The State Of Juvenile Probation Activity In Texas

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2017 The State of Juvenile Probation Activity in Texas Statistical and Other Data on the Juvenile Justice System in Texas

THE STATE OF JUVENILE PROBATION ACTIVITY IN TEXAS Statistical and Other Data on the Juvenile Justice System in Texas for Calendar Year 2017 Texas Juvenile Justice Department Camille Cain, Executive Director Braker H Complex, Suite A 11209 Metric Blvd. P.O. Box 12757 Austin, Texas 78711-2757 Telephone 512.490.7130 Fax 512.490.7717 www.tjjd.texas.gov Report Number RPT-STAT-2017 This and other publications may be downloaded in a PDF format on TJJD’s website at: www.tjjd.texas.gov Published November 2018 Acknowledgement The Texas Juvenile Justice Department expresses its appreciation to the many juvenile probation officers, juvenile court judges and others whose prompt and continued submission of their statistical and other data have made this report possible.

Table of Contents Overview . 1 The Texas Juvenile Probation System . 2 Introduction . 2 Funding . 2 Juvenile Population . 2 Juvenile Boards . 3 Structure . 3 Certification of Officers . 3 Salaries, Staffing, and Caseload . 3 Juvenile Referral Activity. 6 Youth Demographics. 7 Offense Distribution . 8 Referral History . 9 Juvenile Disposition and Supervision Activity . 10 Distribution of Dispositions by Offense Severity and Race . 11 Supervision Workload Activity . 13 Juvenile Detention and Residential Placement Activity . 14 Facility Registry . 14 Detention Activity . 14 Residential Placement Activity . 15 Appendices . 16 Appendix A: Glossary of Juvenile Probation Terminology . 16 Appendix B: Referral Activity . 21 Appendix C: Disposition Activity . 29 Appendix D: Supervision Activity . 37 Appendix E: Detention and Residential Placement Activity . 44

Overview The Texas Juvenile Justice Department's (TJJD) annual activity report provides information regarding the magnitude and nature of juvenile criminal activity and the juvenile probation system's response. This information is offered to assist the state's effort in improving the juvenile justice system and reducing juvenile crime in Texas. In 2017, juvenile departments saw 53,522 referrals 1 . Law enforcement accounted for 71.8% of all referrals (38,413). Schools, probation departments, municipal courts and TJJD referred another 15,109 cases for delinquent conduct or conduct in need of supervision (CINS), totaling 53,522 referrals for calendar year 2017. This is a decrease of 1,652 (3.0%) referrals from calendar year 2016, with delinquent offenses decreasing 2.0%, violations of probation decreasing 5.1%, and CINS offenses decreasing 8.3%. Most juveniles referred were attending regular school (73.3%) at the time of their referral to a juvenile probation department. The remaining juveniles were in an alternative learning environment, had received their GED, had graduated, had dropped out of school, or had been suspended or expelled. Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Programs (JJAEP) provide education services to students who have been expelled from the public school system for committing specific offenses, and are mandated in counties with a population of 125,000 or greater. During the 2016-2017 school year, there were 26 mandatory JJAEPs operating in Texas. Of the 2,939 student entries into JJAEPs, 46% of the students were expelled from school for a mandatory expulsion offense, and 41% were expelled for a discretionary expulsion offense. Disposition of a case may result from action taken by the juvenile department, the juvenile prosecutor, or the juvenile court. There were a total of 56,002 dispositions given in 2017. Juvenile probation departments disposed of 17,960 (32.1%) of these cases. Of cases disposed by departments, 16.5% were dismissed or withdrawn, 50.0% were given supervisory caution, and 33.5% were given deferred prosecution. Juvenile prosecutors resolved an additional 12,467 cases, with 60.0% of cases found to have no probable cause, or being dismissed, refused, or non-suited; 9.7% were given supervisory caution; and 30.3% were given deferred prosecution. The juvenile court resolved the remaining 25,575 cases. The court decision resulted in supervisory caution for less than 1.0% of cases (n 140), deferred prosecution for 14.9% of cases, and a new or modified probation in 53.5% of cases. A disposition of not guilty was found in 131 cases. In 4,642 cases, the court transferred the case out of jurisdiction, adjudicated the case with no disposition, or consolidated and disposed it with another case. In 151 cases, the court certified and transferred the case to adult court. The court ordered 840 juveniles to TJJD or a post-adjudication secure correctional facility.2 Of juveniles receiving a commitment disposition, 676 received an indeterminate sentence and 164 a determinate sentence. 3 Overall, the most common dispositions were adjudicated probation supervision or deferred prosecution supervision making up 24.5% and 24.3%, respectively. The next two largest categories involved cases that were either dismissed or disposed with a supervisory caution (24.2% and 18.4%, respectively). About 1.5% of dispositions resulted in a juvenile being committed to TJJD, and only 0.3% resulted in adult certification. In 2017, the average length of stay on adjudicated probation supervision was 329 days while the average length of stay of deferred prosecution supervision and pre-disposition supervision was 155 days and 115 days, respectively. The majority (84%) of adjudicated probation, deferred prosecution, and pre-disposition supervision terminations during the year ended with successful completion. In 2017, 166 juvenile probation departments served the 254 counties in Texas. The juvenile departments registered and operated 47 secure pre-adjudication facilities, 2 holdover facilities, 33 post-adjudication secure correctional facilities, and 7 non-secure correctional facilities. In addition to the county-operated facilities, private contractors provided services for juveniles in three preadjudication facilities and four post-adjudication secure facilities. The secure facilities provided a combined 3,256 pre-adjudication, 22 holdover, and 2,547 post-adjudication beds. There were 31,286 detentions in calendar year 2017. Approximately 24.7% of detained juveniles were released within one day. There were 7,332 placement admissions made to secure or non-secure residential facilities in 2017, generally following the juvenile’s disposition. More juveniles were served in secure facilities (3,839) than non-secure facilities (3,493). The overall average length of stay for residential placements (secure and non-secure) was 129 days. The majority of residential placements that terminated in the year ended in successful completion. 1 Includes Formal and Paper Formalized referrals only. Please see Glossary for definitions of referral types. Texas Senate Bill 511 of the 83rd Legislature gave authority to the juvenile courts to commit a juvenile to a post-adjudication secure correctional facility. 3 Total dispositions are counted for all categories except commitment and adult certification dispositions in which unique juveniles are counted. 2 The State of Juvenile Probation Activity in Texas 1

