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1.1 Operating System Functionality The operating system controls the machine It is common to draw the following picture to show the place of the operating system: application operating system hardware user This is a misleading picture, because applications mostly execute machine instruc-tions that do not go through the operating system.

operating system is responsible for providing access to these system resources. The abstract view of the components of a computer system and the positioning of OS is shown in the Figure 1.2. Task “Operating system is a hardware or software”. Discuss. 1.2 History of Computer Operating Systems Early computers lacked any form of operating system.

Multi User Operating System- A Multi-user operating system is a computer operating system which allows multiple users to access the single system with one operating system on it. It is generally used on large mainframe computers. Example: Linux, Unix, Windows 2000, Ubuntu, Mac OS etc.,

Operating System uses CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of a time-shared computer. (4) Real Time Operating System : Real Time Operating System is a special purpose Operating System, used when there are rigid time requirements on the operation of a processor or the flow of data.

Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition operating system. Windows Vista is an abbreviation for Microsoft Windows Vista Ultimate operating system or Microsoft Windows Vista Business operating system. Windows 7 is an abbreviation for Microsoft Windows 7 Ultimate operating system or Microsoft Windows 7 Enterprise operating system.

A System Call is the main way a user program interacts with the Operating System. code for system call 13 operating system user program use parameters from table X register X X: parameters for call load address X system call 13 Figure 3.1 Figure 2.8 OPERATING SYSTEM STRUCTURES System Calls

Operating System Concepts –9thEdition 2.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2013 Objectives To describe the services an operating system provides to users, processes, and other systems To discuss the various ways of structuring an operating system To explain how operating systems are installed and customized and how they boot

common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function. Operating System can be defined as “A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware”

the Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) a multipro- cessor operating system directed toward parallel discrete event simulation. TWOS is a prototype system run- ning on the 32-node Caltech/JPL Mark III Hypercube. It is not intended as a general-purpose operating system,

– their Operating Models – also need to evolve. Digital Operating Model What we mean by Digital Operating Model (DOM) is operating model for a digital world, and it replaces Capgemini’s previous operating model methodology. The DOM methodology represents an evolution of our existing practice. It has been built upon Capgemini’s global

2. Standard Operation Procedure for Receiving of Pharmaceutical products 3. Standard Operating Procedure for Dispatch and Transport 4. Standard Operating Procedure for Inventory 5. Standard Operating Procedure for Cleaning 6. Standard Operating Procedure for Self-inspection 7. Standard operating

Operating Systems All networking equipment dependent on operating systems The operating system on home routers is usually called firmware Cisco IOS – Collection of network operating systems used on Cisco devices