Area Marking - Fisher Sci

1y ago
2.64 MB
28 Pages
Last View : 9d ago
Last Download : 6m ago
Upload by : Angela Sonnier

Area MarkingCreate a safer, more efficient workplace

AboutBRADYOnce you have worked with BRADY, our name will stick with you, (just like our labels) becauseBRADY is one of the world’s leading labelling and identification specialists.InnovativeAt BRADY we continue to improve. We have many customers from all industries, and we strive to be ahead of theirneeds by continuing to invest in research for even more performant solutions. By developing more user-friendly andefficient concepts, we give our thousands of customers the best in the market.StrengthAt BRADY, we believe our biggest strength is the wide range of identification and safety solutions we can offer ourcustomers, whether it’s labelling the smallest component or complete signage for an entire warehouse. We’re alsoproud to offer many products and services - from printers, scanners and software to service contracts and on-sitetraining - that compliment any identification job. And don’t forget, our wide network of expert distributors can alwaysoffer you a tailor-made solution to meet your specific requirements.TrustFor over a hundred years, BRADY has been connected with quality, trust and stability. We demand the best for yourproducts and services, because we know, better than anyone, the importance of good and reliable identification.Identification looks like a small detail, but every professional knows that this kind of detail is crucial to any business.InformWe also have specialised dealers in your region, who can answer all your identification, safety and labelling questions,specific to your activity. They will be happy to provide you with all kinds of options and solutions with no obligation.Microsoft is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation, Bluetooth is a trademark of Bluetooth Sig, Inc., Android is a trademark of Google Inc.Brady products are sold on the condition that the purchaser will test them in actual use and determine for himself/herself their suitability tohis/her intended purpose. Brady warrants to the purchaser that Brady products are free from defects in material and workmanship but limitsits obligation under this warranty to the replacement of the product which has been shown to Brady’s satisfaction to have been defective atthe time of its purchase.The warranty does not extend to any persons who have acquired the product from the purchaser. It is in lieu of any other warranty, includingevery warranty of sale-ability, marketability or suitability for the intended purpose, and is also in lieu of any other obligation or liability on thepart of Brady.Under no circumstances will Brady be liable for losses, damage, costs or subsequent damage of whatever nature which may arise in connectionwith the use of, or inability to use, Brady’s products.2

Area Marking: why?Creating a totally safe work environment requires severalelements: clear signage and lockout tagout proceduresare essential but should be complimented by clear areamarking.Brady offers a complete range of additional markingmethods to ensure that floor areas, steps, railings and otherrelevant areas can be identified as danger zones.Brady will help you find the solution that works best foryour environment!TABLE OF CONTENTSFloor marking nt area marking tapePaintStripe & floor marking paintPhotoluminescent area markingAnti-skid productsBarricade & underground tapesWarning posts & chainsFloor standsSafety bumpersPaintstripe & floor marking areaPhotoluminescent area markingAnti-skid productsBarricade tapeWarning posts & chainswww.bradyeurope.comwww.bradyeurope.com3

ComplianceComplianceFloor marking can support compliance with European Union laws & regulations. In EUDirective Annexes, colour codes are mentioned for a number of floor marking applications.Directive 92/58/EEC Minimum requirements for the provision of safety and /or health signs at workThe directive includes that employers shall provide safety and/or health signs where hazards cannot be avoided or adequatelyreduced by techniques for collective protection or measures, methods or procedures used in the organisation of work.Effective floor marking: 9 tips1. Use as few colours as possible.2. Colour-code work celland equipment borders.3. Colour-code materialstorage areas.4. Colour-code non-materialstorage fixtures.5. Colour-code areas to be keptclear for safety and compliance.6. Colour-code areas in frontof electrical panels.7. Colour-code operational“keep clear” areas.8. Colour-code hazardousareas or equipment.9. Mark means of egress.ToughStripe Floor Tape Adhesion RatesLow Adhesion4Moderate AdhesionmicTleu ilemFlecTke iledUrSoetlidhaUneCo retnc hanreeteranoLiCeondMSm naletMalooetthalEpoxyDiamgoxaallHeSmlicSiAlaGum ritiniuGar m Onet G xidePaGrti ritritclLa e Erg poexyDiamondMetalFloor TypesStrong AdhesionRequest a sample to try ToughStripe in your ownenvironment,

