Analog Data Digital Data Digital Signal Encoding And .

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Chap. 4 Data EncodingAnalog DataDigital Dataadv:for tx. efficiency& FDM1Analog Signaluseof digital sw.&taidx. eem x. lsquiet namtpoos nn sigca gitaldiDigitalSignalEncoding and modulation techniquesx(t)g(t)digitaloranalogx(t)Encoder digitalDecoderg(t)tEncoding onto a digital dulatoranalogffcfcModulation onto an analog signalm(t) baseband signalor modulating signalfc carrier signals(t) modulated signal

Chap. 4 Data Encoding21. Digital Data Digital Signals A digital signal is a sequence of discrete,discontinuous voltage pulses. Each pulse is a signalelement Binary data are transmitted by encoding each data bitinto signal elements Encoding scheme: Mapping from data bits to signalelements Key data transmission terms Mark: binary digit 1; Space: binary digit 0

Chap. 4 Data Encoding3 Various encoding schemes Evaluation factors– Signal spectrum: less bandwidth, no dc component,shape of spectrum (better to center in the middle ofbandwidth)– Clocking: self-clocking capability is desired forsynchronization– Error detection: better to have error-detection capability– Signal interference and noise immunity:– Cost and complexity:1 0 RZ (Return to Zero)01 V0-V– 0: positive pulse– 1: negative pulse– Signal returns to zero after each encoded bit NRZ (Nonreturn to Zero)– Voltage level is constant during bit interval (no return toa zero voltage level)1 0 0 1– NRZ-L (NRZ Level) 0: positive voltage 1: negative voltage V-V– NRZ-I (NRZ Inverted) a form of differential encoding 1: transition at the beginning of bit interval 0: no transition

Chap. 4 Data Encoding4– NRZ is simple, and efficiently use bandwidth– NRZ limitations presence of dc component lack of synchronization capability Multilevel Binary– Bipolar-AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion) Three voltage levels (positive, zero, negative)0: zero voltage1: alternately by positive and negative voltagesBetter synchronization than NRZno dc componenterror detection capability– Pseudoternary Same as bipolar-AMI, except representation of 0 and 1 isinterchanged Biphase– Always a transition at the middle of each bit interval– Manchester 0: high to low transition 1: low to high transition– Differential Manchester 0: transition at the beginning of bit interval 1: no transition– Synchronization and error detection capability, and nodc component

Chap. 4 Data EncodingDefinition of digital signal encoding formatsNonreturn-to-Zero-Level (NRZ-L): 0 high level, 1 low levelNonreturn-to-Zero Inverted (NRZI): 0 no transition at beginningof interval (one bit time), 1 transition at beginning of intervalBipolar-AMI: 0 no line signal, 1 positive or negative level,alternating for successive onesPseudoternary: 0 positive or negative level, alternating forsuccessive zeros, 1 no line signalManchester: 0 transition from high to low in middle of interval1 transition from low to high in middle of intervalDifferential Manchester: Always a transition in middle of interval0 transition at beginning of interval1 no transition at beginning of intervalB8ZS: Same as bipolar AMI, except that any string of eight zeros isreplaced by a string with two code violationsHDB3: Same as bipolar AMI, except that any string of four zeros isreplaced by a string with one code violation0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 entialmanchester5

Chap. 4 Data Encoding6 Modulation Rate– Data rate (expressed in bps) modulation rate (orsignaling rate or signal transition rate)(expressed inbaud) times the number of bits per signal elemetNormalized signal transition rate of various encoding hesterDiff Manchester0 (all 0’s or 1’s)0 (all 0’s)0 (all 0’s)0 (all 1’s)1.0 (1010 )1.0 (all 1’s)101010 1.00.51.01.01.01.5Maximum1.01.0 (all 1’s)1.01.02.0 (all 0’s or 1’s)2.0 (all 0’s)Spectral density of various signal encoding schemes

Chap. 4 Data Encoding7 Scrambling Techniques– For long-distance communications– No dc component, good synchronization and errordetection capability, without reduction in data rate– B8ZS (Bipolar with 8-Zeros Substitution) Based on bipolar-AMI 8 consecutive zeros are encoded as either 000 -0- or000- 0 -, s.t. two code violations always occur– HDB3 (High-Density Bipolar 3-Zeros) 4 zeros are encoded as either 000-, 000 , 00 , or -00 Substitution rule is s.t. the 4th bit is always a codeviolation, and successive violations are of alternatepolarity (not to introduce dc component)1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0Bipolar-AMI0 0 0 V B 0 V BB8ZS0 0 0 V B 0 0 VB 0 0 VHDB3B Valid bipolar signal, V Bipolar violation

