5 SECTION 2 Energy Conversions - Mr. Krohn 8th Grade Science

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Name Class CHAPTER 5 Date Energy and Energy Resources 2 Energy Conversions SECTION National Science Education Standards BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: PS 3a, 3f What are energy conversions? How do machines use energy conversions? What Is an Energy Conversion? Think of a book sitting on a shelf. The book has gravitational potential energy when it is on the shelf. What happens if the book falls off the shelf? Its potential energy changes into kinetic energy. This is an example of an energy conversion. An energy conversion is a change from one form of energy to another. Any form of energy can change into any other form of energy. One form of energy can sometimes change into more than one other energy form. STUDY TIP Make a list in your science notebook of the energy conversions discussed in this section. KINETIC AND POTENTIAL ENERGY CONVERSION A common energy conversion happens between potential energy and kinetic energy. When the skateboarder in the figure below moves down the half-pipe, he has a lot of kinetic energy. As he travels up the half-pipe, his kinetic energy changes into potential energy. Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy At the top of his jump, the skateboarder looks like he has almost stopped moving. His is at a maximum. At the bottom of the half-pipe, the skateboarder has a lot of speed. His is at a maximum. TAKE A LOOK 1. Identify Complete the two blanks in the figure. Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Interactive Textbook 87 Energy and Energy Resources

Name SECTION 2 Class Date Energy Conversions continued ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY READING CHECK 2. Describe How does a rubber band gain elastic potential energy? Another example of potential energy changing into kinetic energy is shown in a rubber band. When you stretch a rubber band, you give it potential energy. This energy is called elastic potential energy. When you let go of the rubber band, it flies across the room. The stored potential energy in the stretched rubber band is turned into kinetic energy. How Do Chemical Energy Conversions Happen? You may have heard that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Why is eating breakfast so important? Chemical energy comes from the food you eat. Your body changes the chemical energy from food into several different energy forms that it can use. Some of these are: mechanical energy, to move your muscles thermal energy, to keep your body temperature constant electrical energy, to help your brain think So eating breakfast helps your body do all of your daily activities. Food has chemical energy. You eat . Your body stores the chemical energy of the food. Chemical energy is converted into: TAKE A LOOK 3. Identify Fill in the process chart to show how energy is converted in your body. . Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Interactive Textbook 88 Energy and Energy Resources

Name Class Date Energy Conversions continued SECTION 2 From Light Energy to Chemical Energy STANDARDS CHECK Light energy Photosynthesis Light energy Carbon dioxide Sugar Oxygen Water Chlorophyll Sugar in food Carbon dioxide in the air Chlorophyll in green leaves PS 3f The sun is a major source of energy for changes on the earth’s surface. The sun loses energy by emitting light. A tiny fraction of that light reaches the earth, transferring energy from the sun to the earth. The sun’s energy arrives as light with a range of wave lengths, consisting of visible light, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation. 4. Identify Light energy from the sun is converted into what kind of energy by green leaves? Water in the soil ENERGY CONVERSIONS IN PLANTS Did you know the chemical energy in the food you eat comes from the sun’s energy? When you eat fruits, vegetables, or grains, you are taking in chemical energy. Energy from the sun was used to make the chemical energy in the food. Many animals also eat plants. If you eat meat from these animals, you are also taking in energy that comes from the sun. The figure above shows how light energy is used to make new material that has chemical energy. When photosynthesis happens in plants, light energy from the sun is changed into chemical energy. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction in plants that changes light energy into chemical energy. When we eat fruits, vegetables, or grains, we are eating the chemical energy that is stored in the plants. The chemical energy from a tree can also be changed into thermal energy. This change happens when you burn a tree’s wood. If you go back far enough, you would see that the energy from a wood fire comes from the sun. Say It Discuss With a partner, describe how light energy from the sun becomes chemical energy in meat from animals. Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Interactive Textbook 89 Energy and Energy Resources

Name SECTION 2 Class Date Energy Conversions continued Energy Conversions in a Hair Dryer 1 The electrical energy enters the hair dryer. This energy is changed into when a small electric motor spins a fan blade. TAKE A LOOK 2 Electrical energy is changed into as many wires in the hair dryer heat up. 5. Identify Fill in the blanks in the figure. 3 The fan moves air across these hot wires. This blows hot air out of the hair dryer. You hear that comes out of the hair dryer. Why Are Energy Conversions Important? Energy conversions happen everywhere. Heating our homes and getting energy from food are just a few examples of how we use energy conversions. Machines also convert and use energy. This can be seen from the figure of the hair dryer above. Electrical energy by itself won’t dry your hair. The hair dryer changes electrical energy into thermal energy. This heat helps dry your hair. ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONVERSIONS You use electrical energy all of the time. Some examples of when you use electrical energy are listening to the radio, making toast, and taking a picture. Electrical energy changes into other kinds of energy easily. Some Conversions of Electrical Energy TAKE A LOOK 6. Identify Look at the table. In each example, think about what kind of energy conversion happens. Then, fill in the last column of the table with the kind (or kinds) of energy that is formed. Alarm Clock Electrical energy ‡ Hair dryer Electrical energy ‡ Light bulb Electrical energy ‡ Blender Electrical energy ‡ Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Interactive Textbook 90 Energy and Energy Resources