ToughStripe is theidealidealfloor markingtape in atapelean environmentwhere the regularapplicationand replacementof floorisToughStripeis thefloor markingin a lean environmentwherethe regularapplicationandmarkingreplacementcrucial.of floor marking is crucial.Superior durabilitySpend less time replacing damaged or worn lines for abetter looking, more efficient facility. Withstands forklift traffic without tearing or lifting Low profile design minimises tears and scratches from skids, palletjacks, etc. Rugged polyester with ultra aggressive adhesiveHigh visibilityGet the same visibility of painted floor markings – andpay less. High gloss surface shines like new paint Low-profile minimises debris build-up along the edges that occurs withthicker (extruded) floor tapes Surface resists marks and smudges and cleans up like new Available in a variety of high impact coloursEasy applicationQuickly lay down smooth, straight lines – withoutthe help of co-workers. Can be easily applied by one personworking alone Stiff polyester with liner prevents tapestretching and reduces wrinkles andwavy uneven lines No special floor preparation required –just clean with common detergents For maximum performance, applyToughStripe Floor Marking products toflat, non-coated concreteDie-Cut shapesUse different shapes, colours and sizes for moreeffective, durable floor markings. Dashes, dots, arrows, footprints, numbers, letters and cornermarks (L,T and shapes) Longer lasting markings – Minimises the risk of damage andfacilitates fast repair Selected dashes, dots and arrows are pre-spaced on transfer tape,making it incredibly easy to lay down straight evenly spaced linesPainless RemovalEasily remove floor markings without damaging thefloor or leaving adhesive residue. Does not chip and flake when being removed - comes off in one piece Clean removal without any unsightly adhesive residue or damage to thefloorwww.bradyeurope.com5

Floor marking tape for heavy traffic areasSolutionKey FeaturesApplicationsGoodAisle Marking TapeB-726 VinylMore cost-effectivesolution for shortapplication periodTemporary marking for 5S/LEAN areas, work cells that change and moreBetterToughStripe Floor Marking TapeB-514 PolyesterLonger applicationperiod with moreshape andcustomisability optionsVisual workplaces in 5S/LEAN, walkways, aisle and medium traffic level areasBestToughStripe Max Floor Marking TapeB-543 VinylHighest durabilityHigher forklift and industrial vehicle trafficOtherPaintStripe - FloorMarking StencilsB-518/B-519 fordifferent surfacetypesPaint stencil for longer,morepermanent markingPermanent work area designationToughStripe Max - Floor Marking TapeB-543 Floor marking vinyl 1.27 mm thicknessService temperature range of -18 C to 60 CApplication conditions: min. 10 C, dry floorNot recommended for outdoor useResistant to harsh chemicalsExceeds safety standards for clean, dry non-slip surfaces per OSHA 1910.22Article No.ColourFinishWidth A (mm)Length B 4830.4830.48B-543: lueBlack & YellowBlack & YellowBlack & YellowGet the Floor Marking guide6

