Health and SafetyExecutiveMechanical integrity managementof bulk storage tanksReview of standardsPrepared by the Health and Safety Laboratoryfor the Health and Safety Executive 2009RR760Research Report
Health and SafetyExecutiveMechanical integrity managementof bulk storage tanksReview of standardsTony Holmes BSc PhD MRSCHealth and Safety LaboratoryHarpur HillBuxtonDerbyshireSK17 9JNFollowing the Buncefield incident the importance of preventing loss of containment from bulk storage tankshas come to the fore. A significant factor in ensuring contained fluids are not accidentally released is thecontinuing mechanical integrity of the tank structure. With this in mind, the joint industry/Competent AuthorityProcess Safety Leadership Group has set up a working group to establish agreed industry standards for bulkstorage tank integrity management.The Health and Safety Laboratory was commissioned to produce a review of relevant published standardspertaining to the management of the mechanical integrity of bulk storage tanks. The findings from this revieware reported here.This report and the work it describes were funded by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Its contents,including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the author alone and do not necessarilyreflect HSE policy.HSE Books
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CONTENTS1INTRODUCTION. 12 INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT OF BULK STORAGE TANKS . 32.1Identification of standards. 32.2Review of Standards. 72.3Discussion and Conclusions. 613 WIDER INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT ISSUES . 633.1Discussion . 67APPENDIX 1 . 69A1.1 IHS Database Searches. 69A1.2 Exclusions. 694REFERENCES. 75LIST OF TABLESTable 1 Reviewed standards pertaining to the mechanical integritymanagement of bulk storage tanks .4Table 2 Design and construction.8Table 3 Modifications .23Table 4 Change of use.25Table 5 Operation .27Table 6 Inspection/testing/fitness for service .29Table 7 Maintenance and repair .41Table 8 Retirement/decommissioning/demolition.49Table 9 Standards pertaining to wider integrity management issues .63iii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe Buncefield incident demonstrated the importance of preventing loss of containment frombulk storage tanks. A significant factor in ensuring contained fluids are not accidentallyreleased is the continuing mechanical integrity of the tank structure. This has prompted theHealth and Safety Executive to consider establishing a set of enforceable standards formechanical integrity management of bulk storage tanks. As part of this work the Health andSafety Laboratory was commissioned to undertake a review of existing standards, and toconsider their suitability as components of a set of enforceable standards.Following initial identification of standards, the most pertinent standards were obtained andreviewed. The coverage provided by each standard on mechanical engineering aspects throughall stages of tank life was assessed, including design and construction, modifications, change ofuse, operation, inspection, testing, fitness for service, maintenance, repair, retirement,decommissioning and demolition. Summary tables were produced highlighting the coverage ofeach standard. A brief description of each standard has been provided, along with commentaryon the suitability of the standard in terms of the extent and quality of coverage.The review concluded that no single publication exists that can be considered suitable forrecommendation as an overarching standard on the issue of mechanical integrity management ofbulk storage tanks. This is because the publications give either a general, brief overview acrossa spectrum of issues, or specific, detailed guidance on a particular topic (for example, ventsizing) or group of topics (for example, inspection and maintenance).If a recommendation is to be made to operators regarding the minimum standards acceptable forensuring effective mechanical integrity management of bulk storage tanks, this will need to takethe form of guidance identifying a collection of standards that, when taken together, encompassall the relevant issues. Suggestions of appropriate standards are provided in the discussionaccompanying the review.In addition to reviewing standards on mechanical integrity management of bulk storage tanks, asearch was conducted to identify national and international guidance and standards coveringwider integrity management issues, specifically on competency assurance and engineeringrecords management. The search identified relatively few standards directed towards theseareas.v