The Texas Juvenile Probation System Introduction Since January 1999, juvenile probation departments have been required to submit individual case file data in an electronic format initially to the Texas Juvenile Probation Commission (TJPC), and currently the Texas Juvenile Justice Department (TJJD). In addition, annual reporting and periodic surveys from departments provide supplemental information to the agency. Caution should be used in drawing general conclusions from the statistics. The data in this report portray neither everything juvenile probation departments or courts do, nor how much time they spend on activities not represented by the statistics. At least three factors are not represented in the juvenile probation activity statistics and should be considered when evaluating them: 1. 2. 3. The juvenile justice system operates under the rules and authority of Title 3 of the Texas Family Code. 4 A portion of the cases reported as being disposed as supervisory caution, dismissed, or otherwise disposed have received rehabilitative and other services from the juvenile probation system. These services are not captured in the activities presented in this report. Only formal referrals are reported in referral, disposition, supervision, and detention statistics. Departments also handle a number of informal referrals, such as crisis intervention and prevention/intervention, which are not captured in this report. A number of juvenile probation officers serve in both adult and juvenile capacities and often operate under varying authorities and policies. Funding. Juvenile boards work closely with the commissioner’s court to set budgets for operation of local juvenile probation departments using both local and state funds. In fiscal year 2017, local commissioner’s courts provided approximately 73.0% of the total funding to probation departments from county revenues. State funds, primarily channeled through TJJD, accounted for approximately 26.0% of total funding for juvenile probation services. The remaining 1.0% of funding was Title IV-E monies from the federal government. Juvenile Population. The Texas juvenile justice system serves youth between the ages of 10 and 16. Youth ages 17 and older fall under the jurisdiction of the juvenile justice system only if their alleged offense was committed when the youth was 16 years old or younger or for a violation of a juvenile court order if the youth is still under supervision. Using the Texas Demographic Center’s 0.5 migration scenario projections based on the United States Census 2010 population, there were 2,842,884 juveniles age 10 to 16 in Texas in calendar year 2017. Gender, race, and age breakdowns of the projected 2017 populations are shown in Figure 1. Overall, 51.2% of the youth population was male, and 48.8% of the youth population was female. This was consistent across race categories. African American youth made up 11.5 % of the population, Hispanic youth 50.0 % of the population, White youth 31.6 % of the population, and youth from other race/ethnic groups made up the remaining 6.9 %. Figure 1: Gender, Age, and Race Population Breakdown – Calendar Year 2017 Total Gender Total Age Total Race 0% 4 Male Female 51.2% 48.8% 10 11 12 14.2% 14.2% 14.3% 13 14 14.3% 14.3% 15 14.3% 16 14.5% African American Caucasian Hispanic Other 11.5% 31.6% 50.0% 6.9% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Dawson, R.O. (2018). Texas Juvenile Law (9th ed.). Austin, TX: Texas Juvenile Justice Department. The State of Juvenile Probation Activity in Texas 2

