AERONAUTICAL DESIGN STANDARD STANDARD PRACTICE

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FOOT-POUNDADS-40A-SP13 March 2000CAGE Code 18876AERONAUTICAL DESIGN STANDARDSTANDARD PRACTICEAIR VEHICLE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE DESCRIPTIONAMSC N/ADISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited.

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ADS-40A-SPCONTENTSPARAGRAPHPAGE1.0 SCOPE.11.1Purpose .12.0 APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS .12.1General .12.2Government documents.12.3Order of precedence .23.0 DEFINITIONS .23.1Acronyms .23.2Nondimensionalization .34.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.34.1General .34.1.1 Documentation content .34.1.2 Documentation media .44.1.3 Graphs and tables .44.2Configuration definition.44.3Units and sign conventions .54.4Nondimensional .54.5Rotor speeds .54.6Substantiation.55.0 DETAILED REQUIREMENTS.65.1Isolated nondimensional main rotor flight performance.65.1.1 Vertical flight .65.1.2 Forward flight.65.2Isolated nondimensional anti-torque system.65.3Installed engine performance .75.3.1 Power available at engine output shaft.75.3.2 Other engine parameters .85.4Air vehicle vertical flight performance .85.4.1 Total power required .85.4.2 Download .95.4.3 Altitude capability.95.5Air vehicle forward flight performance .95.5.1 Level flight performance.95.5.2 Rate of climb .105.5.3 Ceiling .105.5.4 Rate of descent .11iv

ADS-40A-SPCONTENTSPARAGRAPHPAGE5.6Power breakdown.115.6.1 Non-rotor power required .115.6.2 Rotor power required .115.7Mission flight performance .125.7.1 Tactical missions.125.7.2 Mission radius .125.8Maneuvering flight performance.135.8.1 Required maneuvers.135.8.2 Longitudinal acceleration.135.8.3 Sustained load factor .135.8.4 Transient load factor .145.8.5 Decelerating turn.145.8.6 Lateral acceleration .145.9Directional control capability.156.0 NOTES .156.1Application of weights and configuration.156.2Documentation media .15v

ADS-40A-SP1. SCOPEThis Standard Practice Aeronautical Design Standard specifies the flight performancedata required to document the characteristics and capabilities of an air vehicle. It is thepurpose of this standard to provide a clear and complete documentation of the airvehicle flight performance at a level of detail which is consistent with the current stageof design/development of the aircraft. The data requirements are divided into threelevels: Level I, Level II, and Level III. Level I (the minimum requirement) addressesthe level of detail which would be available during the late conceptual design or earlypreliminary design stage of the air vehicle. Level II addresses the level of detail whichwould be available during the late preliminary design or early detailed design stage.Level III addresses the level of detail which would be available during the late detaileddesign or flight test stage. Each level is intended to be consistent with the correspondinglevel in ADS-10C-SP, Air Vehicle Technical Description Selected sections of thisstandard may be added to or deleted. This standard is intended to prescribe a minimumquality of documentation at each Level.1.1 Purpose. This Standard Practice Aeronautical Design Standard is acommunications tool. It provides a standard set of data requirements to providedocumentation of air vehicle flight performance. This standard contains a set ofrequirements designed to be tailored for each contract by the contracting agency. Thetailoring process intended for this standard is the deletion of non-applicablerequirements.2. APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS2.1 General. The documents listed in this section are specified in sections 3, 4, and 5of this standard. This section does not include documents cited in other sections of thisstandard or recommended for additional information or as examples. While every efforthas been made to ensure the completeness of this list, documents users are cautionedthat they must meet all specified requirements documents cited in sections 3, 4, and 5 ofthis standard, whether or not they are listed.2.2 Government documents. The following Government documents, drawings, andpublications form a part of this document to the extent specified herein. Unlessotherwise specified, the issues are those cited in the solicitation.ADS-10C-SPAeronautical Design Standard, Air Vehicle Technical Description2.3 Order of precedence. In the event of a conflict between the text of this documentand the references cited herein, the text of this document takes precedence. Nothing in1

ADS-40A-SPthis document, however, supersedes applicable laws and regulations unless a specificexemption has been obtained.3. DEFINITIONS3.1 CRODSDGWSLAll Engines OperativeAll Engines InoperativeIsolated Rotor Propulsive Force (Drag) Coefficient (wind axis)Isolated Rotor Propulsive Force Coefficient (shaft axis)Isolated Rotor Lift Coefficient (wind axis)Yawing Moment CoefficientEngine Power or Rotor Power CoefficientEngine Power Coefficient required for VROC.Engine Power Coefficient required for HOGE.Isolated Rotor Thrust Coefficient (along shaft)Air Vehicle Weight CoefficientContract Data Requirements ListContingency Power (2.5-minute limit in OEI conditions)Environmental Control UnitFigure of MeritGeneralized Power Variation: (CPh-CPc)/(0.707*CW1.5)Hover Out of Ground EffectHover in Ground EffectIn Accordance WithIn Ground Effect (Height above ground measured from extended landinggear)Intermediate Rated Power (30-minute limit)Knots True AirspeedRatio of Lift to Equivalent Drag (Total Air Vehicle)Maximum Alternate Gross WeightMaximum Continuous PowerMaximum Rated Power (10-minute limit)Rotor RPMOne Engine InoperativeOut of Ground EffectPrimary Mission Gross WeightMain Rotor Local RadiusMain Rotor RadiusRate of ClimbRate of DescentStructural Design Gross WeightSea Level2