Toughstripe - Brady B-514 Floor Marking polyesterToughStripe floor marking products are made with Brady’s B-514 polyester. ToughStripe productsare ideal for marking aisles, passageways and storage locations, and pointing out important safetyequipment and egress paths. 0.2 mm thicknessService temperature range of -18 C to 54 CApplication conditions: min. 5 C, dry floorRecommended for indoor use and dry environmentResistant to harsh chemicalsExceeds safety standards for clean, dry non-slip surfaces per OSHA 1910.22Toughstripe - Floor Marking TapeOrder Ref. Width (mm) Length (m)ColourOrder Ref. Width (mm) Length (m)Colour10434076.2030.48 mBlack12191350.8030.48 mBlack & White10434176.2030.48 mWhite12191650.8030.48 mRed & White10434276.2030.48 mYellow13243050.8030.48 mRed & Yellow10434376.2030.48 mRed13243350.8030.48 mBlack & Orange10434476.2030.48 mBlue13243650.8030.48 mGreen & White10434576.2030.48 mGreen13243950.8030.48 mBlue & Yellow10434676.2030.48 mOrange13408650.8030.48 mPurple10434776.2030.48 mBlack & Yellow13408950.8030.48 mBrown10434876.2030.48 mRed & White13409250.8030.48 mGrey10434976.2030.48 mBlack & White104370101.6030.48 mBlack12191476.2030.48 mBlack & White104371101.6030.48 mWhite12191776.2030.48 mRed & White104372101.6030.48 mYellow13243176.2030.48 mRed & Yellow104373101.6030.48 mRed13243476.2030.48 mBlack & Orange104374101.6030.48 mBlue13243776.2030.48 mGreen & White104375101.6030.48 mGreen101.6030.48 mOrange13244076.2030.48 mBlue & Yellow10437613408776.2030.48 mPurple104377101.6030.48 mBlack & Yellow13409076.2030.48 mBrown104378101.6030.48 mRed & White13409376.2030.48 mGrey104379101.6030.48 mBlack & White10431050.8030.48 mBlack121915101.6030.48 mBlack & White10431150.8030.48 mWhite121918101.6030.48 mRed & White10431250.8030.48 mYellow132432101.6030.48 mRed & Yellow10431350.8030.48 mRed132435101.6030.48 mBlack & Orange10431450.8030.48 mBlue132438101.6030.48 mGreen & White10431550.8030.48 mGreen132441101.6030.48 mBlue & Yellow10431650.8030.48 mOrange134088101.6030.48 mPurple10431750.8030.48 mBlack & Yellow134091101.6030.48 mBrown10431850.8030.48 mRed & White134094101.6030.48 mGrey10431950.8030.48 mBlack & WhiteCustom ToughStripe tape Pre-printed tape with your custom message Die cut numbers and letters for safety, lean and otherapplications Specific die cut shape sizes Any colour you need, just provide a PMS number Striped or checkered tape availablewww.bradyeurope.com7

Caution ESD area floormarking tapeOrder Ref.Width (mm)Order Ref.Length (m) ColourDiameter (mm) 48Black on Orange12136576.2030.48Black on Orange10440288.90Blue121366101.6030.48Black on Orange10440388.90Yellow12136750.8030.00Black on Yellow10440488.90Black12136876.2030.00Black on Yellow10440588.90White121369101.6030.00Black on YellowArrows - 100 / packageCentre Marks - “ ”20 / packageOrder Ref.Width (mm)Height (mm)ColourOrder Ref.Width (mm)Height teWatch the ToughStripe Floor Marking videos - 350 / roll

Use ToughStripe floormarking products tomark: aisleways and traffic laneswork cell outlinesequipment storage areasmaterial storage areasQA inspection areasdefects/scrap/rework areas“Keep clear” zoneshazard areasCorner marks - “L”20 / packageFootprints - 10 / package(5 Right - 5 Left)Order Ref.104406104407104408104409104410104411Width (mm)88.9088.9088.9088.9088.9088.90Height reenBlueYellowBlackWhiteDivider marks - “T”20/ packageOrder Ref.Width (mm)Height (mm)ColourOrder Ref.Width (mm)Height tewww.bradyeurope.com9

Floor marking numbers & letters Width: 146.05 mm Height: 203.20 mmOrder r r Ref.ColourOrder Ref.

Floor Marking Numbers & Letters (continued) Width: 146.05 mm Height: 203.20 mmOrder Ref.ColourOrder 1870Yellow121894YellowOrder owPre-spaced Shapes (Spaced 457 mm apart)Order Ref.Diameter (mm)Width (mm)Height om11

Pre-printed floor signsToughStripe floor signs communicate important safety and warning messages to youremployees in areas with foot trafficOrder Ref.Diameter (mm)Width (mm)Height (mm)PackagingColour104498-457.20355.601Black & Red on White104499-457.20355.601Black on Yellow104502-457.20355.601Black on Yellow104503-457.20355.601Black on Yellow104504-457.20355.601Black on Yellow104510-457.20355.601Black on Yellow104501431.80--1Black on Yellow104507431.80--1Black & Green on White104508431.80--1Black & Blue on White104509431.80--1Black on White104511431.80--1Black & Red on White104512431.80--1Black on Yellow104513431.80--1Black on YellowToughStripe - Floor Tape ApplicatorEasily draw straight lines of reliable floor tapes with the ToughStripe FloorTape Applicator to increase safety and efficiency in your facilities. 12Applies thin and temporary up to thick, heavy duty floor tapesErgonomic and lightweight for comfortable useWinds spent floor tape liner on an extra coreEasy to store in tight spacesAdjustable guide panel can allow 25 – 100 mm (1-4 inch) floor tape widthsArticle No.DescriptionQuantity150852ToughStripe Floor Tape Applicator1