1INTRODUCTIONFollowing the Buncefield incident the importance of preventing loss of containment from bulkstorage tanks has come to the fore. A significant factor in ensuring contained fluids are notaccidentally released is the continuing mechanical integrity of the tank structure. With this inmind, the Health and Safety Executive’s Process Safety Leadership Group has set up a workinggroup to establish a set of enforceable standards for bulk storage tanks.The Health and Safety Laboratory was commissioned to produce a review of relevant publishedstandards pertaining to the management of the mechanical integrity of bulk storage tanks. Theoutcomes from this review are reported here.The aims of the review were to: identify relevant national and international guidance and standards covering all aspects of themechanical integrity management of bulk storage tanks (including installation, maintenance,inspection, repair, change of use, and retirement); identify relevant national and international guidance and standards covering wider integritymanagement issues, specifically in the areas of competency assurance and engineeringrecords management; and collate and review the identified standards, providing an indication of how well each standardmight reduce the risk of equipment failure.Standards on the mechanical integrity management of tanks are reviewed in Section 2; the widerintegrity management issues are dealt with in Section 3.1
22.1INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT OF BULK STORAGETANKSIDENTIFICATION OF STANDARDSStandards of potential relevance were identified from the sources listed below. An initial list of standards provided by the HSE customer. HSE guidance on tank farms. 1, 2, 3 Searches through the online standards database from IHS, IHS Standards Expert (for details,refer to Appendix 1). Standards referenced by the other standards reviewed.Table 1 lists the standards that were reviewed for this study, providing bibliographic details anda brief summary of the primary focus of the standard. In addition to the standards listed inTable 1 a number of standards were identified that were not reviewed, either because they wereunobtainable at the time of the review or were considered unsuitable for inclusion. Details ofthese documents are provided in Appendix 1.3
Table 1 Reviewed standards pertaining to the mechanical integrity management of bulk storage tanksStandardTitleYearPublishing bodyCountryStatusPrimary focusIP2Design, Construction andOperation of PetroleumDistribution Installations – ModelCode of Safe Practice in thePetroleum Industry – Part 22005Energy InstituteUKCurrentBasic general guidance coveringall aspects of petroleumdistribution installations, not justtanksEEMUA 159Users Guide to the Maintenanceand Inspection of Above-GroundVertical Cylindrical Steel StorageTanks1994The EngineeringEquipment andMaterials UserAssociationUKSuperseded by vol.1, 3rdedition, 2003 (vol. 1 ofthis edition wasunobtainable at the timeof this review)Detailed coverage of inspection,repair and maintenance aspects,with appropriate references toother standardsEEMUA 159vol.2Users Guide to the Maintenanceand Inspection of Above-GroundVertical Cylindrical Steel StorageTanks, 3rd Edition, Volume 2(Appendices and list ofreferences)2003The EngineeringEquipment andMaterials UserAssociationUKCurrentAppendices to vol.1 containingdetailed information oncalculations, repair solutions andinspection methodologyAPI 650Welded Steel Tanks for OilStorage, 11th Edition2007AmericanPetroleum InstituteUSACurrentDetailed coverage of design,construction, and postconstruction inspectionCIRIA 598Chemical Storage Tank Systems –Good Practice2003CIRIAUKCurrentGeneral information on tankstorage systems, with referencesto standards containing moredetailed informationAPI 2000Venting Atmospheric and Low Pressure Storage Tanks1998AmericanPetroleum InstituteUSACurrentDetailed coverage of ventingrequirementsAPI 653Tank Inspection, Repair,Alteration and Reconstruction, 3rdedition incorporating addendum 1and 22005AmericanPetroleum InstituteUSACurrentInspection, repair, modificationand reconstruction of tanks builtto API 650 or API 12C4