ΩπρσσTSea Level, Standard temperatureTake-Off Gross WeightAirspeedAirspeed for best endurance: the airspeed for minimum fuel flow.Airspeed for 99% of best range (high side): the higher of the twoairspeeds at which the value of specific range is 99% of its maximum(i.e., measured on the "high side" of the maximum).Vertical Rate of ClimbAirspeed for Best Rate of ClimbRotor Tip SpeedVertical Velocity Ratio: VROC/(ΩR*sqrt(CW/2))Main Rotor shaft angle with respect to wind.Main Rotor tip path plane angle w.r.t. wind.Advance Ratio, V/ΩRTemperature RatioRotor Rotational SpeedPiAir DensityGeometric rotor solidityThrust-weighted rotor solidity3.2 Nondimensionalization.Dimensional forces shall be nondimensionalized by:ρ*πR2*(ΩR)2;Dimensional moments shall be nondimensionalized by:ρ*πR3*(ΩR)2;Dimensional power shall be nondimensionalized by:ρ*πR2*(ΩR)3.4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS4.1 General.4.1.1 Documentation content. The data shall be documented as specified in thisstandard. (See 6.2.) The documentation shall include the following elements in thefollowing order: Summary, Table of Contents, List of Figures, List of Tables, the mainbody, List of References and Appendices (if any).4.1.2 Documentation media. The complete documentation shall be provided3in the

ADS-40A-SPmedia as specified in the contract. (See 6.2.)4.1.3 Graphs and tables. Graphs and tables shall be presented in a manner that depictand delineate the results of the documented data.a. If a graph has been constructed based on experimental information then the datapoints shall be included in symbol format.b. Where accuracy would be enhanced and facilitated, equations for plotted curvesshall be documented.c. The scales and grids used on graphs shall facilitate interpolation and reading of datadirectly from the graphs.d. The layout of graphs shall facilitate comparisons between graphs. In general, thismeans that all graphs which show a particular parameter shall use the exact same scalefor that parameter. As a specific example, all graphs with airspeed on the x-axis andpower on the y-axis shall use the same ranges and physical lengths for each axis so thatgraphs can be physically overlaid to compare data.e. Tables shall be provided when more detail than can be documented in graphicpresentations is desired, and also, to provide certain types of computer inputs or singlepoint factors. As with graphic data, the exact format of the table shall be a function ofthe variables to be tabulated. For points representing a function, there shall be enoughpoints tabulated to allow linear interpolation between points without introducingsignificant errors.4.2 Configuration definition. At a minimum, data requested for a "range of weightsand/or drag values or coefficients" shall include the following:a. The range of weights (or the corresponding weight coefficients) shall include theminimum and the maximum flying weights for the stated atmospheric conditions.b. The range of drag values (or the corresponding drag coefficients) shall include theminimum ("clean") and maximum ("dirty") drag configurations which are intended forthe operation of the aircraft as defined by the system specification; it is expected thatthe minimum and maximum shall be a function of air vehicle weight (i.e., there is limitas to how clean a heavy aircraft can be and how dirty a light aircraft can be).c. The values of weight coefficients used and the increment between them shall be"rounded" and "convenient" numbers (e.g., weights and their increments end in twozeros). The same concept shall apply to drag values/coefficients.4.3 Units and sign conventions.4