Juvenile Probation Departments Juvenile Boards. State law requires each department to have a juvenile board. Some of these boards govern multiple counties. Each board, consisting of district and county judges, is responsible for overseeing the operation of the juvenile probation system in that county. This includes designating juvenile judges, appointing the chief juvenile probation officer, and setting the policies and budget for the juvenile probation department. TJJD provides funding and technical assistance to juvenile boards. Structure. Juvenile probation departments implement the policies of juvenile boards, deliver services to juveniles referred to juvenile courts, and provide services to at-risk youth in the community. In Texas in 2017, there were 122 single-county departments and 44 multi-county departments, ranging in size from two to six counties. Nine departments served both adult and juvenile probationers in 2017. Five of these combined adult and juvenile departments had designated juvenile probation officers. Certification of Officers. Certification is required for all Texas juvenile probation and supervision officers. Certification requires that officers earn the necessary academic degree and complete 80 hours of approved continuing education. Probation officers must hold, at minimum, a bachelor’s degree while supervision officers most hold, at minimum, a high school diploma or GED. All officers must also undergo a criminal background check at initial certification and certification renewal. In 2017, TJJD certified 204 new juvenile probation officers and 1,114 new supervision officers. An additional 1,009 existing probation and 1,304 supervision officer applications were re-certified. Salaries, Staffing, and Caseload. Of the 166 local departments surveyed for the 2017 Annual Resource Report5, 166 provided responses (response rate of 100%). Based on data received from respondents, juvenile probation departments across the state employed 7,699 salaried personnel at the end of 2017. Four departments had only one employee, a Chief Probation Officer. Table 1 shows the breakdown of department staff, average salaries, and salary ranges.6 The average daily caseload per caseloadcarrying juvenile probation officer in Texas ranged from one to 31 juveniles, with a statewide average of 14 in 2017. Table 1: Juvenile Probation Staff and Salaries – Calendar Year 2017 Position Admin Clinical Medical Probation Frequency Carrying Caseload Chief Juvenile Probation Officer 163 98 Administrative Staff 364 0 Clerical Staff 481 0 Full-time Clinical Staff 270 0 Part-time Clinical Staff 16 0 Average Salary Minimum Salary Maximum Salary 79,915.27 8,000.00 216,108.00 67,076.43 216,108.00 37,724.37 79,365.95 56,920.50 3,330.00 153,249.00 - Full-time Medical Staff 73 0 Part-time Medical Staff 13 0 37,724.3 7 - Supervisory Administrators for Probation 216 52 Certified JPO Staff 1,709 1,464 Part-time JPO Staff 0 0 37,724.3 Non-certified JPO Staff (FT and PT) 51 4 7 3,000.00 65,776.00 25,003.00 116,148.00 - - - - - - 70,648.12 35,000.00 126,099.00 49,506.78 27,412.00 90,559.00 - - - - - 37,724.3 The Annual Resource Report is a survey that is disseminated by TJJD’s Research and Planning Division to collect information on departments, staffing, salaries, and additional juvenile justice related issues. 7 6 As reported by local juvenile probation departments in the Annual Resource Survey. “Administrative Staff” (non-caseload carrying) may include positions such as Data Coordinators, Compliance Officers, Trainers, and Program Specialists. “Clinical Staff” may include positions such as Treatment Specialists, Licensed Social Workers, Counselors and Director of Treatment. These staff categories may or may not maintain a JPO/JSO certification. The “Clinical Staff” category excludes medical professionals such as nurses, physicians and psychiatrists. Part-time is defined as working less than forty hours a week. One annual minimum salary value reported reflects a value lower than the state minimum wage ( 7.50) for a full-time, 40-hour work-week, totaling 2,080 hours a year ( 15,080.00). 5 The State of Juvenile Probation Activity in Texas 3