ToughStripe for use with the BMP71 Label PrinterIdeal for marking aisles, passageways and storage locations. Create custom-printed floor labels, with easy 3-step process: print label, position on floor, apply overlaminate Each kit includes 1 roll of B-483 tape and 1 roll of B-634 overlaminateOrder Ref.Width (mm)Length eToughStripe for use with the BBP35 and BBP37 label printers Create custom-printed floor labels, with easy 3-step process: print label, position on floor, apply overlaminate Each kit includes 1 roll of B-483 tape and 1 roll of B-634 overlaminateOrder Ref.Width (mm)Length .bradyeurope.com13

Toughstripe floor marking tapeRemovable area marking tapeToughStripe is the ideal floor marking tape in a lean environment where the regular application andreplacement of floor marking is crucial. Superior durabilityEasy applicationHigh visibilityDie-Cut shapesPainless RemovalDiagramOrder ReferenceColourLabelWidthA (mm)LabelLengthB (m)Labelsper RollPrinterRibbon SeriesPrinter CompatibilityB-483/B-634: Polyester with Polyester R4400BBP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, 35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, P35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, FBBP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, 5, BBP37, i3300, S3000, BBP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, FBBP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, P35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, 35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, P35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, FBBP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, 5, BBP37, i3300, S3000, BBP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, FBBP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, BBP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, FBBP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, BP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, P35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, BP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, HFBBP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, 35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, FBBP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, HFBBP35, BBP37, i3300, S3000, S3100Printer compatibilityScan or click the QR-codeScan or click the QR-code14Scan or click the QR-codeScan or click the QR-code

Permanent area marking tapeAisle marking tapes Long lasting, sticks fast to surfacesMaterial: Self-adhesive Vinyl (B-726)Length: 33 mPackaging: 1Article No.058200Width 175.00Blue05822250.00Black05822375.00BlackWarning panelsCan be used wherever there are potential dangers to the work force.Designed to give early warning about trucks, loading platforms, posts and fork-lift trucks. Material: B-7541 - Laminated PolyesterArticle No.255322Height (mm) x Width (mm)286.00 x 428.00ColourRed & WhitePackaging10Reflective stripes & solid colour tapesThese tapes give an extra margin of safety during blackouts, at night, or in low light conditions. Material: Reflective Adhesive Material (B-957) Length: 4.5 m Standard Package: 1 rollArticle No.Width (mm)Reflective Solid Colour TapeColourArticle No.Width (mm)Reflective Stripes TapeColour07898950.00Orange07631050.00Black & White07899075.00Orange07630950.00Red & White07898550.00White07631375.00Red & White50.00Black & Yellow75.00Black & 207898875.00Yellowwww.bradyeurope.com15

Permanent area marking tapeWarning tapes Self-adhesive warning film for marking pillars, pylons, the edges of walls, gate arches and liftsExtremely durable (0.138 mm thick)Waterproof, oil, alkali and acid resistantMaterial: Self-adhesive PVCRoll length: 33 mPackaging: 1 rollArticle No.Width (mm)Colour25531138.00Black & Yellow25531250.00Black & Yellow25531375.00Black & Yellow25529538.00Red & White25529650.00Red & White25529775.00Red & WhiteAnti-skid Laminated Polyester (B-7538)custom tapes available on request.Durable marking tapesColours are sealed beneath a protective layer of abrasion resistant clear laminate. 16Aggressive adhesive holds on almost any clean, dry surfaceMarkings stand up to toughest conditions - indoors or outMaterial: Self-adhesive vinyl (B-950)Standard Package: 1 rollLength: 16.5 mArticle No.Width (mm)Colour05529025.00Black & White05529138.00Black & White05529250.00Black & White05529375.00Black & White05530025.00Black & Yellow05530138.00Black & Yellow05530250.00Black & Yellow05530375.00Black & Red & White05529538.00Red & White05529650.00Red & White05529775.00Red & WhiteMagenta &YellowMagenta &YellowMagenta &Yellow