ADS-40A-SPa. The units for data documented shall conform to the following guidelines: all datatypically or historically presented to the pilot in English or nautical units (e.g. altitude,rate of climb, airspeed) shall be given in that set of units; all other parameters shall begiven in metric units.b. The sign conventions for all forces and moments shall be defined and illustrated inthe data documentation.4.4 Nondimensional data. Nondimensional flight performance information shall bedocumented in the form of a baseline carpet plot at a constant Nr/sqrt θ and accessoryload in a specified condition for a range of CW or CL which is sufficient to derive grossweight values from the minimum to maximum flying weights for ambient temperaturesfrom -5 C to 35 C and pressure altitudes from sea level to 10000 ft. Compressibilityeffects shall be shown in the form of additional carpet plots at sufficient values ofconstant Nr/sqrt θ to represent the above temperature range. The effects of drag shallbe shown in the form of carpet plots at the baseline Nr/sqrt θ for a sufficient number ofconfigurations.4.5 Rotor speeds. For Levels I and II, all dimensional flight performance shall bedocumented for normal or design rotor speed (power on or off, as appropriate). ForLevel III, the dimensional documentation shall also include other allowable rotor speeds(autorotation and special cruise etc.).4.6 Substantiation. The documentation shall include a substantiation of the origin andaccuracy of the flight performance data documented therein. The depth ofsubstantiation shall be commensurate with the Level which is specified for thedocumentation. At a minimum, substantiation shall include a description of themethodology used to produce the data with specific reference to analytical techniques(to include actual input data and a short description), wind tunnel data, and/or flight testdata, as applicable, with corrections explained in detail. The substantiationdocumentation shall be included in the same section with the related specific flightperformance information required by this standard.5

ADS-40A-SP5. DETAILED REQUIREMENTS5.1 Isolated nondimensional main rotor flight performance.5.1.1 Vertical flight.5.1.1.1 Level I. Isolated main rotor Figure of Merit (FM) vs blade-loading coefficient(CT/σ) for OGE and 35 C conditions shall be provided.5.1.1.2 Level II. All Level I data plus the isolated main rotor thrust coefficient (CT) vsisolated main rotor power coefficient (CP) in Hover Out of Ground Effect (HOGE),Hover In Ground Effect (HIGE) and Vertical Rate of Climb (VROC) Out of GroundEffect (OGE) of 500 ft/min conditions shall be provided for 35 C (HIGE data shall bebased on a rotor-hub to ground-plane distance equivalent to the air vehicle hoveringwith the extended landing gear height equal to 5 ft).5.1.1.3 Level III. In addition to all Level II information, a complete description ofrotor performance from HIGE at 2 ft landing gear height up to HOGE shall be provided.The variation of CP with Mach number shall be documented for HOGE. Also, inducedvelocity (nondimensionalized by average momentum velocity) at the rotor blade shallbe documented as a function of r/R for 3 CT's.5.1.2 Forward flight.5.1.2.1 Level I. Data shall be documented for the rotor state at PMGW and 4000 ft/ 95 and MAGW at 2000 ft/ 70 C to show the ratio of main rotor lift to equivalent mainrotor drag (L/De) as a function of advance ratio, (µ). The rotor Lift and details of theDe calculation shall be documented in tabular form.5.1.2.2 Level II. In addition to the Level I requirements, isolated rotor powercoefficient, CP/σ as a function of isolated main rotor lift (CL/σ) and propulsive (CD/σ)force coefficients for µ 0.20, 0.30 and 0.40 and three rotor shaft angles (αs 0.0 , 5.0 and 10.0 forward) shall be documented for 35 C. The main rotor side force shall bethat which is required to counteract the force produced by that required of the antitorque system.5.1.2.3 Level III. All Level II data shall be documented to include the rotor tip pathplane angle (αtpp) for each condition. In addition, the variation of isolated rotorperformance with advancing tip Mach number shall also be documented.5.2 Isolated nondimensional anti-torque system. If the ability of parts of the system toproduce anti-torque is inherently linked to the system being installed on the air vehicle,then data shall be documented for that part of the system installed on the air vehicle; inaddition, data shall be documented for any part of the system that can be analyzed asisolated.6

ADS-40A-SP5.2.1 Level I. Anti-torque system power coefficient CP, (nondimensionalized usingmain rotor parameters) vs main rotor power coefficient (CP) shall be documented forboth HOGE and HIGE (5 ft) conditions, for 500 fpm VROC, and for the range ofadvance ratios (µ).5.2.2 Level II. All Level I data plus data for the anti-torque system CT and/or yawingmoment coefficient CN, as appropriate, as a function of anti-torque system powercoefficient CP, shall be provided for the air vehicle in right sidewards flight (OGE) forvelocities of 15, 30 and 45 KTAS as well as for HOGE.5.2.3 Level III. All Level II data plus data for the anti-torque system CT and/or yawingmoment coefficient CN, as appropriate, shall be documented as a function of anti-torquesystem power coefficient CP, and cockpit yaw control and component control positionfor the air vehicle at all permissible airspeeds and heading/ sideslip angles. Atairspeeds at or below the maximum lateral and rearward airspeeds, data shall beprovided at airspeed increments of 15 KTAS or less and heading angle increments of 30degrees or less; the airspeed/heading combination which is most critical in terms ofpower requirements shall be identified. At airspeeds above the maximum lateralairspeed, data shall be documented at sideslip angle increments of 5 degrees or less up

standard may be added to or deleted. This standard is intended to prescribe a minimum quality of documentation at each Level. 1.1 Purpose. This Standard Practice Aeronautical Design Standard is a communications tool. It provides a standard set of data requirements to

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