Table 1: Juvenile Probation Staff and Salaries – Calendar Year 2017 (continued) Frequency Carrying Caseload Average Salary Minimum Salary Maximum Salary 239 1,670 0 0 60,413.64 38,700.64 30,030.00 11,319.00 110,058.00 82,227.00 Part-time Certified JSO Detention Staff 221 0 - - - Non-Certified JSO Detention Staff (FT and PT) 90 0 - - - Supervisory Administrators for Residential 162 0 66,569.38 24,960.00 96,418.00 Certified JSO Residential 927 0 38,886.13 23,546.00 58,972.00 Part-time Certified JSO Residential Staff 112 0 - - - Non-Certified JSO Residential (FT and PT) 28 0 - - - Supervisory Administrators for JJAEP 46 0 68,932.46 40,000.00 128,107.20 Certified JSO JJAEP Staff 63 0 41,283.65 27,764.00 57,233.00 Certified JPO JJAEP Staff 31 0 - - - Part-time Certified JJAEP Staff 5 0 - - - Non-Certified JJAEP Staff (JPO and JSO) 103 0 - - - Other Full-time Staff 555 0 44,751.44 21,480.00 124,743.00 Other Part-time Staff 91 0 - - - 7,699 1,618 - - - Position Supervisory Administrators for Detention Certified JSO Detention Staff Detention Residential JJAEP Other Total The State of Juvenile Probation Activity in Texas 4

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Juvenile Referral Activity A youth may be referred multiple times in a year. In calendar year 2017, 38,559 juveniles accounted for 53,522 formal referrals to juvenile probation departments. Importantly, despite an increase in the juvenile population of Texas, referrals to juvenile probation departments continue to decline, as illustrated in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2: Juvenile Population – Calendar Years 2013-2017 2,860,000 2,842,884 2,840,000 2,824,828 Figure 3: Juvenile Referrals – Calendar Years 2013-2017 s d d d 75,000 70,000 2,820,000 2,798,160 65,000 2,800,000 2,765,232 2,780,000 2,760,000 67,028 64,057 60,000 61,273 2,731,000 55,000 2,740,000 55,174 2,720,000 50,000 2,700,000 45,000 53,522 2,680,000 40,000 2,660,000 2013 2013 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2017 2017 The state referral rate for calendar year 2017 was 19 youth per 1,000. As shown in Figures 4 and 5, most counties have a referral rate between 11 and 25 per 1,000 youth, and a felony referral rate of less than 5 per 1,000 youth. Figure 4: Referral Rate per 1,000 – Calendar Year 2017 Figure 5: Felony Referral Rate per 1,000 – Calendar Year 2017 The State of Juvenile Probation Activity in Texas 6

Youth Demographics Male youth accounted for 74.0% of all referrals to juvenile probation departments in calendar year 2017 and females contributed the remaining 26.0% (Figure 6). While Caucasian youth made up 31.6% of the state’s juvenile population in 2017, they accounted for only 22.0% of referrals to juvenile probation departments (Figure 7). Hispanic youth were the most populous group in the state (50.0%) and accounted for 48.5% of referrals to probation in 2017. African American youth accounted for 11.5% of the population and 28.5% of referrals. Juveniles of “Other” race category, including Asian and Native American, accounted for 6.9% of the state population and only 1.0% of referrals. Figure 6: Gender of Referrals – Calendar Year 2017 Figure 7: Race of Referrals – Calendar Year 2017 Other 1.0% African American 28.5% Female 26.0% Hispanic 48.5% Male 74.0% Caucasian 22.0% Of all juvenile referrals in 2017, the average age was 15 years. Of all age groups, 16-year-old youth were referred to juvenile probation more frequently than any other group. Youth age 17 or older are included in Figure 8, as they may have been referred for an offense committed while 16 or younger or for a violation of a juvenile court order if they were under supervision with a juvenile probation department. Figure 8: Age at Referral – Calendar Year 2017 31.6% 26.1% 18.3% 10.7% 5.2% 5.2% 2.1% 0.7% 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 The State of Juvenile Probation Activity in Texas 7