PaintStripe & floor marking paintPaintStripe & floor marking paintFast and easy floor marking with PaintStripeBrady now offers line-painting stencils for floor-marking applications. These stencils offer a convenient andprecise solution wherever painted lines are preferred to help create a safe, organised, and productive workenvironment. PaintStripe Floor Marking Stencils are available in both continuous and dashed line formats; linewidths of 50.80 mm, 76.20 mm or 101.60 mm; and two adhesive types to suit a range of floor surface typesand conditions.Brady’s PaintStripe is available with two adhesive types to suit a range of floor surface types. Paintedfloor marking using PaintStripe stencils is ideal to increase efficiency: in outdoor applications and also on high traffic factory floors in heavy manufacturing facilities in facilities with wet floors, harsh washdown or floor cleaning protocols and on floors frequently exposed to chemicalsB-518 for clean, polished floorsArticle No.DescriptionWidth (mm)Length 6PaintStripe Stencil - Continuous LinePaintStripe Stencil - Dashed LinePaintStripe Stencil - Continuous LinePaintStripe Stencil - Dashed LinePaintStripe Stencil - Continuous LinePaintStripe Stencil - Continuous LinePaintStripe Stencil - Continuous LinePaintStripe Stencil - Continuous 030.50152.40152.4030.50152.4030.50152.40B-519 for dull, worn surfaces and rough or textured floor applicationsArticle No.DescriptionWidth (mm)Length 7PaintStripe Stencil - Continuous LinePaintStripe Stencil - Dashed LinePaintStripe Stencil - Continuous LinePaintStripe Stencil - Dashed LinePaintStripe Stencil - Continuous LinePaintStripe Stencil - Continuous LinePaintStripe Stencil - Continuous LinePaintStripe Stencil - Continuous 030.50152.40152.4030.50152.4030.50152.40Brady recommends that users should perform a test of the stencil/paint combination on the actual floor surface when planning floor-painting projects. Bradyoffers no-charge sample rolls of B-518 and B-519 stencils for this purpose.Easyline Floor Marking Paint for industrial marking For permanent useSupplied in 750 ml aerosol cans which are CFC freeDoes not contain lead or chlorinated solventsProduces lines up to 100 metres long , depending on the surface and the widthResistant to oil, petrol, grease, water, etcPackaging: Sold in packs of 6Article iptionPermanent Easyline Paint - BluePermanent Easyline Paint - GreenPermanent Easyline Paint - OrangePermanent Easyline Paint - BlackPermanent Easyline Paint - GreyPermanent Easyline Paint - YellowPermanent Easyline Paint - WhitePermanent Easyline Paint - RedEasyLine Edge Paint ApplicatorEasy to use wheeled Easyline Line Marking Paint applicator. Mark 3 different line widths, 50 mm,75mm & 100 mm with one machine. Ensures clean, precise lines. Total visibility of line markingduring application. Rear wheels are adjustable to allow for line marking close to walls and racks.Article No.255351DescriptionEasyline Edge Paint Applicatorwww.bradyeurope.com17

Page Headerarea markingPhotoluminescentBrady offers a wide range of photoluminescentproducts. These indicate danger zones, even incomplete darkness. In case of an emergency,these products will help your employees to findtheir way out of a dark room.PSPA Material ClassificationMinimum LuminanceClassABCD*After 10 minutes25 mcd/m²50 mcd/m²140 mcd/m²260 mcd/m²After 60 minutes3 mcd/m²7 mcd/m²20 mcd/m²35 mcd/m²mcd Millicandela*Available via custom order processGlow-in-the-dark warning tapes Material: Self-adhesive photoluminescent polyesterArticle 2836803Width ength lass AClass AClass BClass BClass BClass BClass CClass BClass CGlow-in-the-dark warning tapes withlegend Material: Self-adhesive photoluminescent polyester Standard Package: 1 roll (10 m)Article 7Width ptionEmergency exit (left)Emergency exit (left)Emergency exit (left)Emergency exit (left)Emergency exit (right)Emergency exit (right)Emergency exit (right)Emergency exit (right)Legend–Fire exit–Fire exit–Fire exit–Fire exitClassClass BClass BClass BClass BClass BClass BClass BClass BSafety SignageContact your Brady distributor for the Safety Signagecatalogue.18