StandardTitleYearPublishing bodyCountryStatusPrimary focusBS EN 14015Specification for the design andmanufacture of site built, vertical,cylindrical, flat-bottomed, aboveground, welded, steel tanks for thestorage of liquids at ambienttemperature and above2004EuropeanCommittee forStandardizationEuropeCurrentDesign and construction – detailedcoverage and calculationsBS 2654Specification for manufacture ofvertical steel welded nonrefrigerated storage tanks withbutt-welded shells for thepetroleum industry1989British StandardsInstitutionUKSuperseded by BS EN14015Design and construction – detailedcoverage and calculationsISO 28300Petroleum, petrochemical andnatural gas industries – Venting ofatmospheric and low-pressurestorage tional[Based onAPI 2000, 5thEdition]CurrentDetailed coverage of ventingrequirementsAPI 620Design and Construction of Large,Welded, Low-pressure StorageTanks, 11th Edition2008AmericanPetroleum InstituteUSACurrentDetailed coverage of design,construction, and postconstruction inspectionAPI 2610Design, Construction, Operation,Maintenance, and Inspection ofTerminal and Tank Facilities1994AmericanPetroleum InstituteUSACurrentGeneral overview covering allaspects of petroleum terminal andtank facilitiesHSESPC/Tech/Gen/35Integrity of Atmospheric StorageTanks2008Health and SafetyExecutiveUKCurrent guidance toHSE inspectorsNot a standard, but contains goodgeneral information on integritymanagement, with references toappropriate standardsHSG 176The Storage of FlammableLiquids in Tanks1998Health and SafetyExecutiveUKCurrent HSE guidanceBrief guidance on design,construction, operation andmaintenance, with particularemphasis on dealing withflammable hazards5
StandardTitleYearPublishing bodyCountryStatusPrimary focusEEMUA 180Guide for Designers and Users onFrangible Roof Joints for FixedRoof Storage Tanks1996The EngineeringEquipment andMaterials UserAssociationUKCurrentDetailed guidance on ensuringeffective frangible shell-roofconnectionsEEMUA 183Guide for the Prevention ofBottom Leakage from Vertical,Cylindrical, Steel Storage Tanks1999The EngineeringEquipment andMaterials UserAssociationUKCurrentGuidance on the causes of bottomleakage, inspection and leakdetection methods, and decisionmaking flowchartsAPI 12BSpecification for Bolted Tanks forStorage of Production Liquids,14th Edition1995AmericanPetroleum InstituteUSACurrentDesign and construction of boltedtanksAPI 12R1Recommended Practice forSetting, Maintenance, Inspection,Operation, and Repair of Tanks inProduction Service, 5th Edition1997AmericanPetroleum InstituteUSACurrentMaintenance, operation,inspection and repair of tanks builtto API 12B, 12D, 12F, 12PAPI RP 575Guidelines and Methods forInspection of ExistingAtmospheric and Low-pressureStorage Tanks, 2nd Edition2005AmericanPetroleum InstituteUSACurrentMaintenance and inspection oftanks built to API 12A, 12C, 620,and 650. Companion guide toAPI 653 standard6
2.2REVIEW OF STANDARDSEach of the standards listed in Table 1 are reviewed in this section. The review begins with aseries of summary tables giving an overview of the coverage provided by each standard.Following on from the tables is a brief review of each standard.2.2.1Summary tablesThere follows a series of summary tables giving an overview of the coverage provided by eachstandard. These tables have been divided into categories for: Design and construction; Modifications; Change of Use; Operation; Inspection testing/ fitness for service; Maintenance and repair; and Retirement/decommissioning/demolition.In the tables, the sections of the standard that refer to each item are given in brackets. Due to thesize of the tables, it has been necessary to split some of them into several sections.7
