High School Science Priority Expectations Document

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High School Science Priority Expectations Document A Collaboration to Encourage “State of the Art” Practice in Science Education, in an Era of High Stakes Accountability Based on the MDE Science Companion Document Physics Chemistry Biology Earth Science ISD/ESA Collaborative Priority Expectation Partners Allegan AESA Alpena-Montmorency-Alcona ESD Bay-Arenac ISD Branch ISD Calhoun ISD Charlevoix-Emmet ISD Cheboygan-Otsego-Presque Isle ESD Clare-Gladwin RESD Clinton County RESA C.O.O.R. ISD Eaton ISD Genesee ISD Gratiott Isabella RESD Huron ISD Ingham ISD Ionia County ISD Iosco RESA Kalamazoo RESA Kent ISD Lewis Cass ISD Livingston ISD Macomb ISD Manistee ISD Mason-Lake ISD Mecosta-Osceola ISD Midland County ESA Montcalm Area ISD Muskegon Area ISD Newaygo County RESA Oakland Schools Oceana ISD Ottawa Area ISD Saginaw ISD Shiawassee RESD St. Joseph ISD Traverse Bay ISD Van Buren ISD Washtenaw ISD Wayne RESA Wexford-Missaukee ISD ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Science Expectations Introduction i

Table of Contents Overview of the Science Priority Expectations Document Physics Priority Expectations iv 8 The Big Ideas in the Physics Units. 9 Energy Transformations. 10 Motion. 12 Dynamics. 14 Momentum. 16 Periodic Motion. 18 Gravity. 20 Mechanical Energy. 22 Mechanical Waves. 24 Electromagnetic Waves, Visible Light, and Optics. 26 Electric Forces. 28 Electric Current. 30 Nuclear Physics. 32 Chemistry Priority Expectations 38 The Big Ideas in the Chemistry Units. 39 Atomic Theory. 40 Periodic Table. 42 Quantum Mechanics. 44 Introduction to Bonding. 46 Nomenclature & Formula Stoichiometry. 48 Equations & Stoichiometry. 50 States of Matter. 52 Advanced Bonding Concepts. 54 Thermochemistry & Solutions. 56 Acid/Base. 58 Redox/Equilibrium. 60 Thermodynamics. 62 ii ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Science Priority Expectations Introduction

Biology Priority Expectations 64 The Big Ideas in the Biology Units. 65 Chemistry & Biochemistry. 66 Cells—Structure & Function. 68 Cell Energetics. 70 Comparative Structure & Function of Living Things. 72 Human Systems. 74 Homeostasis & Health. 76 Matter & Energy in Ecosystems. 78 Population Ecology & Human Impacts on Ecosystems. 80 Cell Division. 82 DNA/RNA & Protein Synthesis. 84 Mendelian & Molecular Genetics (includes Biotechnology). 86 Evolution. 88 Earth Science Priority Expectations 92 The Big Ideas in the Earth Science Units. 93 Organizing Principles of Earth Science. 94 Rock Forming Processes. 96 Earthquakes and Earth’s Interior. 98 Plate Tectonics & Volcanoes. 100 Discerning Earth’s History. 102 Severe Weather. 104 Oceans & Climates. 106 Climate Change. 108 Hydrogeology. 112 Resources & Environment Challenges. 114 Cosmology & Earth’s Place in the Universe. 116 The Sun & Other Stars. 118 ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Science Expectations Introduction iii