ark shapes Article No. 224073 - Material: Class C Rigid Photoluminescent Aluminium (B-7524)Article No. 224074 - Material: Class C Rigid Photoluminescent Aluminium (B-7524)Article No. 224077 - Material: Class C Rigid Photoluminescent Aluminium (B-7524)Article No. 836821 - Material: Class B Photoluminescent Polyester (B-7568)Article No. 836823 - Material: Class B Photoluminescent Polyester (B-7568)Article No. 836824 - Material: Class B Photoluminescent Polyester (B-7568)Article No.836821224073224074836824224077836823Height (mm) xWidth (mm)100.00 x 100.00210.00 x 85.00210.00 x 85.0090.00 x 240.00Diameter (mm) Description50.0075.00Glow-in-the-dark ArrowsGlow-in-the-dark anti-skid footprint - Right footGlow-in-the-dark anti-skid footprint - Left footGlow-in-the-dark FootprintsGlow-in-the-dark anti-skid floor marking dotsGlow-in-the-dark DotsPackagingClass611201020Class BClass CClass CClass BClass CClass BDoor handle backgrounds Material

Photoluminescent area marking Floor marking tape Anti-skid products Barricade tape 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS . Temporary marking for 5S/LEAN areas, work cells that change and more Better ToughStripe - Floor Marking Tape . Exceeds safety standards for clean, dry non-slip surfaces per OSHA 1910.22 Toughstripe - Brady B-514 .

Related Documents:

With the Marking Editor, you can also create the required marking directly in the application environment. Send your print orders directly and wirelessly or via USB connection to the marking system from your tablet PC or smartphone. From planning right through to the finished marking MARKING system app: Design markings intuitively

Home » sci » SCI 260 Ground Bond Testers User Guide Contents hide 1 SCI 260 Ground Bond Testers 2 SAFETY CHECKLIST 3 TESTER SETUP 4 SETTING TEST MEMORIES 5 EDIT TEST PARAMETERS 6 TEST CONNECTION 7 CONDUCT A TEST 8 TEST RESULTS 9 Documents / Resources 9.1 Related Manuals / Resources SCI 260 Ground Bond Testers SAFETY CHECKLIST Survey the test .

potential electric arc flash hazards and arc flash marking. To better assist, the NFPA 70E- 2004 clauses, etc. are referenced by being placed in brackets throughout this document. Arc Flash Marking Clarification The flash protection marking per NEC Article 110-16 is a field marking requirement and is to be applied by the user for each specific .

Apr 24, 2020 · Available Colors: Footprint Floor Marking Available Colors: Arrows Floor Marking Available Colors: Patented Mighty Line Floor Marking Yellow Floor Tape Arrows. Our Mighty Line Arrows are 10 inches long and 6 inches wide at the widest point. Mighty Line arrows are a great floor safety marking tool.

We want to break down the different types of marking that is accomplished with a 1064nm fiber laser and specific applications to those types of marking. Fiber marking systems can mark or "laser etch" many different materials such as metals, plastics, and ceramics, all in contrast. Contrast marking is the discoloration of any material

Fisher R232E 2 Stage Fisher R632E 2 Stage Fisher R622E 2nd Stage FiShER RESidEnTiAL 2 pSi REGULATORS 2 PSI service regulators have an internal relief valve, and are designed to serve as intermediate regula

The VA Fisher House Program is one of the largest healthcare hospitality programs in the country with 36 houses. The National Fisher House and Family Hospitality program is responsible for all aspects of the VA Fisher House program and con -clinical temporary lodging The VA facility is resp

PARTICLE ASTROPHYSICS Dark Energy and Dark Matter 15 Dark energy There is a great deal of observational evidence from astrophysics and cosmology that the expansion of the universe is currently accelerating requires a component with equation of state P wƐwhere w 1/3 (w 1 is a vacuum energy or cosmological constant, Λ)