Name SECTION 2 Class Date Energy Conversions continued How Do Machines Use Energy? You have seen how energy can change into different forms. Another way to look at energy is to see how machines use energy. Remember that a machine can make work easier. It does this by changing the size or direction (or both) of the force that does the work. The machine converts the energy you put into the machine into work. There is another way that machines can help you use energy. They can convert energy into a form that you need, such as a stove using electrical energy to cook food. An example of how energy is used by a machine is shown in the figure below. The biker puts a force on the pedals. This transfers kinetic energy from the biker into kinetic energy to move the pedals. This energy moves to other parts of the bike. The bike lets the biker use less force over a greater distance. This makes his work easier. READING CHECK 7. Describe What are two ways a machine converts energy? Energy Conversions in a Bicycle For your bike to start and keep moving, energy must be transferred and converted. 1 Your body stores energy. This energy is changed into kinetic energy when your muscles contract and relax. 2 Your legs transfer energy to the pedals by pushing them in a circle. TAKE A LOOK 8. Identify Complete the blanks in the figure. 4 The chain moves and transfers kinetic energy to the back wheel. This gets you and keeps you moving. 3 The pedals transfer energy to the wheel and then to the chain. Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Interactive Textbook 91 Energy and Energy Resources

Name Class Section 2 Review Date NSES PS 3a, 3f SECTION VOCABULARY energy conversion a change from one form of energy to another 1. Identify Suppose a skier is standing still at the top of a hill. What kind of energy does the skier have? 2. Explain What happens to the energy of the skier in Question 1 if he goes down the hill? 3. Describe How does your body get the energy that it needs to do all of its daily activities? Describe the energy conversions that take place. 4. Explain What energy conversion happens when green plants use energy from the sun to make sugar? 5. Analyze A vacuum cleaner is a machine that uses electrical energy. What are three forms of energy that the electrical energy changes into in the vacuum cleaner? 6. Compare How are the energy conversions of a machine similar to the energy con- versions in your body? Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Interactive Textbook 92 Energy and Energy Resources

M Forces, Motion, and Energy Answer Key continued Chapter 5 Energy and Energy Resources 6. Nuclear fusion is more important because the sun produces energy by this reaction. Without energy from the sun, there would be no life on Earth. SECTION 1 WHAT IS ENERGY? 1. energy 2. Energy moves from the tennis player to the SECTION 2 ENERGY CONVERSIONS 1. 1) potential energy racket. The tennis racket does work on the ball. Energy moves from the tennis player to the ball. 3. moving 2) kinetic energy 2. by stretching it 3. Food has chemical energy. mv 4. kinetic energy 2 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 2 0.50 kg (10 m/s)2 kinetic energy 2 kinetic energy 25 J its position Pull back farther on the bow string. GPE weight height GPE 300 N 100 m 30,000 J kinetic and potential energy Pin B should be circled. the kinetic energy from the movement of the particles in an object potential energy The electrons in the wires move to the amplifier. The moving electrons do work. electrical energy for the amplifier, sound energy for the guitar light energy In nuclear fusion, nuclei join; in fission, nuclei split apart. nuclear fusion 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. You eat food. Your body stores the chemical energy of the food. Chemical energy is converted into 1) mechanical energy 2) thermal energy 3) electrical energy chemical 1) kinetic energy, 2) thermal energy, 3) sound energy Alarm clock: light, sound, thermal Hair dryer: thermal, sound Light bulb: light, thermal Blender: kinetic, sound, thermal It converts energy into work and energy into a different form. 1) chemical, 2) kinetic, 3) kinetic, 4) moving Review 1. gravitational potential energy 2. The potential energy is converted into 3. Review 1. the object’s mass and the object’s speed 2. GPE weight height GPE 16 N 2.5 m 40 J mv2 3. kinetic energy 2 2,000 kg (25 m/s)2 kinetic energy 2 kinetic energy 625,000 J 4. Gravitational potential energy; as her height increases, her potential energy, or stored energy, increases. At the top of her jump, she is not moving, so all of her kinetic energy has become potential energy. 5. They both cause molecules to vibrate so that the energy can travel. 4. 5. 6. kinetic energy. You get energy from the food you eat. The body converts the chemical energy from the food into chemical energy it can use. This chemical energy can then be converted into kinetic energy to do any activity. Plants change light energy from the sun into chemical energy. kinetic energy to move the motor in the vacuum, sound energy, thermal energy as vacuum warms up A machine changes the energy that is put into it into other forms of energy. Your body changes the food put into it into other energy forms. Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Interactive Textbook Answer Key 87 Forces, Motion, and Energy

An energy conversion is a change from one form of energy to another. Any form of energy can change into . energy for the guitar 14. light energy 15. In nuclear fusion, nuclei join; in fission, nuclei split apart. . SECTION 2 ENERGY CONVERSIONS 1. 1) potential energy 2) kinetic energy 2. by stretching it 3. Food has chemical energy.

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