Chap. 4 Data Encoding8SummaryNRZ(NRZ-L,NRZI*)dc Comp.?BW ultilevel BinaryBiphase Scrambling(Bipolar AMI, (Manchester, (B8ZS,Pseudo ternary) Diff. Man.*)HDB3)YesBNoNoBYes, but ①No2BYesNo-Simple-Digital mag.recordingYesYesLANNoBBetter thanmultilevelYesLong dist.comm.* Differential encoding① A long string of 0’s cause a problem in AMIA long string of 1’s cause a problem inPseudoternary2. Digital Data Analog Signals Encoding is by modulation of a continuoussinusoidal carrier signal. This involves alterationof some characteristics of the carrier signal amplitude, frequency, or phase. Various encoding techniques, ASK, FSK, PSK,.

Chap. 4 Data EncodingASKFSKBinary 1 A cos(2πfct θc) A cos(2πf1t θc)Binary 00A cos(2πf2t θc)9(Diff.) PSKA cos(2πfct 180 )A cos(2πfct)(ASK)(FSK)(PSK)

Chap. 4 Data Encoding QPSK(Quadrature PSK)– Each signal element represents two bitsBinaryBinaryBinaryBinary11:10:00:01:cos(2πfct 45 )cos(2πfct 135 )cos(2πfct 225 )cos(2πfct 315 ) PSK using 12 angles and two amplitudes– 9,600 bps modem (2,400 baud x 4) Those patterns showing legal combinations ofamplitude and phase are called constellationpatterns 14,400 bps modem 64 points constellationpattern 28,800 bps modem 128 points10

Chap. 4 Data Encoding113. Analog Data Digital Signals PCM (Pulse Code Modulation)– Based on the Nyquist’s Sampling Theorem: If asignal is periodically sampled at a rate twice thehighest significant frequency component in the signal,then it can be reconstructed from the samples by usinga low-pass filter

Chap. 4 Data Encoding12Analog-to-digital conversionPAMsamplerAnaloginput signalQuantizerPAM pulsesPCM pulsesEncoderoutput– Quantization noise: S/N 6n 1.8 dB, where n is # ofbits used– To reduce quantization noise large n or– Nonlinear coding– CompandingEffect of nonlinear coding

Chap. 4 Data Encoding13 DM (Delta Modulation)– Uses “n” 1, I.e., binary digital signal is produced;“0” stands for change of -δ and “1” for change of δ.– Higher sampling rate than PCM (Nyquist’s rate) isneeded, but each sample uses only 1 bit instead of n.– Implementation much simpler than PCM.

Chap. 4 Data Encoding14Delta ModulationAnaloginput One timeunit delayBinaryinputBinaryoutputComparator One timeunit delay1 δ0 -δTransmissionReconstructedwaveformReception4. AnalogData Analog Signals Motivation– Low frequency analog signals cannot be transmittedon unguided media. (would require antennas withkm diameters) higher frequency needed.– For FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing)

Chap. 4 Data Encoding15 AM (Amplitude Modulation)s(t) [1 m(t)]cos2 f c tSpectrum of an AM signalM(f)S(f)Discrete carrier termLowersideband0BfSpectrum ofmodulating signal0fc-BUppersidebandfcSpectrum of AM signalwith carrier at fcfc BfDSBTC

Chap. 4 Data Encoding Angle Modulation (FM and PM)s(t) Acos[2 f c t φ (t)]– PM: φ(t) npm(t)– FM: φ′(t) nfm(t)16

Chap. 4 Data Encoding175. Spread Spectrum Developed initially and popular for military andintelligence application Spread the info signal over a wider bandwidth inorder to make jamming and interception moredifficultGeneral model of spread spectrum digital communication system Two types:– Frequency hopping and Direct sequence Basis for CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)

Chap. 4 Data Encoding18 Frequency-Hopping– Signal is transmitted over a seemingly randomseries of frequencies, hopping from frequency tofrequency at split-second intervals.– A receiver, hopping between frequencies insynchronization with the transmitter, picks up themessage

Chap. 4 Data Encoding19 Direct Sequence– Each bit in the original signal is represented bymultiple bits (chip code) in the transmitted signal– The chipping code spreads the signal across a widerfrequency band in direct proportion to the number ofbits usedExample of direct sequence spread spectrum

Modulation onto an analog signal m(t) baseband signal or modulating signal fc carrier signal s(t) modulated signal. Chap. 4 Data Encoding 2 1. Digital Data Digital Signals A digital signal is a sequence of discrete, dis

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