Overview of the Science Priority Expectations Document Why another document about Michigan What principles guided the design of the science standards? priority expectations document? In recent years, Michigan educators of all subjects have been grappling with the challenges of revising district programs in response to new state standards and assessment designs. Despite clear and well supported recommendations to identify and focus deeply on fewer core concepts in science, Michigan’s new standards are numerous and vast in breadth. As a consequence, the imposing enormity of the content expectation obscures critical interrelationships among important core concepts. It promotes an erroneous impression that science literacy is about mastery of a dizzying array of facts and proficiency in discrete skills disconnected from science content. There are exemplary educators, proficient in highly effective instructional practices who are dismayed that they face the difficult trade-off between covering all science content expectations in the standards and teaching in a manner that is known to be effective and inspiring. Also, the incentives that result from common interpretations of our accountability systems (Michigan Merit Exam (MME) and high school graduation requirements) have locked the very aims of our science programs in an outdated mode: emphasizing vast content coverage. In keeping with research, national leadership in science education and modern, high quality curriculum design these documents are meant to encourage a deep treatment of a limited number of important big ideas and core concepts, explored in a manner that promotes an understanding of the nature of science and the proficiencies that are central to the scientific enterprise. It built in large part on the structure of the science companion documents because they are widely disseminated and utilized. To emphasize the critical interrelationships and intended prominence of big ideas, core concepts and student inquiry the actual list of priority expectations are located at the bottom of each unit. The prominent and close positioning of the big ideas, core concepts and student inquiry is meant to bring a teacher’s focus to the intrinsic interrelationship of these elements of our standards. The graphic organizer ties them together in a single display. This approach provides an intellectual organizational structure (or framing) of the standards which provides invaluable guidance in how ideas are related and how to integrate the practices of science with the overriding big ideas and important core concepts. In order to best assure quality educational programming, numerous districts and ISD’s had independently embarked upon efforts to identify the content expectations that are recognized as most important, and therefore deserving of an enhanced focus. Despite the fact that purposes varied to some degree, it was recognized that a collaborative endeavor would be greatly preferable to several efforts that inevitably would produce different lists of expectations to emphasize. Therefore, a statewide ISD collaboration was initiated and has committed to producing this document. The effort has been encouraged by Michigan’s state Superintendent Flanagan who also echoed the sentiments of the ISD collaboration in a June 2009 memo by saying that the high school content expectations “ should not be viewed as a list of items that must be checked off one by one. With only so many instructional hours available each year, we know that there is no way for schools to cover in depth every HSCE, nor should districts make that attempt.” iv The criteria to select the priority expectations were developed to serve these principles. Which HSCE’s should be priorities? Those that: best point to central ideas of the discipline (big ideas and core concepts) lend themselves to rich student investigations readily connect to critical societal concerns Which HSCE’s should not be priorities? Those that are: redundant with other, better worded HSCE’s arbitrarily, specific tasks (i.e., reads like a NAEP expectation) not strongly connected to core concepts overly esoteric, as though part of a bachelor of science program in a science major ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Science Priority Expectations Introduction

These criteria served the process well and interestingly revealed that many decisions were made on the basis of redundancy where one selected expectation sufficiently captured the essence of others or where the expectation was an application of an understanding or concept. Additionally, in depth study of the recommended priority expectations will result in an understanding of the non priority expectations related to that unit. How should the new high school priority expectations document be used? 1. To assure quality, ‘state-of-the-art’ science curriculum and instruction By focusing on fewer, more important science concepts teachers can afford more time to teach in a manner known to be effective and meaningful for students. Curriculum built to provide students well-structured opportunities to investigate scientific questions and embark on problemsolving endeavors puts core knowledge to use and develops proficiencies central to science. These proficiencies happen to largely overlap with the College Readiness Standards of the ACT and most iterations of currently touted 21st Century Skills necessary for individual success in a globally competitive economy. New insights on learning call for the integration of writing, collaborative discourse and structured activities that reveal frameworks of knowledge and self reflection on thinking. With a limited focus on more important content as suggested in this document, science teachers will be able to utilize the strategies critical for promoting student success and enthusiasm for science. 2. To define course graduation credit in a deliberate and informed way Properly interpreted, Michigan’s high school graduation requirements do not have to thwart ‘state-of-the-art’ instructional practice in science. While legislation directs districts to base high school credit on proficiencies of the high school content expectations, school districts retain the prerogative to make choices on what central ideas in our standards are emphasized and which ones ought to be de-emphasized. Also, districts still possess the authority to determine how proficiency is defined and what proficiencies warrant the granting of credit. Courses defined around proficiencies related to fewer, more important core concepts and skills will more likely meet the aims of their design. Such a basis for district decisions will be a great im- provement over what can be capricious reasons, (such as a surprisingly early arrival of the end of a year). 3. To improve the reliability of assessments The best way to give teachers, students and parents more accurate and actionable feedback is to bear down on a limited set of important core concepts and proficiencies with a number of assessment items of varying difficulty and type. This document can make this possible by providing a foundation for refining the focus of district, building and classroom assessments. Assessments that target the most critical outcomes of a strong science program will encourage instructional decisions that support those aims. Rather than targeting each and every high school content expectation, assessments can focus on those that serve the core concepts and student proficiencies that best support the big idea of each unit. 4. To better prepare students for the MME By far, most points earned on the MME come from the ACT portion. For an individual student, the ACT score is in fact more personally important than the MME score as a whole. Because the ACT is based on College Readiness Standards, students who score well are highly proficient at interpreting scientific data, parsing and evaluating scientific experiments and arguments and reading and interpreting advanced text that describes scientific investigations. The education that prepares students for these challenges is one that involves them both directly and reflectively in scientific investigations. That is exactly the kind of science programming these documents are trying to encourage. By focusing on the fewer more important scientific concepts and big ideas, classroom time can be dedicated to the writing, discussion, analysis and reflection necessary to develop these advanced skills. By suggesting that students engage these ideas through investigation and experimentation these documents encourage a practice that will enable students to draw from more relevant and personal experiences when demonstrating their competencies on the ACT portion of the MME. ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Science Expectations Introduction v

