharedacross platforms outside of a singlehealth system and patient tools (forexample, comprehensive personalhealth records applications, care navigation tools) that allow patients tomanage their care across providers.4. Virtualize home care services. Thischange would likely require increasedaccess to and use of remote monitoring devices, tailored to specific clinicalconditions (such as remote continuousglucose monitoring sensors for peoplewith diabetes or remote heartbeatmonitors and blood pressure monitorsfor people with cardiovascular conditions). Providers may be required tointegrate use of such devices into careplans. Payers may need to offer reimbursement, and solutions may needto enable integrated access between,for example, primary care physicians,care managers, and at-home care givers. These services could also require the deployment of supportivepatient engagement tools (for example, digital coaching, care plan naviga tion tools), tailored to patients’ needsand integrated with communicationchannels to providers, care managers, and others involved in their care.5. Tech-enabled home medicationadministration. This change will haverequirements similar to virtualizedhome care servic

healthcare professionals. The next steps for healthcare reform. The pandemic potentially set the stage for . healthcare reform along three dimensions: COVID-19-era waivers that could become permanent; actions that may be taken to strengthen the healthcare system to deal with pandemics; and reforms to address COVID-19. Between early March 2020 and

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