Offense Distribution As illustrated in Figure 9, referrals to juvenile probation departments have steadily declined since 2013. Referrals for alleged delinquent offenses (including felony, misdemeanor A and B, and contempt of magistrate) make up the majority of all referrals (77.2%) in a given year. More than a quarter (26.8%) of the referrals in calendar year 2017 were for alleged felony offenses. Of all the referrals in 2017, 11.2 % were for violent felonies. Figure 9: Referrals by Offense Type – Calendar Years 2013 - 2017 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 Total Referrals Delinquent Offenses Felony Offenses Misdemeanor A&B Offenses Violation of Probation CINS & Status Offenses 2013 67,028 49,157 14,179 34,978 10,488 7,383 2014 64,057 47,416 14,214 33,202 10,341 6,300 2015 61,273 45,501 14,528 30,973 9,957 5,815 2016 55,174 42,159 14,258 27,901 8,722 4,293 2017 53,522 41,310 14,345 26,965 8,276 3,936 Since 2013, referrals for alleged delinquent offenses have increased as a percent of total referrals (Table 2). Conversely, referrals for alleged Conduct Indicating a Need for Supervision (CINS) offenses (including status and non-status) have decreased as a percent of total referrals since 2013. Table 2: Offense Percent Distribution – Calendar Years 2013 - 2017 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Delinquent Offenses 73.3% 74.0% 74.3% 76.4% 77.2% Felony Offenses 21.2% 22.2% 23.7% 25.8% 26.8% Misdemeanor A&B Offenses 52.2% 51.8% 50.5% 50.6% 50.4% Violation of Probation 15.6% 16.1% 16.3% 15.8% 15.5% CINS & Status Offenses 11.0% 9.8% 9.5% 7.8% 7.3% Status Offenses 6.7% 7.0% 7.0% 6.0% 5.6% Non-Status CINS Offenses 4.3% 2.8% 2.5% 1.8% 1.8% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Total Referrals The State of Juvenile Probation Activity in Texas 8

Referral History There were 38,559 juvenile referred to juvenile departments in calendar 2017. The majority of juveniles referred (59.7%) had no prior referrals. Of the juveniles referred, 15,539 or 40.3 % had at least one prior referral. Of the juveniles with a referral history, 6,247 or 40.2 % had only one prior referral, while 4,382 (28.2 %) had four or more referrals. In addition, of youth with a referral history, 49.8% had at least one referral for a prior felony offense, 22.3% a referral for a prior violent felony, and 26.0% a referral for a prior violation of probation. Figure 10: Juvenile Referral History – Calendar Year 2017 38,559 Juveniles Referred in Calendar Year 2017 40.3% had at least one prior referral 59.7% had no prior referrals 40.2% had one prior referral 19.7% had two prior referrals 11.9% had three prior referrals 28.2% had four or more prior referrals The State of Juvenile Probation Activity in Texas 9