Title The units and their titles are those of the MDE Companion. Unit 5 Discerning Earth’s History Big Picture Graphic: This area depicts the unit content as a concept map with reference to the disciplinary processes and patterns of reasoning used in science. discerning Earth’s history IS ABOUT the application of age-dating techniques TO INFER sequences of geologic events APPLYING relative age dating principles USING APPLYING index fossils to establish stratigraphic correlations Big Idea The application of age dating techniques provides evidence for a 4.6 billion year old Earth and allows for the interpretation of Earth history and biological evolution, which has been the basis of the design and refinement of the geologic time scale. radiometric age dating methods for absolute ages Gradual and catastrophic change has occurred over the vastness of geologic time (and our lifespans). Relative age dating techniques are used to discern sequencing of geologic events. Isotopic age dating techniques are used to deduce absolute ages of materials and place them within earth history. the geologic time scale Inquiry, Reflection and Social Implications: E 1.1C Conduct scientific investigations E 1.1g Critique reasoning based on evidence Students use relative and absolute age dating techniques to construct a well reasoned geologic history of an area. Core Concept CONSTRUCTING E1.2i Explain progressions of ideas Students explain how the invention and improvement of technology in addition to emerging geologic data aids in the continual refinement of the geologic time scale. E1.2k Analyze how science and society interact Students relate the effects of the discovery that Earth is ancient to the science of biology and major Inquiry, Reflection elements of society. Big Idea and Core Concept: This area describes the central, big ideas and core concepts of 96 ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Earth Science Priority Expectations the unit. They should be learned in depth as the focus of instruction and assessment. vi and Social Implications: This area identifies the HSCE’s from Standard 1 that are well served by the content of the unit. It includes some excellent suggestions of ways to engage students in the practices of science as they relate to the unit content. The inquiry HSCE’s should be part of the instructional design in all of the units. ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Science Priority Expectations Introduction

Content Expectations (Priority Expectations are highlighted in gray.) E5.3B Describe the process of radioactive decay and explain how radioactive elements are used to date the rocks that contain them. E5.3C Relate major events in the history of the Earth to the geologic time scale, including formation of the Earth, formation of an oxygen atmosphere, rise of life, Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) and Permian extinctions, and Pleistocene ice age. E5.3D Describe how index fossils can be used to determine time sequence. E5.3e Determine the approximate age of a sample, when given the half-life of a radioactive substance (in graph or tabular form) along with the ratio of daughter to parent substances present in the sample. E5.3f Explain why C-14 can be used to date a 40,000 year old tree but U-Pb cannot. E5.3g Identify a sequence of geologic events using relative-age dating principles. Content Expectations: All of the content expectations of the MDE Companion Document are listed in this area. The “Priority Expectations” are identified by bolding the text. These should be the focus of instruction and assessment, as depicted by the “Big Ideas” and “Core Concepts.” Unit 5 ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Earth Science Priority Expectations 97 ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Science Expectations Introduction vii

Physics Priority Expectations describing motion energy transformations forces and motion mechanical energy momentum periodic motion gravity Note about the sequence and organization of units in this document: The sequence of units in this document is based on the Physics HSCE Companion Document. It has been slightly revised in several ways, to strengthen the overall sequence. The two units in the companion document that addressed motion of objects were combined into one, and a separate unit on gravity was created. The unit on energy transformations, which was placed in the companion document toward the end, was moved to the beginning as an overall introduction, since energy considerations appear everywhere in physics. And the last unit in the companion document, called “Energy and Society,” was streamlined to address the overview of nuclear physics, with other HSCEs about energy transformations moved to appropriate units. The purpose of this document is to help you organize your curriculum based on the big ideas and core concepts of each unit. We hope you find these suggestions helpful. 8 mechanical waves electric forces nuclear physics electromagnetic waves electric circuits Within each unit, Content Expectations are identified as “Priority Expectations” or as supplements to the priority expectations—meaning extensions or applications. The extensions and applications are clustered under the priority expectations, to show how ideas fit together within units. Some of the HSCEs have been slightly reworded, to enhance the clarity of their meaning. A list of reworded HSCEs with their original wording is provided at the end of this document. In the future, we hope to provide web resources to allow teachers to expand on the “Inquiry, Reflection and Social Implications” examples provided here, as well as the “Instructional Examples” provided in the Companion Document. Scientific Inquiry, Scientific Reflection and Social Implications The section in each unit on Inquiry, Reflection and Social Implications uses abbreviations for those HSCEs. The complete list can be found at the end of the document. ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Physics Priority Expectations