Table 2 Design and constructionDesign and construction, Section 1 of 4Coverage StandardIP rroofloading,tankstability,and rate ofcorrosionwhereclimaticconditionsare severeSpecialconsiderationfor lowtemperatureserviceDesignpressureVenting –requirementsand lesandnozzles)Drainageprovisionfor A159 Vol. 233(AppendixD.2)(AppendixD.2)8
Coverage StandardAPI 650CIRIA oading,tankstability,and rate ofcorrosionwhereclimaticconditionsare severeSpecialconsiderationfor lowtemperatureserviceDesignpressureVenting –requirementsand lesandnozzles)Drainageprovisionfor floatingroofsThis is arecognisedstandard fordesign .8)3333(3)(3.7)(5.5.5)(3.3.3)API tions3(5.3)(AppendixB)(Appendix I)3API 653(8.5)BS EN14015This is arecognisedstandard fordesign andconstruction3333333(B.2.2)(5.1)(10.6) (AnnexL)(13) (16.9)(Annex O)(D.3.8)(13.14)(16.2)(Annex I)9
Coverage StandardBS 2654InaccordancewithrecognisedstandardThis is arecognisedstandard fordesign nd rate ofcorrosionwhereclimaticconditionsare severeSpecialconsiderationfor lowtemperatureserviceDesignpressureVenting –requirementsand lesandnozzles)333(2.1)(8.6)(9.9)(Appendix F)(AppendixF)33(4) (Annex A)(4)B)33333(1.3.1)(Appendix 9)(5.20)(5.21)(5.26)(AppendixC)ISO 28300API 620This is arecognisedstandard fordesign andconstruction10Drainageprovisionfor ns333(11)(11.13)(AppendixA)(Annex
Coverage StandardAPI loading,tankstability,and rate ofcorrosionwhereclimaticconditionsare severeSpecialconsiderationfor lowtemperatureserviceDesignpressureVenting –requirementsand lesandnozzles)Drainageprovisionfor ndationsHSE SPC/Tech/Gen/353HSG )333(3)(3)(7 – partial)EEMUA1803EEMUA183(2)11
Coverage StandardAPI 12BAPI loading,tankstability,and rate ofcorrosionwhereclimaticconditionsare severeSpecialconsiderationfor lowtemperatureserviceDesignpressureVenting –requirementsand sizingEmergencyventingThis is arecognisedstandard fordesign andconstruction33(Appendix B)(Appendix C)(AppendixC)333Refers toconstructionstandardsAPI 12B,12D, 12F,12P(Appendix B)(AppendixB)API RP inageprovisionfor ns
Design and construction, Section 2 of 4Coverage Corrosionprotection 8)(3.3.18)(3.3.21)Frangibleroof jointsRoof sealsMaterialselection(and testing)Joints andwelds wances33(2.6.4)(2.7.6)333333(Appendix G)(4)(5.1) (5.3.4)(7.2) dixA)(5.3.2) StandardIP 2EEMUA1593EEMUA159 Vol. 2(AppendixD.3)API 650CIRIA 5983333(3.2.6)(3.2.7)(3.2)(5.5.2)API 200013
Coverage Corrosionprotection roof jointsRoof sealsMaterialselection(and testing)Joints andwelds (andpost-weldinspection)LoadsCapacity Standard3API 653(8.2) (8.3)BS14015ENBS 2654333333(Annex R)(10.3.2)(16.8.5)(Annex K)(11)(C.3.2.3)(Annex E)(5.2) (5.4)(6) (AnnexF)(188.8.131.52)(9.5) (13)(17)(18)(Annex N)(7)333333(F.4)(9.13)(2.2)(6.2) (7.5)(11.8) (15)(16)(5)(AppendixC)ISO 2830014Corrosionallowances
Coverage Corrosionprotection roof jointsRoof sealsMaterialselection(and testing)Joints andwelds (andpost-weldinspection)Loads3333(4)(Figure 5-8)(5.16.8)(5.16.9)(5.22)(5.23)(5.24)(5.25) 7)(AppendixG)CapacityCorrosionallowances StandardAPI 620API 261033(10.2)(10.3)(10.4)HSE SPC/Tech/Gen/3515
Coverage Corrosionprotection omesFrangibleroof jointsRoof sealsMaterialselection(and testing)Joints andwelds (andpost-weldinspection)LoadsCapacity StandardHSG 176EEMUA18033(Wholedocument)(7 – partial)3EEMUA183(6.6)3API 12B(AppendixA)API 12R13(184.108.40.206.5)3–(4.4.3)API RP 575163Corrosionallowances
Design and construction, Section 3 of 4Coverage TankbottomTank shellThermalstress reliefAttachments(includesstairs, windgirders,walkways)Stiffeningrings andwindgirdersRoofsAllowablestressesWindloadings )(5.10.3)(5.11) (5.12)(6) (7) (9)(7.3) StandardIP 2EEMUA159EEMUA159 Vol. 2API 650CIRIA 598333(3.3.3)(3.3.3)(5.10)(5.5.3)(3.10.3)API 2000API 653333(8.4)(8.6)(8.7)17
Coverage TankbottomTank shellAttachments(includesstairs, windgirders,walkways)Stiffeningrings andwindgirdersRoofsAllowablestressesWindloadings tionstandardsPostconstructionte
API 653 Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Reconstruction, 3rd 2005 American Petroleum Institute USA Current Inspection, repair, modification and reconstruction of tanks built edition incorporating addendum 1 to API 650 or API 12C and 2 4 . Standard Title Year Publishing body Country Status Primary focus BS EN 14015 Specification for the design and 2004 European Europe Current Design and .
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