Juvenile Disposition and Supervision Activity There were 56,002 juvenile cases disposed in calendar year 2017. The distribution of disposition by source indicates juvenile courts disposed the largest percentage of cases (45.7%), followed by probation departments (32.1%), and prosecutors (22.3%). Almost half of the 56,002 cases resulted in a probation or deferred prosecution7 dispositions (24.5% and 24.3%, respectively). Dismissed8 cases made up 24.2% of dispositions, and supervisory caution dispositions made up another 18.4%. There were 3,828 cases (6.8%) that received an outcome of consolidated or transferred with no adjudication. Lastly, TJJD commitment made up 1.5% of disposed cases and adult certification dispositions accounted for 0.3% of dispositions in calendar year 2017. The number of individuals certified to stand trial as adults increased 5.6% between 2016 and 2017, from 143 to 151. During the same period, commitment dispositions increased by 8.5% from 774 youth to 840 youth (Figure 11). Since 2013, however, commitment and adult certification dispositions have decreased 2.8% and 24.1%, respectively. 950 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 Commitment Adult Certification 2013 864 199 2014 777 132 2015 882 120 2016 774 143 210 190 170 150 130 110 90 70 50 2017 840 151 Adult Certifications Commitments Figure 11: Commitments and Adult Certifications – Calendar Years 2013-2017 Dispositions of adult certification, TJJD commitment, and probation must be disposed by the juvenile court. However, dismissed, supervisory caution, and deferred prosecution dispositions may be disposed of by either the juvenile court, the prosecutor, or the probation department. Overall, the prosecutor and the probation department were responsible for the majority of the dismissed, supervisory caution, and deferred outcome activity (Figure 12). Figure 12: Disposition Outcomes by Disposition Source. Percent. – Calendar Year 2017 Deferred 44.2% 27.8% Supervisory Caution Dismissed 0.0% 28.0% 86.9% 21.9% 10.0% 11.7% 55.1% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% Probation Department 50.0% 1.4% 23.0% 60.0% Prosecutor 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0% Juvenile Court 7 The probation disposition category includes adjudicated to probation or determinate sentence probation, adjudicated to probation with placement, determinate sentence probation with placement, modified and/or extended probation, as well as modified and/or extended probation with placement. 8 The dismissed category includes department, prosecutor, and court actions of dismissed, withdrawn, no probable cause, refused, not guilty, non-suited, and adjudicated with no disposition. The State of Juvenile Probation Activity in Texas 10

Distribution of Dispositions by Offense Severity and Race Dispositions in 2017 varied by offense severity, including a higher likelihood of serious offenses to receive formal sanctions. As shown in Table 3, felony and violation of probation offenses had a much higher proportion of adjudications to probation than did misdemeanor offenses. CINS offenses were most likely to receive a supervisory caution disposition. Table 3 excludes cases where the court transferred with no disposition, or consolidated and disposed with another case. Table 3: Dispositions by Offense Severity – Calendar Year 2017 Dismissed Supervisory Caution Deferred Probation Commitment Adult Certification Total Violent Felony Other Felony Misdemeanor A&B Violation of Probation Status Other CINS Total 1,515 29.3% 306 5.9% 919 17.8% 2,008 38.8% 318 6.1% 110 2.1% 5,176 100.0% 1,943 25.5% 458 6.0% 1,976 25.9% 3,060 40.2% 137 1.8% 41 0.5% 7,615 100.0% 6,407 23.1% 5,701 20.6% 10,433 37.6% 5,174 18.7% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 27,715 100.0% 2,458 31.2% 1,698 21.6% 0 0.0% 3,336 42.4% 385 4.9% 0 0.0% 7,877 100.0% 861 30.1% 1,688 58.9% 216 7.5% 100 3.5% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 2,865 100.0% 386 41.7% 475 51.3% 50 5.4% 15 1.6% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 926 100.0% 13,570 26.0% 10,326 19.8% 13,594 26.1% 13,693 26.2% 840 1.6% 151 0.3% 52,174 100.0% In calendar year 2017, a higher proportion of African American youth were formally processed by the juvenile court and received a disposition of probation, TJJD commitment or Adult Certification compared to youth of other races or ethnicity. Of African American youth, 28.3 % received probation, and an additional 3.0% received a disposition of TJJD commitment or Adult Certification. The comparable percentages for Caucasian youth were 23.6% and 1.5 %, respectively. Figure 13: Dispositions by Race – Calendar Year 2017 African American 27.4% Caucasian 19.1% 22.8% Hispanic 22.0% 26.8% Other Dismissed Supervisory Caution Deferred 60% Probation 1.5% 26.4% 33.0% 40% 3.0% 23.6% 26.2% 23.1% 20% 28.2% 30.2% 19.1% 21.9% 0% 22.3% 1.5% 21.2% 80% 0.8% 100% Commit & Cert With respect to the seriousness of the offenses resulting in disposition, about a quarter of dispositions were for a felony offense, and more than half of dispositions were for a misdemeanor offense. For 26.4% of African Ameri

The State of Juvenile Probation Activity in Texas 1 Overview The Texas Juvenile Justice Department's (TJJD) annual activity report provides information regarding the magnitude and nature of juvenile criminal activity and the juvenile probation system's response. This information is offered to assist the state's effort in

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