The Big Ideas in the Physics Units Energy Transformations Unit 1 Energy is transferred between objects during interactions and frequently transformed from one type to another in mechanical, electrical and natural systems. The total amount of energy remains constant in closed systems. Motion (including Two Dimensional) Unit 2 The motion of an object may be represented using motion diagrams, tables and graphs, and mathematical functions. Solving problems about motion is facilitated by using functions. Dynamics Unit 3 When two objects interact with each other, by direct contact or at a distance, all three of Newton’s Laws describe and explain that interaction. Momentum Unit 4 A moving object has a quantity of motion (momentum) that depends on its velocity and mass. In interactions between objects, the total momentum of the objects does not change. Periodic Motion Unit 5 Periodic motion describes objects that oscillate back and forth or move in a circle. These motions are quantified by their period or frequency. Gravity Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Gravity is one of four fundamental forces of nature, the attractive force between any two masses. It explains why objects fall to the Earth and why planets and satellites stay in their orbits. Mechanical Energy The amount of energy transferred when an object is moved is equal to the work done on the object. Mechanical Waves Mechanical waves are vibrations in a medium that move from source to receiver, conveying energy. Electromagnetic Waves, Visible Light and Optics Unit 9 Electromagnetic waves transfer energy and information from place to place without a material medium, and visible light is a form of electromagnetic radiation. All electromagnetic waves move at the speed of light in a vacuum. Electric Forces Unit 10 Unit 11 All objects are composed of electrical charges. The electric and magnetic forces are the result of the strength and motion of charges. Most interactions in everyday life (other than gravity) are the result of electric and magnetic forces. Electric Current Electric current is used to transfer energy and to do work. Nuclear Physics Unit 12 Radioactive decay is the spontaneous transmutation of one nucleus into another with the release of high energy particles. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion create new elements and release high energy particles and massive amounts of radiation. ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Physics Priority Expectations 9

Unit 1 Energy Transformations Energy transformations INVOLVE energy transters into and out of system OCCUR BETWEEN ARE GOVERNED BY law of conservation of energy various forms of energy Big Idea Energy is transferred between objects during interactions and frequently transformed from one type to another in mechanical, electrical and natural systems. The total amount of energy remains constant in closed systems. Core Concepts Friction in mechanical systems limits the amount of energy that can be converted to useful work. In most energy transfers, some energy is inadvertently transformed into heat which warms the surroundings. Inquiry, Reflection and Social Implications: P1.1A Generate questions for investigations P1.1D Relate patterns in data to theories P1.1E Give evidence to support conclusions Students can generate questions such as “Where did the energy go?” using various phenomena that illustrate energy transfer, like dropping a ball or swinging a pendulum and noticing that they don’t return to their starting point, or shaking a jar of sand with a thermometer inserted; they can then identify patterns in data and describe reasons to support their conclusions. P1.1f Predict results of changes in variables Students can predict what would happen if variables are changed in investigations using various physics simulations such as “Energy Skate Park” at http://phet.colorado.edu. 10 ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Physics Priority Expectations

Content Expectations (Priority Expectations are highlighted in gray.) P4.3A Identify the form of energy in given situations (e.g., moving objects, stretched springs, rocks on cliffs, energy in food). (i.e. Give examples of KE, GPE, CPE, EPE.) P4.1A Account for and represent energy into and out of systems using energy transfer diagrams. P4.3C Explain why all mechanical systems require an external energy source to maintain their motion. P4.2f Identify and label the energy inputs, transformations, and outputs, using qualitative or quantitative representations, in simple technological systems (e.g., toaster, motor, hair dryer) to show energy conservation. (application) P4.11a Calculate the energy lost to surroundings when water

ISD/RESA/RESD Collaborative High School Science Expectations Introduction i Allegan AESA Alpena-Montmorency-Alcona ESD Bay-Arenac ISD Branch ISD Calhoun ISD Charlevoix-Emmet ISD Cheboygan-Otsego-Presque Isle ESD Clare-Gladwin RESD Clinton County RESA C.O.O.R. ISD Eaton ISD Genesee ISD Gratiott Isabella RESD Huron ISD Ingham ISD Ionia .

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